Need For Quality Control And Inspection In An Organization

Project and Seminar Material for Purchasing and Supply PS

Need For Quality Control And Inspection In An Organization

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of Study

In most organizations the activities covering the quality and inspection function are spread throughout its own department and may also spread to suppliers of subcontracted items components, suppliers, customers and the distribution chain.

At the beginning of industries revolution, goods were supplied by individuals or small groups restricted to the foil. Individual craft man often carried out all the function of quality control and inspection both managerial and technical. The craft man knew his customers needs, planned to meet them, made the articles as well as the current state of technology allowed, and also revived his customer’s complaints.

With the growth of industry and the increasing completing of projects and organization quality, problem began to grow and the management activities of planning, control and execution has to be divided among several individuals, although the owner kept control of the key decision such as setting standards, interpreting results and deciding action.

He was able to do this because he was physically present and knew all that was going on and the enterprise was still comparatively small and the employee interest and his own were identical. As the industrial revolution progressed and technology developed and become more widespread, the importance of inspection and quality control function increased it was not only the company which are now vulnerable but the population at large, a defect gas in drugs can cause many death or deformities, a defective circuit breaking can paralyze whole district, defective gas equipment can result in explosion and loss of life a missile failing to launch give enormous propaganda advantages to an every.

Large organization were formed and met the technical challenges by creating technical specialist but they failed to meet the managerial which was cause by dispersion of quality and inspection activities, with physical and organization of sorting good from bad, for the first time we had employees whose main activity was inspection organizational unit of the organization. During world war 11, enrich into the areas of standardization, defect, prevention and analysis of complaints statistical quality control, reliability engineering and reliability evaluation were rapidly introduced.

Quality control and inspection of goods are important technical and economical considerations in manufacturing. Through engineers and customers, specify quality standards is the responsibility of the manufacturing division to produce work of satisfactory quality. Product quality is defined as “ A set of specification governing functional performance, composition, strength, shape, dimensions, workmanship, colour and finish” quality is meaningfully only in relation to the purpose for which its is designed (Oyeoku), 1993

Since the research is on product quality control and inspection of goods in an organization, (like Rokena industries PLC Nekede Owerri, Imo state)

It is also good to know the measure of quality control and inspection. This will then reveal to the manufacturers what they will look into when inspecting or controlling the quality of a product.

There is no single concise definition of quality control, which is broad enough to convey a complete picture of the over all industrial quality control activity, but at the same time narrow enough to differentiae it unarubiguously from related industrial activities. Oyeoku further said that the more acceptable definition it that quality control is “ the recognition and removal of identifiable causes of defects and variables from the set standards of a product” when a product is sub- standard, statistical techniques can be used for the systematic observation of quality and interpretation of variability, then corrective action can be undertaken.

Since the quality of a product can be checked by inspection, inspection then means the application of test and measuring devices to compare products and performance with specified standards. It determines weather a given product fall within specified limited of variability and therefore is acceptable or unacceptable” Acceptance inspection cannot inspect good quality into the product also it merely identifies non- acceptable unit after processing, inspectors will help to control quality by providing foremen engineers, designers with information useful in eliminating assignable causes of defect work.

Finally, it is recognized that quality and inspection of goods it the concern of every body in the organization and that many respects of quality transcends the function, responsibilities and frequently the capability of quality control and inspection of goods in organization staff.

1.2 Statement Of Problem

The improvement of inspection and quality of purchased materials and component are of vital important to every organization whether large or small.

Here, the research work is therefore concerned with the how manufacturing industrial like Rokena industries PLC Nekede, Owerri Imo state. Identifies main faults in specifying and controlling the quality of purchased materials. This is so because problems often occur in drawing up the specification and controlling the quality of supplier and purchased materials.

Thus, the researcher is therefore concerned with ensuing that good quality materials are purchased in line with specification and that the number of rejection is reduced through better inspection, better training, through greater awareness and a greater sense of involvement among management and staff of the organization.

