Public Latrine System And It’s Associated Problems

Project and Seminar Material for Environmental Science

Public Latrine System And It’s Associated Problems


Abstract


A lot of public latrine poses a very serious problem to the people of Awka and also to other places across the country. The problem of open defecation which some people often refer to as going to the bush or bush shitting has persistently been difficult to address in Awka and Nigeria because of the unavailability of good public and home toilets both in the cities and local communities or villages. A lot of people live without proper sanitation in Awka and these people have to decide on daily basis how to organize defecation without feeling ashamed or fear. Two hypothesis were formulated? To test the relationship between outbreak of disease and public latrine and the need for provision of latrine in public places.

Data used for the study were collected from primary and secondary sources including questionnaire survey of the residents in Awka. From the analysis, it was found out that enough latrine are not provided in public places like markets, public compounds and even hostels thereby making the least provided to be overused and uncared for. The tests result shows that good latrine and the quality of life of the residents are significantly related. The recommendations made in the study include adequate provision of public toilets and toilets facilities as well as financing and maintenance of toilet facilities. It is hoped that the suggested measures of this study will go along way to improving the life residents in Awka territory.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

This chapter outlines the study background, problem statement, justification, objectives, research questions, hypothesis, delimitation, limitation and the conceptual framework.


1.1 Background to the Study

Sanitation is a United Nations declared human right and without access to it, many communities are left vulnerable to impacts on health, dignity, negative economic and education effects (WHO, 2012a). Lack of latrines mostly affects the poor, rural and marginalized communities as majority (71%) of those who do not use improved latrines live in rural areas where 90% of all open defecation takes place. The global health burden associated with these conditions is staggering, with an estimated 4,000– 6,000 children dying each day from diseases associated with lack of access to sanitation (WSSCC, 2004). Despite these realities, progress towards meeting the sanitation Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for all by 2015 is woefully off track (WHO and UNICEF, 2013).

Globally, 15% of the world’s population do not use improved latrine facilities forcing over 1 billion people to resort to open defecation. Overall, the global latrine coverage as at 2011, was estimated to be 64% implying that the world was set to miss the 75% sanitation MDG target by more than half a billion people if the current trends continued (WHO and UNICEF, 2013).

Sub-Saharan Africa remained the farthest behind in its progress towards accelerating access to improved latrine facilities (UN, 2013). Regional estimates indicated that only 30% of the population in Sub Saharan Africa used improved latrine facilities and an estimated 26% practiced open defecation due to lack of latrines (WHO and UNICEF,2013)

Nigeria is not on track to meet its sanitation MDG targets by 2015 as only 29% of its population use improved latrine facilities while 14% practice open defecation with rural areas recording higher (17%) levels of open defecation compared to urban areas (3%). This implies that over 5 million Nigerians do not use improved latrine facilities and are therefore forced to resort to open defecation which results in the prevalence of sanitation related diseases such as diarrhoea (WHO and UNICEF, 2013). If the current rate (0.75%) of increasing access to sanitation is maintained, it will take Nigeria 100 years to achieve the MDG targets and 133 years to attain universal access to sanitation. If the country is to meet its MDG and Vision 2030 targets, this rate must be increased to 5% (WSP,2014)
Whereas most studies conducted have focused on establishing the latrine coverage levels, there is a clear gap in the investigation of the underlying factors leading to the low latrine coverage levels especially in marginalized areas such as Awka . Therefore this study set out to determine the latrine use and associated factors among the rural community members of Awka, Anambrastate , Nigeria.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The lack of improved latrine use in Awka continues to be a widespread health and environmental hazard. Latrine coverage in Awka is generally low with the proportion of the population using improved latrine facilities being estimated at 11.7% (WSP, 2014). According to the 2009 census report, majority (83%) of the population in Awka practiced open defecation (GoK, 2010a) due to lack of latrines. In 2011, the was ranked the third last out of the 47 counties with the lowest latrine coverage (GoK, 2011a). The ’s health records indicate that majority of the top ten diseases affecting the population were sanitation related and in 2009, the region was adversely affected by a cholera outbreak that left many sick and others dead (GoK, 2012a). Overall, 42% of the children in the are stunted and the loses 268 million Nigeria Shillings each year due to poor sanitation (WSP,2014).

