Prospects And Problems Of Integrated Science As A Basic For Studying Science In Senior Secondary School In Ilorin Town

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Prospects And Problems Of Integrated Science As A Basic For Studying Science In Senior Secondary School In Ilorin Town


Abstract


The study investigated the problems and prospect of Integrated Science as a basis for studying science at Senior Secondary School level in Moro Local Government Area. Data were collected for 200 purposely selected science teachers from the schools. Data collected were analyzed using frequency count, percentage t-test and ANOVA.
The results indicate that even there is a good prospect of using Integrated Science for science; it is bedeviled with many problems which could limit the chance of future scientists. On the comparison, there were no significant differences in the N.C.E., graduates professional teachers and non – professional teachers’ perception of problems and prospects of science for studying science at SSS level. However, significant differences were observed on the basis of experienced and less experienced teachers. Based on this outcome, it is recommended that professional science teachers and science equipments should be provided to all laboratories in schools.


Table of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgements
  • Table of Contents
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • Background of the Study
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Research Questions
  • Purpose of the Study
  • Research hypotheses
  • Significance of the Study
  • Scope of the Study
  • Operational definition of Terms

Chapter Two:

Review of Related Literature

  • Introduction
  • The Status of Integrated Science in School Curriculum
  • Problem Associated with the Teaching of Integrated Science in Secondary School
  • Prospect of Integrated Science in secondary school curriculum
  • Appraisal of the related literature reviewed

Chapter Three:

Research Methods

  • Introduction
  • Research Design
  • Population for the study
  • Sample and Sampling Techniques
  • Research Instrument
  • Procedure of Data Collection
  • Scoring of the Instrument
  • Method of data analysis

Chapter Four:

Data Analysis

  • Introduction
  • Data analysis and results
  • Hypotheses Testing
  • Summary of Findings

Chapter Five:

Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations

  • Discussion
  • Conclusions
  • Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

Background to the Study

For any nation to be recognized among the committee of nation, that country need to improve it’s scientific and technological know how. These can only be achieved through well and articulated, science education, if those concerned with designing of educational policy, develop the science curriculum in ways that are aimed at improving scientific knowledge and positive attitude toward science. They can also be achieved by exposing the younger ones to sciences from the junior secondary school (i.e. JSS) level of their education through the integrated science curriculum.

Integrated science is a basic science subject offers at junior secondary (JSS 1 – 111) level of Nigerian educational system of education. It is the integration of the basic concepts of the major science subjects like Biology, Physics, and Chemistry aimed at preparing them for the study of science in their senior secondary school (SSS) level of education.

According to the National Policy on Education (2004) the junior secondary school will be both prevocational and academic and will teach basic subjects which will enable pupils to acquire further knowledge and skills (PAR 19(4) p.17). The importance of the above statement cannot be overemphasized. First of all, integrated science teaching is expected to use students’ basic knowledge as indicated above. This will in turn feed the different sciences at SSS level in preparation for studies as the tertiary institutions. Thus, these groups will constitute the nations future scientists in medicine, pharmacy, engineering and the like.

In furtherance of these objectives, there is need for provision of science teachers to the teaching of integrated science. The over populated students at this level (Adegbite, 1991) provide laboratory facilities and equipments used as the chemicals for experiments. Fatola (1992) pointed out it, is when these have been provided that the authorities can be said to have laid down the foundation for science and technology.

But Akanbi (1998) noted that there are many problems that frustrate efforts of realizing the aims of science education in Nigeria. According to him, the most notable of these is the non-science principals of secondary school. This is because they do not understand and appreciate or recognize the need to improve science in their schools. They tend to every subject irrespective of their importance, to be rated equally.

The government policy is adversely affecting the effective teaching process of science education. This is because, education has been politicized. All these and other constitute problems of science education, integrated science inclusive.

More local government area of Kwara State has about seventeen (17) secondary schools. In these schools, integrated is taught as a core subject at the SSS level. Even though about three over five of the schools have what can be called laboratories. Most of them are empty in terms of facilities and equipment science teachers in these schools can also be described as inadequate.


