The Use Of Public Relations As A Tool For Eradicating Cultism In Nigeria Tertiary Institutions (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri)

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Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication


Dedication


I dedicate this project work to the Almighty God for his immeasurable love, and grace towards my academic pursuit. And to my lovely desire, Mr. Francis Etuga who God used as a tool for the success of the work.


Acknowledgement


I’ m deeply indebted to my supervisor, Mr. V.O. Alozie who thought and guided me on different areas achieving success even in this work. Also, my gratitude goes to my sister, Mrs. Happiness Shaladima, Mrs. Glory as well as my inlaw, Mr. Stanley Shaladima and Mr. Ezenwa, for their financial support towards my academic pursuit.


Abstract


Evolution is a prelude to strategic action strategies once identified must definitely be evaluated so as to determine whether it is serving the required purpose. However, this topic is based on “The use of public relation as a tool for eradicating cultism in Nigeria tertiary institution; “A case study of Federal Polytechnic Nekede” The main data-gathering instrument was the questionnaire. Frequency and percentages were also utilized in the analysis of data. The major findings of the study are that cultism activities are spreading like wildfire in all the institution in the country. Immediate implantation of strategies has to be put in place to control the spread. Government should assist school authority in flighty the war. Any identifies members should be expelled from school without concession. Cultism is a crime to man, so should be avoided.


Table Of Content


  • Title page i
  • Approval page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract

Chapter One

  • Introduction
  • 1.1 Background of study
  • 1.2 Statement of research problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the studies
  • 1.4 Significance of the study
  • 1.5 Research question
  • 1.6 Research hypothesis
  • 1.7 Conceptual and operational definition
  • 1.8 Assumptions
  • 1.9 Limitation of the study
  • 1.10 Theoretical frame work

Chapter Two

  • Review of the literature
  • 2.1 Sources of literature
  • 2.2 Literature review
  • 2.3 Summary of literature review

Chapter Three

  • Methodology
  • 3.1 Research method
  • 3.2 Research design
  • 3.3 Research sample
  • 3.4 Measuring instrument
  • 3.5 Data collection
  • 3.6 Data analysis
  • 3.7 Expected result

Chapter Four

  • Data analysis and result
  • 4.1 Data analysis
  • 4.2 Result
  • 4.3 Discussion

Chapter Five

  • Summary and recommendation for further study
  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • Reference
  • Appendix

Chapter One:Introduction


1.1 Background To The Study

The study is on Public Relation as veritable tools for eradicating cultism in Nigerians tertiary institution having federal polytechnic as a case study. To see how public relations could achieve this fact, examining its history becomes inevitable. This is justified in George Santayana quotation when he said, “Those who cannot remember the past are doomed to repeat it. As long as this study focuses on public relations as tool for eradicating of secret cult in Nigeria tertiary institutions especially in Fedponek, it is then essentially to examine the history of secret cult, their mode of operations, their aims and objectives their modes of recruitment and their names and headquarters in Nigeria. It is when all these facts about secret cult and public relations are being taken into consideration that solution could be recommended in Federal Polytechnic Nekede, using public relations as its chief tool.

A public relations is as old as mankind. Public relations affect almost everyone who has a contact with other human beings. All of us, one way or the other practice or experiences public relations daily.

In the ancient times, priests served as public relation advisers to their kings. They were experts in public opinion and persuasions. The kings consulted them before any major decision or important ceremonial event were under taken. Also the priest conduced literature, poems of praises and lamentation and edicts to govern the people.
Julius Caesar was a master of persuasive techniques, faced with an imminent battle; Caesar would reply public support through assorted publication and staged events. There were also the establishment of the daily news-paper called the ACTA BLURING or daily record containing government decrees and other information.

The public relation in Nigeria has become a long way, its beginning has been linked with the second world war.
As presented by Nigeria institute of public relations (NIPR) 1988 anniversary publication 25years of publication in Nigeria; the colonial government before the world war 11 was concerned with collection of taxes and the running of a police force to maintain law and order in thee protectorates amalgamated into Nigeria in 1914.

If there was any public relation practice before the world war 11, it was merely maintenance of relationship with the traditional ruler’s world war. However, the need arose for colonial government to set up an information officer, which was later known as informs relations offices of government. (According to Adebola 1992) “the public relations offices was primarily set up to publicize the colonial war and to encourage the youth to join the war. Mike Okereke, one of the pioneers of modern public relations in Nigeria, declared reliantly in a speech that the profession is about 30 years old.

