The Use Of Public Relations As A Tool For Eradicating Cultism In Nigeria Tertiary Institutions (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri)
Evolution is a prelude to strategic action strategies once identified must definitely be evaluated so as to determine whether it is serving the required purpose. However, this topic is based on “The use of public relation as a tool for eradicating cultism in Nigeria tertiary institution; “A case study of Federal Polytechnic Nekede” The main data-gathering instrument was the questionnaire. Frequency and percentages were also utilized in the analysis of data. The major findings of the study are that cultism activities are spreading like wildfire in all the institution in the country. Immediate implantation of strategies has to be put in place to control the spread. Government should assist school authority in flighty the war. Any identifies members should be expelled from school without concession. Cultism is a crime to man, so should be avoided.
Table Of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of study
- 1.2 Statement of research problem
- 1.3 Objective of the studies
- 1.4 Significance of the study
- 1.5 Research question
- 1.6 Research hypothesis
- 1.7 Conceptual and operational definition
- 1.8 Assumptions
- 1.9 Limitation of the study
- 1.10 Theoretical frame work
Review of the Literature
- 2.1 Sources of literature
- 2.2 Literature review
- 2.3 Summary of literature review
- 3.1 Research method
- 3.2 Research design
- 3.3 Research sample
- 3.4 Measuring instrument
- 3.5 Data collection
- 3.6 Data analysis
- 3.7 Expected result
Data Analysis and Result
- 4.1 Data analysis
- 4.2 Result
- 4.3 Discussion
Summary and Recommendation for Further Study
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background To The Study
The study is on Public Relation as veritable tools for eradicating cultism in Nigerians tertiary institution having federal polytechnic as a case study. To see how public relations could achieve this fact, examining its history becomes inevitable. This is justified in George Santayana quotation when he said, “Those who cannot remember the past are doomed to repeat it. As long as this study focuses on public relations as tool for eradicating of secret cult in Nigeria tertiary institutions especially in Fedponek, it is then essentially to examine the history of secret cult, their mode of operations, their aims and objectives their modes of recruitment and their names and headquarters in Nigeria. It is when all these facts about secret cult and public relations are being taken into consideration that solution could be recommended in Federal Polytechnic Nekede, using public relations as its chief tool.
A public relations is as old as mankind. Public relations affect almost everyone who has a contact with other human beings. All of us, one way or the other practice or experiences public relations daily.
In the ancient times, priests served as public relation advisers to their kings. They were experts in public opinion and persuasions. The kings consulted them before any major decision or important ceremonial event were under taken. Also the priest conduced literature, poems of praises and lamentation and edicts to govern the people.
Julius Caesar was a master of persuasive techniques, faced with an imminent battle; Caesar would reply public support through assorted publication and staged events. There were also the establishment of the daily news-paper called the ACTA BLURING or daily record containing government decrees and other information.
The public relation in Nigeria has become a long way, its beginning has been linked with the second world war.
As presented by Nigeria institute of public relations (NIPR) 1988 anniversary publication 25years of publication in Nigeria; the colonial government before the world war 11 was concerned with collection of taxes and the running of a police force to maintain law and order in thee protectorates amalgamated into Nigeria in 1914.
If there was any public relation practice before the world war 11, it was merely maintenance of relationship with the traditional ruler’s world war. However, the need arose for colonial government to set up an information officer, which was later known as informs relations offices of government. (According to Adebola 1992) “the public relations offices was primarily set up to publicize the colonial war and to encourage the youth to join the war. Mike Okereke, one of the pioneers of modern public relations in Nigeria, declared reliantly in a speech that the profession is about 30 years old.
In the post independent era however, there was significant development in government relations activities. The NIPR (1988) anniversary publication reveals that governments took the advantage of the information ministry and utilize effectively the machinery of federal level to build, its image. Since political culture allowed autonomous country of information channel at the state level, the party in power effectively utilized the machinery to promote its image. There were liaison officers in each state and dewing the stager administration (1973-83) the ministry of information becomes part of the officer of the resident. Even with the advent of the ministry in 1983 the federal government believed in the power of public relation in the act of governance.
In the private sector many organization have contributed to the growth of modern public relations practice in Nigeria. For instance, in 1949 the united African company, UAC, established its public relations department and thus became the pioneer of public relations practice in the private sector in Nigeria. It basic objective were to inform business and commerce about business activities as well as to project UAC as a major Nigeria industry, technical and commercial company involved in the stability of the economic life and progress in Nigeria.
