A Quality Control Analysis Of Cements In Dangote Cement Plc (A Case Study Of Ibese Cement Plant Lagos)

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A Quality Control Analysis Of Cements In Dangote Cement Plc (A Case Study Of Ibese Cement Plant Lagos)


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1. Background of the Study

The history of cement production in Nigeria can be traced back to 1957. From the onset, about three cement plants were commissioned by the Northern, Eastern and Mid-Western regional governments. Later, other companies such as Ashaka Cement, Benue Cement Company (BCC), West African Portland Cement Company (WAPCO) and Cement Company of Northern Nigeria (CCNN) and a host of others were established. But today, there are many cement manufacturing companies/plants in Nigeria with plants located across country. Some of the notable companies include: West African Portland Cement Company Plc (WAPCO); Ashaka Cement Company Plc; Benue Cement Company Plc (BCC); Cement Company of Northern Nigeria Plc (CCNN); Dangote Industries plc; Nigerian Cement Company Limited; Edo Cement Company Limited; and a host of others. One major characteristic of the cement industry in Nigeria is the problem of demand vs. supply inequality and lack of quality which specifically has led to the collapse of several buildings resulting to loss of lives and properties (Adetokun 2010). Since inception, available supply has not been able to meet the ever growing demand for cement. Even in the 1980s, during the economic recession which witnessed a decline in the demand for cement, these supply gaps were still very much evident. The modest but continuous growth in the Nigerian economy is a prospect for cement plants to increase local production. The rise in the demand of cement has led to a significance decrease in the quality of cement produced today in other to meet up with this growing demand. Recent collapse of buildings in Nigeria maybe as a result of the incompetency of the contractors but can be majorly as a result of the quality of cement and other building materials used in the construction of these buildings. The rate of collapse of buildings in Nigeria has geometrically increased overtime leading to the loss of lives and valuables.


1.2. Statement of the Problem

The alarming rate of collapse of buildings and the lack of durable roads and bridges in Nigeria has been a major concern which has led us to basically discover the real cause behind this malady. Due to the ever increasing demand for cement in Nigeria, a lot has been said about the quality of cement in Nigeria, this is another major concern for this survey. Cement production companies need to be adequately monitored and advised on when to service their plants and the right quality level of cement production to forestall further disheartening events in Nigeria.


1.3. Objectives of the Study

  1. To ascertain the quality of cement produced in dangote cement plc.
  2. To know if the recent collapse of buildings is as a result of the quality of cement and other building materials used or as a result of the incompetency of contractors.
  3. To know if recent improvement can be made on the already existing cement quality.
  4. To know if the cement plant is in good working condition or not.

1.4. Significance of the Study

A major significance of this study is to ascertain the causes of collapse of buildings and by extension proffer solutions to minimize its further occurrence which in turn protects the generality of Nigerians.

Another major significance of this survey is to determine the quality of cement produced by checking the working ability of cement plants with a view to advising cement production companies on the right time to service their plants to maintain a satisfactory quality level of cement produced.


1.5. Scope / Limitation of the Study

The scope of this survey is centered on the quality control analysis of cements in the ibese cement plant Lagos state.

A major limitation to this work is the inability in gaining access to the cement production plant at the ibese plant in Lagos state.

Another limitation is getting the answers of respondents in Lagos and workers in ibese cement plant Lagos on the causes of collapse of buildings in Nigeria.


1.6. Definition of Terms

Cement:

A grey powder made by burning clay and lime that sets hard when it is mixed with water.

Power Plant:

An engine or other apparatus which provides power for a machine, building, etc.


Chapter Five


Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation

Findings

The objectives of the study were to:

  1. To ascertain the quality of cement produced in dangote cement plc.
  2. To know if the recent collapse of buildings is as a result of the quality of cement and other building materials used or as a result of the incompetency of contractors.
  3. To know if recent improvement can be made on the already existing cement quality.
  4. To know if the cement plant is in good working condition or not.

Findings made from the study revealed the following:

  1. The quality of cement produced in dangote cement plc is of satisfactory quality.
  2. The cement plant is still in good working condition since there was just one point where the quality of cement produced was out of control.

Conclusion

Based on the research carried out, the quality of cement produced are of satisfactory standard and may not be the reason for the recent collapse of buildings in Nigeria though it may actually be a possibility. Buildings fail through mainly ignorance, negligence and greed. Ignorance has to do with when incompetent personnel are in charge of design, construction or inspection. One of the major areas of negligence is in specification writing where that of a past project is adopted without crosschecking those areas that need improvement, addition or omission. Greed on the part of building contractors e.g. diversion of building materials, cement in particular, meant for the production on the client’s site to his own site, the use of sub-standard materials so as to achieve high profit, etc. In discussing the issue of building collapse, distinction must be made between buildings, which fail during construction or within the service life and to those that fail after the service life, which is usually 25 years .It can be deduced that the collapse that causes the greatest loss is that which occurs when a building has been in use for long a time or shortly after its construction.

The inadequacies in the brief supplied by the clients can bring about defects even at the inception of the project when client fail to give all the necessary information on the functional requirements of the building .He further said that design deficiencies also come under calculation errors, bearing support problems, deformation, secondary stresses, elastic cracking, temperature and shrinkage problems, detailing and drafting problems, errors in assumed loading, changes and alterations in existing buildings, all contributing substantially to building structural failures, disasters and may finally lead to building collapse.

Foundation problems:

Foundation is one of the major structural members of any building and any problem arising from it will surely affect the whole building. Averred that the crushing and collapse of concrete footing or other foundation members are usually due to unequal settlements which may be cause by changing sub-grade condition or by wrong assumptions in the design, inadequate or unequal support for foundations, soil and ground water movements as well as expanding soils. Hence, the most common form of abuse of foundation occurs due to abnormal loading situations especially in structures being converted to new use or having additional floors.

Natural occurrence:

One of the major natural factors that result into building collapse is rainfall; others may include temperature, pressure, etc. When there is a heavy downpour of rain, there is a possibility that one or more buildings (completed or uncompleted), somewhere, would carve. (The fact remain that this is a natural factor that cannot be stopped, buildings therefore need to be constructed adequately bearing in mind such uncontrollable factors.

Quality management:

The need for stringent quality control in material utilization within the construction industry in Nigeria today cannot be over emphasized .the neglect of quality control in the construction industry has resulted in many defective and ugly looking buildings and the rise in number of collapse buildings in the past years. A number of factors influence the quality achieved in the Nigerian building industry and they are explained below

Material and Testing Variability:

This has to do with the difficulties that contractors experience in consistently obtaining and/or producing good quality materials as well as the ability of the client’s representative to understand the correct control values or do the necessary computation in the field. It goes further into the inability of manufacturers to make products of the same sizes and specified quality at all times. More so, there is difficulty of the client’s representative in producing or interpreting field test results. It is often that many of them present on the field are usually no more than clerk of works put there by the architect to record the daily operations.

Contractors’ Variability:

This is the difficulty a client or his representative experiences on large-scale projects in having all the contractors produce uniform standards of materials and workmanship. Different contractors have their different means of production in terms of method of construction, technology involved, etc.

Poorly Skilled Workmen:

This sometimes in conjunction with contractors’ variability is one of the reasons behind the incidents of building collapse in Nigeria. The level of competencies of different categories of labour in Nigerian building industry (though varies from one city and contractor to another).


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