The promotion of improved latrine use coupled with the requisite knowledge, attitudes and practices has not received significant attention from researchers, the National and Governments, programme designers, law enforcers and policy-makers. Latrine coverage levels both nationally and globally are well studied and documented in the National census, Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys and the WHO and UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme reports. Whereas these studies have focused on ascertaining the latrine coverage levels, there is limited information on latrine use and associated factors that are attributed to the low latrine coverage levels among marginalized pastoral communities such as Awka. This study therefore set out to determine latrine use and associated factors in Awka,Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of Study

1.3.1 Main Objective

To determine latrine use and associated factors among the rural community members in Awka, Nigeria.

1.3.2 Specific Objectives
  1. To establish the knowledge and attitudes on latrine use among the rural community members in Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria.
  2. To establish latrine hygiene practices among latrine users in Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria.
  3. To establish the factors that promoted or hindered latrine use among the rural community members in Awka, Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What knowledge and attitudes on latrine use existed among the rural community members in Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria?
  2. What latrine hygiene practices existed among the latrine users in Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria?
  3. What factors promoted or hindered latrine use among the rural community members in Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria?

1.5 Hypothesis of Study

The study hypothesized that there were no factors promoting nor hindering latrine use in Awka.


1.6 Justification of Study

The world committed itself to halve the proportion of people without access to sanitation facilities by the year 2015; however this remains a pipe dream for many countries including Nigeria which is one of the countries in Africa that is not on track to achieve the MDG goals on Sanitation (WHO and UNICEF, 2013).

The sanitation status has been declining in Nigeria. With a population of more than 38 million people, Nigeria faces enormous challenges in providing sustainable access to sanitation for its fast growing population. A significant portion of Nigeria’s disease burden is caused by inadequate sanitation and poor personal hygiene practices which results in the prevalence of sanitation related diseases such as diarrhoea (UNDP, 2009). Awka was ranked the third last out of the 47 counties with the lowest latrine coverage (GoK, 2011a) with latrine coverage being lowest in Wamba Division (19%) compared to Waso (21%) Division (GoK, 2012a). In addition, majority of the top ten diseases affecting the Sub ’s population were sanitation related (GoK, 2012a).

Increasing use of improved latrine facilities will make the realization of broader health, social and wider development outcomes both likely and sustainable (WHO, 2012a). Despite its importance, achieving real gains in increasing latrine use has been challenging. There is need to understand and document the underlying factors associated with the low improved latrines use in Awka in order to accelerate progress towards attainment of sanitation MDG targets in this marginalized region.


1.7 Delimitation and limitation

1.7.1 Delimitation
  1. The study only focused on determining latrine use and associated factors among the rural community members in Awka, as outlined in the study objectives and research questions.
  2. The study was limited to the rural community members of Awka.
1.7.2 Limitations
  1. Awka is very vast and prone to resource related conflicts.
  2. The pastoralist nature of the community hindered the availability of respondents in some areas. Households that lacked respondents had to be skipped and alternative ones that met the inclusion criteria were sampled as replacements.
  3. The principal investigator was not a resident of the study area and therefore language posed a barrier hence local community health workers were used in translation to bridge this gap.
  4. Heavy rains hampered data collection in Lmarmaroi Sub Location, data collection had to be rescheduled after the rains subsided.

Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter provides an in-depth discussion and key deductions made from the significant findings that emanated from this study in addressing the study objectives and research questions. The chapter also details the main conclusions and recommendations drawn from the significant findings of the study as well as the areas for further research.


5.2 Discussion

5.2.1 Socio-demographic characteristics of the study population

The study found out that latrine use was highest among households that lived in or near the market centres such as Swari. This could be attributed to the fact that Swari sub location had the largest and more established market centre compared to the others. This implied that living in close proximity to market centres necessitated the need to have latrine facilities considering that most traders were doing business for the better part of the day. These findings were consistent with those reported by Shakya et al. (2012) which indicated that living in close proximity to main cities was found to increase latrine use.

Although the study recorded more female than male headed households, latrine use was observed to be higher among male headed households than female headed households. Similar findings were reported by UNDP (2006), Kema, (2012), Awoke and Muche (2013) who observed that male headed households had higher latrine use.
The study further established that in this community, women bear the burden of cleaning and constructing latrines. More gender awareness on shared responsibilities in latrine related matters may be necessary to bridge this apparent gap.