In the post independent era however, there was significant development in government relations activities. The NIPR (1988) anniversary publication reveals that governments took the advantage of the information ministry and utilize effectively the machinery of federal level to build, its image. Since political culture allowed autonomous country of information channel at the state level, the party in power effectively utilized the machinery to promote its image. There were liaison officers in each state and dewing the stager administration (1973-83) the ministry of information becomes part of the officer of the resident. Even with the advent of the ministry in 1983 the federal government believed in the power of public relation in the act of governance.

In the private sector many organization have contributed to the growth of modern public relations practice in Nigeria. For instance, in 1949 the united African company, UAC, established its public relations department and thus became the pioneer of public relations practice in the private sector in Nigeria. It basic objective were to inform business and commerce about business activities as well as to project UAC as a major Nigeria industry, technical and commercial company involved in the stability of the economic life and progress in Nigeria.
People associated with large organization often are aware of what is happening with the institution that effect their interest and as a result, serious mis-understanding occur between management and its public thus, good will is scarified.

To explain corporate politics. Action and forcing about better understanding with workers, students, management requires public relation techniques. Public relations have grown as important as institution recognized that they have social responsibility to serve the public. In the past corporations existed solely to make money for their owners but today, corporate function as a creator of employment, social institution and benefactor of education, patrons of arts and advocate of government. Modern public relations involve research, communication, complex activities and evaluation. It involves doing right and taking it, all in a planned and systematic activities and manner. It is not working taking about ourselves all the time without backing our takes with concrete actions.

Public relations is not window dressing, visions propaganda or lies, unnecessary details and shallow Gimanicks, it does not mean putting beautiful women in the front office, expecting them to perform public relations because of cult activities are carrying out all sorts of atrocities with impurity has fallen into disrepute. In place of academic rigor and search for the truth strange, anti-social cult stock IMT. Some of the bogging questions are:

  1. Why cultism in Federal Polytechnic Nekede
  2. What can be done to curb it

Before attempting answers to these questions, it is pertinent to sketch a historical background on how cult was initiated in Nigeria high institutions.

The ideas of campus confraternity began in 1953 when Prof. Wole Soyinka established and registered the private confraternity. The ideas started with information of the eagles. A campus magazine devoted to fighting colonial regressive as represented by the buy, a journal committed to promoting ideas of white supremacy, at the same time reducing the granted of Africanism.

Thus Soyinka, plus Olegbe, Ralph Opara Aig-Innoche, Ofogbhada, Armadas Oyeloda and two others came together with the establishment of pirate confraternity, which was registered at the University of Ibadan. The noble laureate wrote in a small treatise on the formation of pirates and said a one thing we agreed was that there world into be any room for colonial mentality in the club. Plans, the pirate confraternity was born. We were going to be a story of counterrevolution against colonialism.

The first invitation took place behind Tedder hall in 1953 at university of Ibadan, where Soyinka was chosen as the captain. The group has a symbol of mystery, which was Krola, a kind of soft drink at the Mited with beer. The group was not really a secret cult Soyinka further noted “most of the rites, who identified with ideals of the club at the time.

In 1942 however, there were minor Skirmished with the privates fold for ideological difference.

The fight was between those who embrace radical political and others who had ice-cream consciousness and those who betrayed the ideology of the pirates ‘founding fathers, when the claimed should be substituted with indecent contact and abuse of the pirates’ status on the campus.

Confrontation ensures many pirates were suspended. They formed the Buccaneer with the sole aim of destroying pirates’ legacy despites the Skirnicshes, the two groups maintained a relatively peaceful co-existence and even carried out humanitarian gestures, but wants took a new shapes around 1987 when pirates pluer out of university campuses after a grandiose midnight meeting at Nsukka, Engu State.

Since then cultism in Nigeria tertiary institutions have changed to terrorism, many devilish things have happened. “Nature” was killed another in cool blood at campus ii. Rival cult members at the trans-ekulu area while going to visit a friend killed another student. Similar incident like this had happened in other Nigeria tertiary institution all over the country.