People associated with large organization often are aware of what is happening with the institution that effect their interest and as a result, serious mis-understanding occur between management and its public thus, good will is scarified.
To explain corporate politics. Action and forcing about better understanding with workers, students, management requires public relation techniques. Public relations have grown as important as institution recognized that they have social responsibility to serve the public. In the past corporations existed solely to make money for their owners but today, corporate function as a creator of employment, social institution and benefactor of education, patrons of arts and advocate of government. Modern public relations involve research, communication, complex activities and evaluation. It involves doing right and taking it, all in a planned and systematic activities and manner. It is not working taking about ourselves all the time without backing our takes with concrete actions.
Public relations is not window dressing, visions propaganda or lies, unnecessary details and shallow Gimanicks, it does not mean putting beautiful women in the front office, expecting them to perform public relations because of cult activities are carrying out all sorts of atrocities with impurity has fallen into disrepute. In place of academic rigor and search for the truth strange, anti-social cult stock IMT. Some of the bogging questions are:
- Why cultism in Federal Polytechnic Nekede
- What can be done to curb it
Before attempting answers to these questions, it is pertinent to sketch a historical background on how cult was initiated in Nigeria high institutions.
The ideas of campus confraternity began in 1953 when Prof. Wole Soyinka established and registered the private confraternity. The ideas started with information of the eagles. A campus magazine devoted to fighting colonial regressive as represented by the buy, a journal committed to promoting ideas of white supremacy, at the same time reducing the granted of Africanism.
Thus Soyinka, plus Olegbe, Ralph Opara Aig-Innoche, Ofogbhada, Armadas Oyeloda and two others came together with the establishment of pirate confraternity, which was registered at the University of Ibadan. The noble laureate wrote in a small treatise on the formation of pirates and said a one thing we agreed was that there world into be any room for colonial mentality in the club. Plans, the pirate confraternity was born. We were going to be a story of counterrevolution against colonialism.
The first invitation took place behind Tedder hall in 1953 at university of Ibadan, where Soyinka was chosen as the captain. The group has a symbol of mystery, which was Krola, a kind of soft drink at the Mited with beer. The group was not really a secret cult Soyinka further noted “most of the rites, who identified with ideals of the club at the time.
In 1942 however, there were minor Skirmished with the privates fold for ideological difference.
The fight was between those who embrace radical political and others who had ice-cream consciousness and those who betrayed the ideology of the pirates ‘founding fathers, when the claimed should be substituted with indecent contact and abuse of the pirates’ status on the campus.
Confrontation ensures many pirates were suspended. They formed the Buccaneer with the sole aim of destroying pirates’ legacy despites the Skirnicshes, the two groups maintained a relatively peaceful co-existence and even carried out humanitarian gestures, but wants took a new shapes around 1987 when pirates pluer out of university campuses after a grandiose midnight meeting at Nsukka, Engu State.
Since then cultism in Nigeria tertiary institutions have changed to terrorism, many devilish things have happened. “Nature” was killed another in cool blood at campus ii. Rival cult members at the trans-ekulu area while going to visit a friend killed another student. Similar incident like this had happened in other Nigeria tertiary institution all over the country.
Worst still, female secret cults like black brassiere, Amazon and Daughter of Jezebel have emerged like a rash. The female secret cult are as violent as their male counterparts. Some of the names and headquarters of these secret cults are: the black be and block cat at UNN, the Buccaneers at ESUT, the sea dogs at UNEC, the Ogboni confraternity with headquarter at ESUT, the Ondo State university; the red dogs, the mafia group with headquarters at UMPORT; the Eckanka, the Mgbangba brothers with headquarters at UNIZIK; the black beret; the free masoning fraternity with headquarter at UNIPORT; the Vikings with headquarters at UNIPORTS; the Amazon, the daughters of Jezebel with headquarters at Edo State; black brassiere, temple of Elders, Burkina Faso Revolution, Trojan Horse, Neo Black movement etc. this packaged programme will be communicated to people of Fedponek community whom the project is meant for finally evaluation of the programme will be undertaken to know the success or otherwise of the programmes and also to know if an attentive solution would be sort some identifiable cause of this cultism in Federal Polytechnic Nekede are:
- Adolescent delinquency, in those days you had more matured students who even have families back home but these days the reveres is the case
- The triple effect of cultism on the large society some of these students are themselves secret cult. Members, so here clivrem or student copied from them.