The type of occupation of the household head provides useful insights into the economic status of the household which ultimately affects the key decisions made for the household. The study found out that majority of the people in the study area were livestock keepers. It was reported by all participants in all the FGDs and KIIs that the livelihood of the study community was livestock keeping, an occupation characterized by periodic migration with livestock from place to place in search of water and pasture. Latrine use was lowest among the livestock keepers which could be attributed to their nomadic nature of life. As reported by a male participant in the FGDs, due to their nomadic way of life, the study community hardly constructs or uses latrines as they are accorded very low priority. Their migration lifestyle is compounded further by the long distances travelled meaning that they only prioritize their livestock and as long as their livestock are well fed and watered, nothing else was of priority. More appropriate latrine solutions such as movable light weight latrine plastic slabs might be more ideal for pastorolist communities as they can be able to move with them from place to place as they look for water and pasture.

The level of education of the household head has a direct bearing on the health related decisions made for the household as well as adoption of good latrine related practices. The study population exhibited high illiteracy rates; latrine use was higher among households with either primary or secondary level of education compared to those without any formal education. This could be attributed to the impact that education makes in decision making for ultimate behavior change and adoption of good latrine practices at the household level. According to the District Public Health Officer, the low latrine use rates for the study area could be attributed to the low literacy rates of the study population which was a major impediment to the overall development of the study area.

The average monthly income of a household is an important indicator of a household’s ability to afford a latrine facility as well as affects other day to day decisions made in the family. A unique finding from the study was that low income respondents had higher latrine use compared to the high income earners. This could be attributed to the fact that majority of the households in the study area had constructed their latrines through external assistance in the form of subsidies mostly from NGOs. Subsidies provided included: materials, labor, finances, latrine slabs among others. This finding implied that higher income levels did not necessarily translate into ownership and use of a latrine facility in this community and other underlying factors could have had a greater influence on latrine use other than income. This study finding is not consistent with those of UNDP (2006) which identified poverty as a key contributor to latrine inequalities, the Water Sanitation Programme (2004) that found out that limited financial ability was a major hindrance to up scaling latrine use and Kema, (2012), Awoke and Muche (2013) that found out that a household’s monthly income positively promoted ownership and use of latrine facilities.

Knowledge and attitudes on latrine use

The study found out that generally, where latrine use was high, majority of the respondents exhibited the correct knowledge linking latrines to diarrhoeal disease prevention compared to their counterparts with lower latrine use. For instance, majority believed that: one was at risk of getting diarrhoea if their neighbor practiced open defecation, open defecation was associated with diarrhoeal diseases, human faeces was the principal source of diarrhoea, hand washing with water and soap everyday could prevent diarrhaea and that latrine use could prevent diarrhoeal diseases. In addition, majority also reported the correct causes and prevention methods of diarrhoea. The study differs with findings from the Water Sanitation Programme (2004) that indicated that lack of awareness on sanitation and hygiene were key hindrances to up scaling latrine use as this study established that the knowledge levels related to latrine use were generally high yet the practice of actually using latrines remained low compared to the global and nationaltargets.

The study therefore implies that although the community exhibited higher levels of knowledge pertinent to latrines and diarrhoeal disease, this knowledge was yet to translate into practice among the wider community members in the study area. This indicates an apparent gap in knowledge, awareness and practice that may need to be bridged in future by encouraging communities to translate their knowledge and awareness levels into the practice of constructing and using latrines.

5.2.2 Latrine use hygiene practices

Majority of the households with higher latrine use had adopted appropriate good latrine hygiene practices such as having a latrine that hygienically separated human faeces from human contact, having a hand washing facility with water and soap outside the latrine and having latrines that offered adequate privacy. The hygienic maintenance of latrine facilities has the potential to increase use as well as confer additional health benefits since when human excreta is kept away from contact, then smell and flies can be minimized. The lack of visible excreta on the latrine surface is one way of ensuring that the feacal oral disease transmission route is broken.

The adoption of appropriate latrine practices at the household level promotes subsequent use of latrine facilities due to the aesthetic values assigned to use of latrines implying that a “nice” latrine based on privacy and cleanliness criteria were more likely to be used. The study notes that although a small section of the community were using improved latrines; still the vast majority was yet to abandon the practice of open defecation. More awareness may need to be created within this community to enable the larger segment of the population construct and use latrines.