1.3 Objective Of The Study

This project is a research work on the problem of a product quality control and inspection of goods in an organization with reference to Rokena industries PLC Nekede, Owerri. And the main objective of this research work are as follows:-

  1. To ensure maintenance of adequate quality necessary to satisfy customers and to meet the competition of rival producers.
  2. To enable an organization to realized and achieve the fullest potentials of their programme by developing a sound economical quality control and inspection programme in their organization.
  3. To ensures that high cost which always results from rejection of wrong supplies from suppliers, lower quality of finished items and excessive quality specification are eliminated
  4. To avoids confusion between purchasers and suppliers in determining what is required, which as well results in improved relationship between the firm and their suppliers.

The objectives also include:

  • Supplying the right quality which results in lower cost.
  • Detecting and correction of defective materials.
  • Reduction in raw materials and labour cost, thus improving the profitability the firm.

1.4 Significance Of The Study

The significant of this study is that it will help the researcher to throw a lot of light on the subject matter and in arousing the conscience of all who have or assumed responsibility on the need for quality control of purchased material in an organization like Rokena industries PLC.

This is so because it will lead to cost effectiveness and reduction, meeting up with specification and standardization, constant production activities, producing quality products and adequate professional recognition in the industrial sectors

Therefore, this research work will serve as a source of information toward ensuring that quality materials are maintained at all time to the following:-

  • Purchasing personnel
  • Manufacturing industries
  • Undergraduates studying purchasing and supply management as a course
  • Quality control personal in organizations
  • Other management personnel that contribute in one way or the other towards ensuring maintaining quality materials

Further more, this area of study can also be instrumental to students to acquire more experience in quality control in the sense that it will help my fellow student or any researcher who will use this research work as a reference material to get some facts on any research he or she is carrying out. And it will also enables the students to know the necessary needs of controlling quality in an organization.

Also, this research work will equally serve as a source of knowledge to the student carrying out the research, and it will also provide more ideas about the area of study which will help to enlighten the student in carrying out this research work on the benefits and quality control.

Finally, to the other industries that come across this research work, it will enable then to get some ideas on how to control the quality of their purchase material. And also, when they industry have any problem on the quality of their purchase materials this research work will serve as a source of solution to the problem.

1.5 Scope Of The Study

Quality control, which is the procedure for meeting the quality goals in an organization like Rokena industries PLC, is a vast area of study. As a result, this research work will cover only the effective quality control of purchased materials and inspection of goods in order to ensure quality finished products as related to the Rokana industries PLC Nekede, Owerri Imo state.

1.6 Limitation Of Study

It is necessary to comment that the scope of the study has been limited by a number of circumstance, which are beyond the author’s control was already set up in business and the original decision makers were invariably not available to explain these motivational influences. This made it impossible get answers, which are useful to the topic in writing. The controller was not ready to review way which they use to control quality of their product. Also the mangers contacted have been with their plans establishments, they are more or less expend set down by parent company to manage their limitations of a general nature tends to be more subjective approach. The opinions expressed in answers to questions tends to reflect personal bases moreover, they have time place variations.

In Nigerian the way people look at researchers is another limiting factor, they thought that researchers are out to solve the problem of their company, as such, they are based and scares at releasing vital information that would have been useful to the researchers. Death of availability of materials for the researchers product, by reducing variability and increasing product uniformity through inspection and quality control, a greater quality of goods product is produced. Raw materials costs are reduced. Scarp are minimized. Beyond this direct significance to manufacturers are the long- term economics benefits of conservation of the notional manpower and resources.

1.7 Definition Of Terms

(1) Quality:

As the totality of features and characteristics of product or a service that bears on the ability to satisfy a stated given or implied need.

(2) Quality Control:

Goes in had with inspection as they are important technical and economic considerations in organization. Through engineers and customers specify quality.

(3) Specification:

This is a description of any object material or process in sufficient detail to enable its manufacture and further identifiable reproduction. In other world it is a definitive description of what is wanted.

(4) Standard:

It is a description of an acceptable level of quality design and composition of a particular item that has evolved through the study and experience of organizations sometimes in cooperation with governmental agencies. Zenz (1994:200)

(5) Standardization:

It is an agreement on definite sizes, design, quality and the like

(6) Product:

It is a bundle of physical and psychological attributes (satisfaction) offered to defined customer group through exchange processes.

(7) Raw Materials:

Unprocessed stock awaiting conversion into salable products

(8) Supplier:

A general tem used by supplies staff for all kinds of providers of goods and services purchased or procured by them.

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