- Also the free time available to these students of Federal Polytechnic Nekede occasioned by the inadequacies in facilities and equipment are equally responsible.
- Other reason why some of Federal Polytechnic Nekede students may join and some are force into cults. Finally the management of the study is full scale academic work hence no time for cult activities
1.2 Statement Of Research Problem
The basic conditions for sustained academic culture have been eroded in Federal Polytechnic Nekede. The institution has fallen into disrepute and the products of the institution are no more what they used to be. Cult activities are seriously affecting all academic activities.
Sometimes students are attracted in hostels classrooms, bus¬¬-stops etc. daylight and gang raping becomes the order of the day; killing of student by members of cult is no longer news, therefore the need to eradicate this problem in Federal Polytechnic Nekede through public relations communalization becomes imperative.
Public relations as problems solving communication is expected to create the necessary enlightenment of study of Federal Polytechnic Nekede and awaken.
Then to what is needed from them in an academic community like Federal Polytechnic Nekede, especially now that various levels of government and the general over hand of all Nigeria tertiary institutions. During the ministerial nominee on June 22, 1999, is the senate floor, some of the screening questions boarded on the economy, education, and general decay in the educational system and cultism.
In order to tackle this problem successfully, both the student and the general public of Federal Polytechnic Nekede and even the government should take challenge upon themselves and give the Federal Polytechnic Nekede. Management and unalloyed support for the actualization of the laudable programmed. No doubt if this programmes is well packaged and implement the problem of cultism in Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri will come to pass. Problem of this study include the following:
- Name information of Fedponek publics about the problems and posed by cultism in Federal Polytechnic Nekede.
- Inadequate policies and programmes of Fedponek management to the students against cultism in Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri.
- Inadequate actualization and encouragement of the students to support the crusade against secret cults.
- Now programmes that will help students to resist any persuasion from friends to join secret cults.
1.3 Objectives Of Study
The aims of this study include the following:
- To find out of the extent of non-information on cultism and its damages to Federal Polytechnic Nekede students.
- To ascertain the extent of adequacy of actualization and encouragement of the student to support the crusade against cultism.
- To examine the adequacy of policies and programmes of Federal Polytechnic Nekede management on cultism to the students.
- To find out if there were laws that will help student resist joining of secret cults.
1.4 Significance Of Study
The relevance of this study cannot be over emphasized in that the research will help to excavate the evolution and the remove cause of this problem and proffer and enduring solution to it in IMT in particular and the whole nation at large.
This study is also significant because it will awaken the IMT management and other educational institution of the importance of public relations as an extinctive and wonderful toil for solving any institutional problems if whatever ramifications.
The study is equally significant because it will make one know the modus operand of those secret cult nationwide.
Also their names and headquarters are equally covered by this study.
The study is significant because it will show when public and private organizations acknowledged the importance of PR in business
Finally, it will clear areas people so have misconceptions about public relations and also touch and highlight what public relation is not.
1.5 Research Questions
To guide this study four-research question was formulated as listed below:
- To what extent has non-information on cultism and its damages to Federal Polytechnic Nekede student?
- To what extent are the moralization and encouragement of the student on cultism adequate to support the crusade against it?
- To what extent, policies and programmes of Federal Polytechnic Nekede’s management adequate on cultism?
- What laws of the Federal Polytechnic Nekede prevent the student from joining secret cult?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
- H1: The non-information on cultism has caused a lot of damage to Fedponek students.
H0: The non-information on cultism has not caused any damage to Fedponek students
- H2: The public relations department of Fedponek has not been mobilizing and encouraging the students to support any crusade against cultism.
H0: The public relations department of Fedponek has not been mobilizing and encouraging the students to support any crusade against cultism.
- H3: The school authorities have put up policies and programmes for Federal Polytechnic Nekede on cultism
- H4: There are many laws developed by the school authority of Federal Polytechnic Nekede to prevent the students from joining secret cults.
Ho: There are no laws developed by the school authority of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in perverting the students from joining secret cults.
1.7 Conceptional And Operational Of Terms
Con: Public- is any group or segment with which the organization has relations or interacts with in the course of its corporation or practice.
Op: Public – The segment the organization has relation or interaction with the workers, students and management
Con: Public relations – does a deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understand between an organization and its public.
Op: Public relations – any form of techniques employed by the school authority influencing student and promoting good will and favorable reputation among its public
Con: Tool – is anything that helps one to do one’s job.