Statement of the Problem

Educators are incessantly concerned about the need to improve student’s academic achievement in science subjects. Research also has shown that, the performance of science students in secondary schools has persistently been on the declined (Bello 1991). Lack of science facilities, coupled with over loaded syllabus has been given as some of the factors contributing to such performance (Oro journal of educational and technological studies (OJETS, July 2000).
For a long time now, educators as well as research studies in science education have shown that the need for laying a sound foundation for science studies through the teaching of integrated science in the junior secondary school (JSS) level has been neglected. This is expected to serve as a foundation for the science students in their transition to senior secondary school levels, thereby improving their performance in science and for the overall development of the nation.

Even though this has commenced as emphasized in the Nigerian Policy on Education (2004) it is of concern that many infrastructural and instructional facilities are not in place, particularly in the rural and semi-urban areas. This is a problem which this study intends to fill. Thus, the study investigates the prospects and problems of Integrated Science as a basis for studying science in SSS in Moro Local Government Area of Kwara State.


Research questions

Based on the problem of this study, the researcher attempt to answer the following questions.

  1. What are the prospects of teaching integrated science in JSS in Moro local government area?
  2. Identify problems associated with the teaching of integrated science in junior secondary schools.
  3. Is there any difference n the non-graduate and graduate teacher’s perception of prospect of integrated science for studying science in SSS class?
  4. Is there any significance difference in the non-graduate and graduate teacher’s perception of problems of integrated science for studying science in SSS class level?
  5. Is there any difference in the experience and the less experience teachers perception of the prospect of integrated science for studying at SSS levels?
  6. Is there any difference in the experienced and less experienced teacher’s perception of integrated science for studying science at SSS level?

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prospect and problems of integrated science as basis for studying science at senior secondary school level. The study also sought to compare science teacher’s responses on the basis of educational qualifications and teaching experience. The academic performance of students in JSS III examinations were also collected to determine the prospect and problems of students.

Finally, suggestions for improving teaching/learning situations were also presented in the study.


Research hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested in the study.

  1. There is no significant difference in non-graduate and graduate teacher’s perception of the prospect of integrated science for studying science at SSS level.
  2. There is no significant difference in the non-graduate and graduate teacher’s perception of the problems of integrated science for studying science at SSS level.
  3. There is no significant difference I the level of experience and less experience teacher’s perception of the prospect of integrated science for studying integrated science at SSS level.
  4. There is no significant difference in the experienced and less experienced teachers perception of the problems of integrated science.

Significance of the study

This study is significant in the sense that it looked to the important role played by integrated science at junior secondary schools to studying science in senior secondary schools. This may give insight into the chance that the exposition of integrated science gives to intending science students.

Furthermore, the results of this finding may help to identify some of the problems contributing to the poor performance of students in science subjects. Also the results of this study may suggest solutions that may have positive impact on teaching and learning processes in integrated science, science curriculum development. Education policy making and science teacher education.


Scope of the Study

This research study was carried out in Moro Local Government Area of Kwara State. Ten secondary schools were randomly selected to participate in the study. In each of the selected schools 12 science teachers were purposely selected for the study.

Furthermore, students’ academic performance in integrated science, mathematics and agricultural science were collected to determine students’ prospects. The study is however limited to the only science subject mentioned in the study.


Operational definition of terms

The following terms are operationally defined as found in the study.

Science:

The interaction between man and nature i.e. human enterprise primarily concerned with finding out about things in pour environment.

Integrated Science:

Integration of the basic concepts on major sciences like Biology, Chemistry, Physics, e.t.c.

Prospect:

Possibility of and avenue for success in certain project, i.e. in this instance, science.

Problems:

Anything that could hinder or block progress.

Academic performance:

Results in pass or fail in integrated science subject.


Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations

Discussion

This discussion derives from a full and concerned appreciation of the problems and prospects of Integrated Science as a basis for studying science subjects in Senior Secondary School levels of the Nigeria educational system. With all indications from these research findings, it is obvious in the table I that we have different types of teachers teaching science in secondary school which include N.C.E graduates and professional graduate teachers and non professional teachers.