Worst still, female secret cults like black brassiere, Amazon and Daughter of Jezebel have emerged like a rash. The female secret cult are as violent as their male counterparts. Some of the names and headquarters of these secret cults are:the black be and block cat at UNN, the Buccaneers at ESUT, the sea dogs at UNEC, the Ogboni confraternity with headquarter at ESUT, the Ondo State university; the red dogs, the mafia group with headquarters at UMPORT; the Eckanka, the Mgbangba brothers with headquarters at UNIZIK; the black beret; the free masoning fraternity with headquarter at UNIPORT; the Vikings with headquarters at UNIPORTS; the Amazon, the daughters of Jezebel with headquarters at Edo State; black brassiere, temple of Elders, Burkina Faso Revolution, Trojan Horse, Neo Black movement etc. this packaged programme will be communicated to people of Fedponek community whom the project is meant for finally evaluation of the programme will be undertaken to know the success or otherwise of the programmes and also to know if an attentive solution would be sort some identifiable cause of this cultism in Federal Polytechnic Nekede are:

(i) Adolescent delinquency, in those days you had more matured students who even have families back home but these days the reveres is the case

(ii) The triple effect of cultism on the large society some of these students are themselves secret cult. Members, so here clivrem or student copied from them.

(iii) Also the free time available to these students of Federal Polytechnic Nekede occasioned by the inadequacies in facilities and equipment are equally responsible.

(iv) Other reason why some of Federal Polytechnic Nekede students may join and some are force into cults. Finally the management of the study is full scale academic work hence no time for cult activities


1.2 Statement Of Research Problem

The basic conditions for sustained academic culture have been eroded in Federal Polytechnic Nekede. The institution has fallen into disrepute and the products of the institution are no more what they used to be. Cult activities are seriously affecting all academic activities.

Sometimes students are attracted in hostels classrooms, bus¬¬-stops etc. daylight and gang raping becomes the order of the day; killing of student by members of cult is no longer news, therefore the need to eradicate this problem in Federal Polytechnic Nekede through public relations communalization becomes imperative.
Public relations as problems solving communication is expected to create the necessary enlightenment of study of Federal Polytechnic Nekede and awaken.

Then to what is needed from them in an academic community like Federal Polytechnic Nekede, especially now that various levels of government and the general over hand of all Nigeria tertiary institutions. During the ministerial nominee on June 22, 1999, is the senate floor, some of the screening questions boarded on the economy, education, and general decay in the educational system and cultism.

In order to tackle this problem successfully, both the student and the general public of Federal Polytechnic Nekede and even the government should take challenge upon themselves and give the Federal Polytechnic Nekede. Management and unalloyed support for the actualization of the laudable programmed. No doubt if this programmes is well packaged and implement the problem of cultism in Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri will come to pass. Problem of this study include the following:

  1. Name information of Fedponek publics about the problems and posed by cultism in Federal Polytechnic Nekede.
  2. Inadequate policies and programmes of Fedponek management to the students against cultism in Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri.
  3. Inadequate actualization and encouragement of the students to support the crusade against secret cults.
  4. Now programmes that will help students to resist any persuasion from friends to join secret cults.

1.3 Objectives Of Study

The aims of this study include the following:

  1. To find out of the extent of non-information on cultism and its damages to Federal Polytechnic Nekede students.
  2. To ascertain the extent of adequacy of actualization and encouragement of the student to support the crusade against cultism.
  3. To examine the adequacy of policies and programmes of Federal Polytechnic Nekede management on cultism to the students.
  4. To find out if there were laws that will help student resist joining of secret cults.

1.4 Significance Of Study

The relevance of this study cannot be over emphasized in that the research will help to excavate the evolution and the remove cause of this problem and proffer and enduring solution to it in IMT in particular and the whole nation at large.

This study is also significant because it will awaken the IMT management and other educational institution of the importance of public relations as an extinctive and wonderful toil for solving any institutional problems if whatever ramifications.

The study is equally significant because it will make one know the modus operand of those secret cult nationwide.

Also their names and headquarters are equally covered by this study.

The study is significant because it will show when public and private organizations acknowledged the importance of PR in business

Finally, it will clear areas people so have misconceptions about public relations and also touch and highlight what public relation is not.


