Quality Characteristics Of Water From Oguta Lake In Oguta Local Government Area Of Imo State

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Project and Seminar Materials for Food Technology

Project and Seminar Materials for Food Technology


This project is dedicated to Almighty God whom by His infinite mercy I was guided and led to the accomplishment of this wonderful project. Also to this great institution and my parents God has used in various ways to make this project work a success.


I deeply acknowledge the help and encouragement given to me by those who in one way of the other contributed to the success of this project.

My greetings goes to Mr. Uzoechina B.O, Head of Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri.

Also to my supervisor Mr. Emurigho Tega Anthony who has guided and supervised me in order to make this project come through. I will not fail to acknowledge my lecturers, instructors, Laboratory attendants and non-teaching staff in the department of Food Technology for their contribution in my acquisition in this great institution.

I wish to express my profound gratitude to my lovely parents and siblings; Elder and Mrs. E.O. Orji, Mr.Orji Emeka, Dr. Mrs. Elendu Nina., Mrs. Okorafor Ijay. and Mr. Orji James for their moral and financial support to the accomplishment of this project.

Finally, a million thanks to all my family friends, friends and to Almighty God for His preservation and protection in all these years of study in this institution.


Water analysis is important in water before usage in order to ensure safety for human consumption. Good water is good for the health therefore before it is used it should undergo several processes for suitability and stability. Five water samples was gotten from Oguta Lake in Oguta Local Government of Imo State and was analyzed using some parameters.

The result shows that there were significant differences between the samples of water analyzed to check acidity (4.0,0.4,0.35,5.0,8.0)m, alkalinity (2,2,1.8,1.3,1.2)mg/l, pH (6.3,5.8,5.8,6.3,6.4), Temporal Hardness (0.0024, 0.0036, 0.0048, 0.0042, 0.004)mg/l Total Hardness (0.3, 0.456, 0.516, 0.544, 0.772)mg/l, Conductivity (1.65, 1.75, 1.71, 1.79, 1.70) , Magnesuim (0.07232, 0.10993, 0.03674, 0.13117, 0.18662)mg/l, Temperature (36,35,32,34, 38)oc respectively.

Chapter One


Water is an important constituent of life. It is a colourless, tasteless liquid that forms the seas lakes, rivers and rain and is the basis of fluids of living organism. Chemical formular H20. pour or sprinkle water over (a plant or an area of ground) typically in order to encourage plant growth. Its wide distribution within food stuffs and its effect on food quality makes the study of water a significant part of food science and technology. Water is not only a solvent but is also participates in several reactions either as a reactant or as a product. At is one of the most important chemical in found and drinks.

Water is the most common liquid on our planet, vital to all life forms. It is the dispersion medium for all biochemical reactions of the living process and take part in many of these reactions. In spite of the chemical simplicity of the water molecule, its physical properties are quite remarkable one might say weird and have been a major research topic for many years many experiments give greats insight into the structure and dynamics of water, but these often require the resources of a major research laboratory. In addition some must take place under extreme condition such as those leading to super cooled water of super heated.

Water has been studied since antiquity, what is new is that computer now allow us to start molecules and form them predict the large scale properties of water, such as pressure temperature, volume, solubility of salts, and so forth. In other words computers can be used to calculate the physical quantities of water related to every day life. The computer simulation not only correctly predicts macroscopic properties in agreement with experiment, but also allows us to investigate water under severe experimental conditions that accessible only with great difficultly or not at all.

The aim and objective of the study is to know the quality characteristics of water gotten from Oguta Lake.

1.1 Standards

In the setting of standards agencies make political and technical scientific decisions about how the water will be used. In the case of natural water bodies, they also make some reasonable estimate of pristine conditions. Different uses raise different concerns and therefore different standards are considered. Natural water bodies will vary in response to environmental condition.

1.2 Environmental Scientists Works

To understand how these systems function which in turn help to identify of sources and fates of contaminates environmental lawyers and policy makes work to define legislation that ensure that water is maintained at an appropriate quality for its identified use.

1.3 The Vast Majority Of Surface Water

On the planet is neither potable nor toxic. This remains true even if sea water in the oceans (which is too salty to drink) is not counted. Another general perception of water quality is that of a simple property that tells whether water is polluted or not in facts, water quality is very complex is a complex medium intrinsically tied to the ecology of the earth industrial and commercials activities (eg manufacturing mining, construction, transportation) areas major cause of water pollution as are runoff from agricultural areas urban storm water runoff and discharged of treated and untreated sewage especially in developing countries.

1.4 Categories

The parameters of water quality determined by the intended use work in the area of water quality tends to be focused on water that is treated for human consumption.