The N.C.E graduate found in sampled school were 18 (18%) while other professional graduate teachers were about 38 (38%) and non professional were 44 constituting the majority. This also reveals that other graduate teachers were more involved in the questionnaire. From the findings, table II shows that we have teachers with varied experience spanning between 0 – 8 years with percentage of 37 while with above years 9 years were 63.

This shows that we have enough teachers with experience in science who could teach at both junior secondary school and senior secondary school levels.

The data analysed revealed that the result of students at JSS classes is more impressive. This is because considering the data in table III out of a particular school sampled in 2005. They means that more students would wish to offer science at the senior secondary school level.

The teachers’ perception of the problems showed that there is high tendency for intending science students; this is because the availability of science teachers, facilities and supportive PTA. However, there are problems of inadequate qualified teachers, facilities and textbooks.

Hypothesis one which compared teachers perception of prospects of integrated science for science revealed no significant difference. This means that qualification has no influence on the perception of the teachers. This however negated Adesina (1980) who stated teachers’ qualification has a lot of influence on their perception. This could mean that it conducive atmosphere that facilitate effective teaching/learning process.

In hypothesis two, teachers perception of problems were analysed by qualifications, the results also revealed no significant difference. Since both qualified and unqualified teachers teach science, the absence and/or the inadequate provision would be seen the same way. This is the reason for the finding.

Hypothesis compared teachers’ perception of prospects of integrated science. This could show a significant difference. It is assumed that experience is very important in whatever anybody does. This is what appears in this study.

Finally, the outcome of integrated science revealed a significant difference. This supported Oladele (2003) who posited that teaching go with experience. The more experience one is, the more effective one is in teaching.


Conclusions

From the finding of this study, the following conclusion could be drawn. That the aims objectives on Integrated Science to form a basis upon which the proper study of science is to be built on. But these aims and objectives are not being met going by what was information obtained in the sampled schools. But there is no prospect for its development, other conclusion are:

  1. There is no significant difference with the teachers’ perception of the prospect for integrated science for studying integrated science at senior secondary level.
  2. There is no significant difference between the unqualified and qualified teacher perception of the problems of integrated science for studying science at senior secondary level.
  3. There is no significant difference in less experienced and experienced teachers’ perception of the prospect of studying science at senior secondary school level.
  4. There is no significant difference between less experience and experienced teachers’ perception of the problem of integrated science for studying science at senior secondary school level.

Recommendations

Based on the findings; the following recommendations are made for effective implementation and translation of integrated science and science curriculum in Nigeria.

  1. Science teachers should employ teaching methods that are suited to the level of students by employing the use of concrete materials to teach science subjects.
  2. Government should try and geared up the in service training scheme for training and re-training of teachers that most teachers can continue to improve in the knowledge to meet the trend in science education.
  3. Teacher on the job should also be giving some incentive to encourage them stay in the job to reduce brain drain.
  4. Government should also see to shortage of science teachers in secondary schools so that enough teachers will be made available for specific role in the educational system.
  5. Also those teachers that do not have education background should try and go for some kind of training to make them well equipped with enough knowledge to handle the students.
  6. Government should try to equip the school laboratory and make them functional so that both students and teachers can involve in more practical aspects of science subject for better understanding of science.
  7. Government and educational policy maker should try and revisit the issues of over crowded syllabus and textbooks to review the syllabus and text books in simple languages for better understanding of the subject by both teacher and students.
  8. Students themselves should try and change their attitude toward science subject by trying to develop more interest in science subjects.

All these suggestions will help in no small measure in improving the proper implementation of the policy and philosophy of integrated science which will eventually help in improving the performance of students in their examination and overall development of science education in Nigeria.


Prospects And Problems Of Integrated Science As A Basic For Studying Science In Senior Secondary School In Ilorin Town


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Prospects And Problems Of Integrated Science As A Basic For Studying Science In Senior Secondary School In Ilorin Town


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