5.2.3 Factors that promoted latrine use in the study area
5.2.3.1 Clearly defined gender roles

Gender refers to the socio culturally assigned roles and responsibilities to males and females in a given community. Gender role definition helps in clarifying who does what in a certain community and is more likely to streamline the various community operations and household related activities. In most communities in Nigeria, cleaning of latrines is largely a women’s affair, results which were not any different from this study as all respondents reported that women were responsible for cleaning latrines. Similarly, in most communities, the more labor intensive roles are often assigned to men. However among this study community, it was noted that the more labor intensive work of constructing latrines rested solely on women. The study deduces that although clear definition of gender roles helps in streamlining the day to day operations in a particular community, there may be need for more gender awareness to advocate for shared responsibilities in order to increase the participation of all segments of the population in matters related to latrine construction and cleaning at the household and community levels for increased latrine use.

5.2.3.2 Motivation for latrine construction and use

Majority of the households members who were using latrines had constructed them to prevent diarrhoeal diseases. These findings differed with those of Jenkins, (2007) that indicated that a household’s decision to adopt the use of latrines had little to do with the prevention of faecal-oral diseases. In addition, these findings resonate well with the health belief model that indicates that a person is more likely to adopt new behaviors in this case construct and use latrines if the benefits outweighed the perceived risks (FHI, 1996). The motivations for latrine construction and use identified in the study provide room to further explore their replicability and up scaling to all areas with low latrine use.

Majority of the diseases that members of the study population had suffered from in the past two weeks were sanitation related; latrine use was highest among households that had not suffered any sanitation related disease in the past two weeks. Amongt hose who lacked latrine use, majority of them reported to have had a member of their household who had suffered from sanitation related diseases. This clearly indicates the significant role that latrines can play in breaking the faecal – oral disease transmission route.

5.2.3.3 Provision of subsidies in latrine construction

The role of external actors especially NGOs in promoting latrine use was noted to be significant. In this study, provision of subsidy for latrine construction was categorized as any form of assistance provided to a household in the form of finances, labor or technical support as well as provision of latrine construction materials. Majority of the latrines in the study area were constructed with external support mostly from NGOs. These findings are similar to those reported by Kema, (2012), Awoke and Muche (2013) that indicated external assistance was found to promote latrine use.

The study however notes that the provision of external subsidies possess as a potential risk to sustainability of latrine projects in communities since the continued provision of external support will ultimately increase latrine use but may end up weakening the community capacities to sustain the action after withdrawal of the support as evidenced in the study by the lack of latrine construction skills among a majority of the households with latrines. This could be attributed to the high dependency syndrome that comes with any form of continued widespread incentives which may hinder sustainability. The increased dependency on subsidies weakens the sustainability and community capacities to initiate and manage latrine interventions on their own. The study deducts that until a household decides that using a latrine facility is of priority to them and takes action to construct and use it, only then can sustainable improvements in up scaling latrine use be made.

5.2.3.4 Living in close proximity to market centres

The study found out that most people with latrines resided in Swari Sub Location which could be attributed to the fact that Swari sub location had the largest and more established market centre compared to the others. This implied that living in the market centres necessitated the need for latrine facilities considering that most traders in the markets were doing business for the better part of the day. These findings are consistent with those reported by Shakya et al. (2012) which indicated that living in close proximity to main cities was found to increase latrine use.

5.2.4 Factors that hindered latrine use in the study area
5.2.4.1 Cultural beliefs, taboos and traditions

This study found out that cultural factors and associated beliefs, taboos and traditions were the main hindrances to latrine use in the area of study. The study results were consistent with the Water Sanitation Programme (2004) findings that identified nomadic pastoralism and cultural factors to be major hindrances to improved latrine ownership and use. According to most participants in the FGDs, the use of latrines was ultimately associated with the abandonment of the communities’ culture. The strong cultural inhibitions to latrine use implied that there was an urgent need to design and implement latrine projects that were culturally acceptable to the study population. In addition, efforts to upscale latrine use must be geared towards addressing the social cultural barriers (beliefs and practices) in order to upscale latrine use.