1.5 Human Consumption

Contaminants that may be untreated water include microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria in organic contaminants such as salt and metals chemical contaminates from industrial processes and petroleum use; pesticides and herbicides, and radioactive contaminants.

Water quality depends on the local geology and ecosystem, as well as human uses such as sewage dispersion industrial pollution, use of water bodies as a heat sink, and over use (which may lower the level of the water).

1.5.1 Food And Drug Agency (Fda)

Regulations establishments for contaminants in bottle water that must provide the same protection for public health. Drinking water, including bottled water may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of same contaminants.

The presence of these contaminants does not necessarily indicate that the water poses a health risk. Some people use water purification technology to remove contaminants from the municipal water supply they get in their homes or from local pumps or bodies of water, water drawn directly from a stream, lake or aquifer and has no treatment will be of uncertain quality.

1.5.2 Industrial And Domestic Use

Dissolved minerals may affect suitability of water for the range of industrial and domestic purposes. The most familiar of these is probably the presence of ions of calcium and magnesium which interfere with the clearing action of soap and can form hard sulfate and soft carbonate deposit in water heaters or boilers.

Hard water may be softened to remove these ions. The softening process often substitutes sodium, or potassium (citation needed) cations hard water may be preferable to soft water for human. Consumption since health problem have been associated with excess sodium and with calcium and magnesium deficiencies softening may sacrifice nutrition for cleaning effectiveness.

1.5.3 Importance Of Water To Plant

Water is important for plant because of the following reasons;

  1. Water helps in the germination of seeds
  2. Water helps in the process of photosynthesis by which plants prepare their food.
  3. Water helps in the transport of nutrient and minerals from the soil to the plants.
  4. Water helps in the maintenance of the plant structure by providing the appropriate pressure to the plant tissues
  5. Water provides habitants in the form of pounds, rivers, lakes and seas for a large number of plants.
  6. Water carries the dissolved sugar and other nutrients through the plant so without the proper balance of water the plant not only is malnourished, but it also physically weak and cannot support its own weight.

1.6 Importance Of Water To Human

Water helps our body to absorb nutrients in the intestine and it is the base material for saliva, which plays important role in our digestive system. Water carries oxygen and nutrients to all the body cells and facilitates their effective functioning.

Water also has a role to play as disease preventive tool. It is said that drinking 8-10 glasses of water each day considerably reduces the risk of all sorts of cancer, like colon cancer, breast cancer, bladder etc. from our body by detoxification. Water also regulates the body mechanism.

Water not only serves as a lubricant in our body system but also helps to regulate the temperature of our body. It is the most important element.

1.7 Importance For Transportation

Water transport is a cheap of transportation. Capital goods, heavy machinery and bulk raw and finished goods can easily and cheaply be transported from and out of the country to the foreign countries, its importance can be judged from the following facts.

  1. Increase in economic activities:if country has a sufficient and sound infrastructure in the form of ports and waterways, the economic activity increase because many ship with tones of goods move in and out of harbors of the country.
  2. Increase in foreign exchange:Water transport increase the foreign trade, as it increase, the imports and exports of merchandise from one to the other parts of the world. International trade flourishes and trading partners and are benefit a lot.
  3. Increase in employment opportunities:Too many people get jobs in shipping industry, as well as in loading the goods from the ships. Thus directly and indirectly lots of jobs are created. This increase the general welfare of the people of the country.
  4. Increase in foreign investment:foreign countries shipping offices are opened and investment in infrastructure facilities are set up which causes an increase in the foreign investment of the country.

1.8 Effects Of Water Pollution

The effect of water pollution are seen in the thermal, heavy metal, agricultural region and due to fertilizers , chemicals, oil and contaminated ground water

1.9 Effect Of Run Off Pollution

Rain picks up dirty and silt and caries it into the water, if the dirt and silt settle in the water body, then these sediments prevent sunlight from reaching aquatic plants. If the can’t reach the plant these perish. These sediment also clog fish gills and smother organization that live on the bottom of the water body.

1.9.1 Effect Of Oil Pollution And Antifreeze

If oil is spilled on the water the effect on the ecosystem and the components are harmful. Many animals can be annihilated in case they ingest oil. Oil contaminated prey may be reason of death for many, if oil coats the feather of birds these may dies .Oil and antifreeze makes the water have a foul odour and there is a sticky firm on the surface of water that kill animals . Oil is the most harmful pollution in the water.

1.9.2 Contaminated Ground Water Effects

If contaminated water enters the ground, there may be serious effect. People may become very sick and there is a probability of developing liver or kidney illness.

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic

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How to nail it on the head during your project defence

You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.



Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of samphina.com.ng a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials. A musician as well as a developer with the interest of Nigeria students at heart. If you need a professional website, contact him via WhatsApp or phone call @ 08143831497 to get the best.

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