1.5 Research Questions

To guide this study four-research question was formulated as listed below:

  1. To what extent has non-information on cultism and its damages to Federal Polytechnic Nekede student?
  2. To what extent are the moralization and encouragement of the student on cultism adequate to support the crusade against it?
  3. To what extent, policies and programmes of Federal Polytechnic Nekede’s management adequate on cultism?
  4. What laws of the Federal Polytechnic Nekede prevent the student from joining secret cult?

1.6 Research Hypotheses

  • H1: The non-information on cultism has caused a lot of damage to Fedponek students.
    H0: The non-information on cultism has not caused any damage to Fedponek students
  • H2: The public relations department of Fedponek has not been mobilizing and encouraging the students to support any crusade against cultism.
    H0: The public relations department of Fedponek has not been mobilizing and encouraging the students to support any crusade against cultism.
  • H3: The school authorities have put up policies and programmes for Federal Polytechnic Nekede on cultism
  • H4: There are many laws developed by the school authority of Federal Polytechnic Nekede to prevent the students from joining secret cults.
    Ho: There are no laws developed by the school authority of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in perverting the students from joining secret cults.

1.7 Conceptional And Operational Of Terms

Con:Public- is any group or segment with which the organization has relations or interacts with in the course of its corporation or practice.

Op:Public – The segment the organization has relation or interaction with the workers, students and management

Con:Public relations – does a deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understand between an organization and its public.

Op:Public relations – any form of techniques employed by the school authority influencing student and promoting good will and favorable reputation among its public

Con:Tool – is anything that helps one to do one’s job.

Op:tools – The tools that help the public relations to achieve their success are publicity, press agency, media relations, student law books public opinion, personal communication visit to opinion leader and seminars.

Con:Eradicating – is a way to destroy anything completely or put an end to something.

Po:Eradicating – The techniques adopted by the school authorities to stop it are expelling of students, open confession and to calm-down cultism activities in the school.

Con:cultism- is an association of people that come together to from a religions body having common belief, made of worship and activities are done in an Isolated and private place, because their way of worship connotes evil against immunity such as using human being for rituals.

Op:Cultism – They attack students in the hostels, classroom, bus stop, gang raping and killing of students.

Con:Tertiary – it is the third in order, rank, importance, e.g. the universities, polytechnics and collage levels.


1.8 Assumptions

It is assumed that the respondent to the questionnaire are informed enough to understand the questionnaire since attempt were made to frame questions to be as simple as possible. It was also assumed in the study that single of the population will be a representative one since the institution understudy is a well known institute. The result gotten from the sample will be used to generalize the entire tertiary institution in Nigeria.


1.9 Limitations Of Study

Although this study has accomplished the purpose, which is set out to achieve, one of the very limitations is that the validity of the result or findings is depending on the honest of the respondents in providing the needed information.

Done to constraints of time and money it is difficult to carry out the research extensively this led to the limiting of the scope.

Cognizance was also taken to the fact that the academic calendar was a short and academic workload was enormous, as a result of this, no time to run around for his work.


1.10 Theoretical Frame Work

In order to use public relations as a technique to eradicate activities of cultism in Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri, it suffice here is to hear some reaction from public relation scholars, school, authorities, peace loving Nigeria, victims of cultism and the students themselves across the country especially in Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri.

International public relations association (1968) described public relations as a management functions of a continuing and planned character through which public and private organization and institution can seek to win and retain the understanding, sympathy and support of those with whom they are or may be concerned by evaluating public opinion about themselves in order to correlate, as fares possible policies and procedures to achieve, by planned and wide spread information, more productive co-operation and mere fulfillment or common interest.

According to “the daily champion (1997)” the idea of campus confraternity began in 1953 when Professor Wole Soyinka established and registered the pirate confraternity at university of Ibadan. The paper affirmed that the idea started with the formation of “the eagles” a campus magazine devoted to fighting colonial repression as represented by “the buy” a journal commuted to promoting ideas of white supremacy, at the same time reducing the grandeur of Afrianism.

Gibbs (1990) traced the origin of secret cult as far as 1053. He called the funding member of the fraternity as the “magnificent” serene”.


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How to nail it on the head during your project defence


You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
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You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

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Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.


Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.


Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.


Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.


Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.


Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

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Make Sure You Know Your Work:

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Prepare For The Questions:

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The structure of a good project work


Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are


1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.


4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.


5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


References:

This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

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Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy (samphina.com.ng) a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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