5.2.4.2 Perceived poverty levels

The study observed that latrine use was higher among low income earners compared to the high income earners. These findings differed with those of UNDP (2006) that identified poverty as a key contributor to latrine inequalities, those by the Water Sanitation Programme (2004) that showed limited financial ability to be major hindrances to up scaling latrine use as well as those of Kema, (2012), Awoke and Muche (2013) that indicated that a household’s monthly income positively promoted use of latrine facilities.

The “perceived poverty” mentality requires further de-mystifying. Although the income level findings paint a grim poverty picture on the target population, the District Public Health Officer clarified that most of the members of the study area were not as poor as the general perception has been. This was because, majority of the community members were livestock keepers who owned several heads of livestock and if the same was to be converted into liquid cash, they would fetch a higher market value. Further, it was reported that a typical “poor household” in the study area may not equate to any other poor household elsewhere because of their livestock wealth. Interestingly, it was reported that the community members could sell their livestock to do anything else but not construct a latrine. The concept of “perceived poverty” among the pastoralists communities is not new, however what is lacking is raising the awareness among the study population on how to convert their livestock into real cash which can ultimately be utilized to construct latrines as opposed to provision of subsidies.

5.2.4.3 High illiteracy levels

As confirmed by the household and KIIs during the study, the study population exhibited high illiteracy rates. Latrine use was lower among households without any formal education compared to their counterparts who had attained primary or secondary level of education. This could be attributed to the impact that education makes in decision making for ultimate behavior change and adoption of good latrine hygiene practices at the household level. According to the District Public Health Officer, the low latrine use rates for the study area was largely attributable to the high illiteracy rates in the study area which was a major impediment to the overall development of the study area.

5.2.4.4 Lack of latrine construction skills

The possession of the relevant latrine construction skills is prerequisite if the said latrine facility is to be sustainably utilized, repaired or replaced (operation and maintenance requirements) in a hygienic manner. The study observed that majority of the people in the study area did not have the necessary skills for constructing latrines yet, latrine use was highest among these households that lacked the necessary skills for constructing latrines. This could be attributed to the fact that majority of the households had constructed their latrines with external assistance which included provision of finances, materials, slabs or labor in latrine construction.

The lack of latrine construction skills particularly may hinder households from constructing or repairing their latrines as many would opt without and may hinder sustainability of future latrine projects. Similar to findings by the Water Sanitation Programme (2004), this study identified the lack of knowledge on how to construct latrines to be a major hindrance to up scaling latrine use.

When asked about their ability to construct latrines, most of the FGD participants indicated that they had the strength to construct latrines but often they lacked skills and technical knowledge on how to construct latrines as majority were pastoralists that had never used or constructed latrines before. This implied that there was an urgent need for all actors to invest in building capacities of communities in order to have inherent skills to be able to construct, repair or replace their latrines in future as opposed to giving subsidies which is often not sustainable.

The provision of external support in latrine construction as opposed to strengthening community capacities to construct latrines on their own may hinder sustainable functionality of latrine facilities in the long term. When communities do it on their own, then they learn and are more able to repair or replace their latrines in future as the skills will be inherent within their communities. As was reported during the community wide discussions in the FGDs, use of latrines in the study area was not a very common practice implying that the community required intensive capacity building in order to understand how to construct, use and maintain their latrine facilities.

5.2.4.5 Low government involvement in promoting latrine use

The low involvement of the government in promoting latrine construction and use in this community stands out. This in itself may hinder sustainability of latrine actions in the community where the main drivers of change were external actors such as NGOsas opposed to internal actors such as the government. The findings were consistent with the UNDP (2006) report that indicated the low prioritization of latrines by Governments as a key barrier to increasing latrine use. The government being the custodian of sanitation related policies has a special position in the country to advocate for increased latrine use. More resources need to be allocated to the sanitation sector which has been consistently underfunded in the past. Therefore more strategic advocacy and increased funding to the sanitation sector by the Government will raise the sanitation profile in the area of study and is a first step in addressing the persistent sanitation inequalities in the study area.