Op: tools – The tools that help the public relations to achieve their success are publicity, press agency, media relations, student law books public opinion, personal communication visit to opinion leader and seminars.
Con: Eradicating – is a way to destroy anything completely or put an end to something.
Po: Eradicating – The techniques adopted by the school authorities to stop it are expelling of students, open confession and to calm-down cultism activities in the school.
Con: cultism- is an association of people that come together to from a religions body having common belief, made of worship and activities are done in an Isolated and private place, because their way of worship connotes evil against immunity such as using human being for rituals.
Op: Cultism – They attack students in the hostels, classroom, bus stop, gang raping and killing of students.
Con: Tertiary – it is the third in order, rank, importance, e.g. the universities, polytechnics and collage levels.
It is assumed that the respondent to the questionnaire are informed enough to understand the questionnaire since attempt were made to frame questions to be as simple as possible. It was also assumed in the study that single of the population will be a representative one since the institution understudy is a well known institute. The result gotten from the sample will be used to generalize the entire tertiary institution in Nigeria.
1.9 Limitations Of Study
Although this study has accomplished the purpose, which is set out to achieve, one of the very limitations is that the validity of the result or findings is depending on the honest of the respondents in providing the needed information.
Done to constraints of time and money it is difficult to carry out the research extensively this led to the limiting of the scope.
Cognizance was also taken to the fact that the academic calendar was a short and academic workload was enormous, as a result of this, no time to run around for his work.
1.10 Theoretical Frame Work
In order to use public relations as a technique to eradicate activities of cultism in Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri, it suffice here is to hear some reaction from public relation scholars, school, authorities, peace loving Nigeria, victims of cultism and the students themselves across the country especially in Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri.
International public relations association (1968) described public relations as a management functions of a continuing and planned character through which public and private organization and institution can seek to win and retain the understanding, sympathy and support of those with whom they are or may be concerned by evaluating public opinion about themselves in order to correlate, as fares possible policies and procedures to achieve, by planned and wide spread information, more productive co-operation and mere fulfillment or common interest.
According to “the daily champion (1997)” the idea of campus confraternity began in 1953 when Professor Wole Soyinka established and registered the pirate confraternity at university of Ibadan. The paper affirmed that the idea started with the formation of “the eagles” a campus magazine devoted to fighting colonial repression as represented by “the buy” a journal commuted to promoting ideas of white supremacy, at the same time reducing the grandeur of Afrianism.
Gibbs (1990) traced the origin of secret cult as far as 1053. He called the funding member of the fraternity as the “magnificent” serene”.
Summary Of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendations
5.1 Summary Of Findings
This study has been based on eradicating cultism in Nigeria tertiary institution, with the use of Federal Polytechnic Nekede as a case study. The summary of the finding can be presented as follows:
Greater number of staff and students accepted that strategies adopted by government and authority should be evaluated from time to time. Cultism as a threat to school need regular evaluation to ensure its steady eradication: most schools adopted expelling of students, open confession and ban is some activities within the school premises as means to damp down cultism in schools.
The proper implementation of these strategies has resulted in recording great success within some schools. Most respondents agreed that eradicating on yearly basis should be encouraged. Based on a enormous profit derived by schools
However, greater percentage of staff and students agreed that cultism eradicating needs more modification. Hence strategy heresies for the interest of schools and students.
The most benefit of evaluating cult eradication is to ensure that it is properly eradicated in our schools. And school authority and recently government are developing the strategies.
This study undoubtedly stressed much on the strategies employed by schools and government to eradicate cultism in higher schools with particular reference to Federal Polytechnic Nekede. The school authority and government after seeing the evils of cultism employed avenues within reach to eradicate cultism in our schools. As a result many schools, including Federal Polytechnic Nekede recorded a greater reduction in activities. Now students can move feely without fear of molestation. Parents can now sleep without me that their wards might have been attracted by cult members, or forced to join them. Students devote time to academic activities then cult activities. Above all lectures are now expected to impact qualities that education to the students. And students likewise are supposed to produce sound result obtained under calm and conducive atmosphere. But cultism has not been as easy one. It sapped both the school authority and government.
Based on the summary of finding and dissent with relevant conclusion drawn from major finds the following brief recommendations are made. Before admission, students should present a sworn affidavit never to join secret cult throughout his or her stay in school in writing to expel his ward if found as a member of cult group.
The school authorities in conjunction with do keep the students busy; and school authority should create avenue for interaction between the students punishment for any cult member should be conspicuously displayed.
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