5.2.4.6 Low involvement of men in latrine related matters

As already reported, latrine matters ranging from construction and cleaning in the study area was largely a women’s affair although the latrines were used by almost everyone in the family. Although clear gender roles as prescribed by the social norms within a community suffice, there needs to be more advocacy to increase the role of men in latrine related matters as often they are the decision makers of most households in charge of controlling a household’s resources (UNDP, 2006). It may therefore be difficult for women to construct latrines without the consent of their male counterparts neither will it be possible for the men to allocate a household’s economic resources to latrine construction if they do not feel it is a priority for their household. Since men are key decision makers, they have an unparalleled position within the society to advocate for increased latrine use an opportunity that needs to be explored further in future latrine programs.

5.2.4.7 Low self-initiation of latrine construction

Only as small proportion of respondents had constructed their latrines using own resources while a majority constructed their latrines with external support mostly from NGO’s. Generally, people do not value or appreciate free things which more often than not are misused and fail to be sustainable in the long term. Communities have inherent solutions and are best able to determine which actions will enable them to overcome their perceived barriers to development. Instead of focusing on the provision of subsidies which often creates a dependency syndrome, communities need to self-support themselves in order to change their attitudes and behavior through community mobilization to stop open defecation, build and use latrines. When support comes from within and not from outside, communities have better ownership of the process and the benefits that will accrue from their collective actions. In addition, when communities collectively commit to the necessary behavior change, they would subsequently hold themselves and their peers accountable. Eventually, the communities become fully empowered to own the desired change that comes as a result of improved health due to improved latrine use and it is they who can be credited for the success.

It is suggested that self-initiation of latrine construction should be explored as a more sustainable way of increasing latrine use as opposed to provision of subsidies that often leads to dependency syndrome among communities. Unless communities prioritize latrine use on their own, all future external support will be futile. The study notes that constructing latrines alone will not solve the sanitation challenge in the study area, empowering local communities to solve their own problems is the best way to improve latrine use and ultimately the health of communities.


5.2 Conclusion

The study concludes that:

  1. There was an apparent gap between the knowledge on latrines and the practice of using latrines in the study area. This is because, although the study observed that the knowledge levels related to latrine use, causes and prevention of diarrhoea were high, majority of those interviewed were not using latrine facilities.
  2. Adoption of good latrine hygiene practices such as keeping the latrine clean, providing water and soap for hand washing and providing adequate conditions of privacy enhanced use of latrine facilities.
  3. The study identified clearly defined gender roles, main motives for latrine construction and use, provision of subsidies in latrine construction and living in close proximity to market centres as factors that promoted latrine use in the area of study.
  4. The study established that cultural beliefs, taboos and traditions, high poverty and illiteracy rates, lack of latrine construction skills, low government and men involvement in promoting latrine construction and use and low initiation of latrine construction as the main hindrances to latrine use in the study area.

5.3 Recommendations

The study recommends that:

  1. Proactive efforts need to be taken by all actors to bridge the apparent gap between knowledge and practice pertinent to up scaling latrine use. Targeted and thematic sanitation campaigns can be conducted to promote the construction and use of latrine facilities focusing on latrine construction skills enhancement.
  2. The local stakeholders should identify households with good latrine hygiene practices to become model homes for other community members to learn from and emulate the good latrine hygiene practices observed. Villages that shall be identified to have eliminated open defecation can be recognized and celebrated to motivate them to maintain their Open Defecation Free (ODF)status.
  3. Since the main motivation for using latrines was observed to be prevention of diarrhoeal diseases, more awareness needs to be created on the impact of open defection to motivate communities to construct and use latrines to prevent diarrhoeal diseases
  4. To accelerate progress towards attainment of sanitation targets in the area of study, existing latrine construction and use barriers need to be addressed. Specifically there is need to equip communities with latrine construction skills, address social cultural barriers to latrine use and increase the participation of men in latrine related matters as they can be key champions and agents of change in promoting latrine use. The Government should provide matching resources to tackle the sanitation disparities in the while utilizing socio-culturally appropriate technological options suitable for the study community. Communities should also be encouraged to initiate the construction of their own latrines as opposed to waiting for external help in the form of subsidies as this may not be sustainable in the long term.

Project Material Download

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to Any of the Account Below

Access Bank PlcAcc No: 0811003731
Samphina Academy
Current Account
Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)
FOR GHANIAN STUDENTS
Make Payment of 120 GHS to 0553978005 | Douglas Cloud Osabutey | MTN MoMo

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Public Latrine System And It’s Associated Problems

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.