Prospect And Challenges Of Media Management In Nigeria
This research studied the problems and prospects of media media in Nigeria. It was able to unearth the numerous factors inhibiting the smooth operations of media houses end for in-depth study, the Vanguard Newspapers and FRCN Owerri, was selected for analysis.
The purpose of the study was to discover to what extent such identified problems affect newspaper operations; make the public aware of the reasons for the low quality in the newspaper which they buy and highlight the efforts being made to tackle such problems as well as the prospects of the newspaper industry.
In executing the research, the “PURPOSIVE SAMPLING” method was employed. The researcher made use of Questionnaires and interview as instruments for Data collection.
The responses from the staff’ of Vanguard Newspapers, Owerri showed that, despite some recorded prospects, the company was plagued by numerous problems such as: inadequate funding, low patronage, management, staff related problems, harsh economic situation, inadequate vehicles for distribution and depreciation of printing equipment.
Suggestions proffered for surmounting these problems include:
Government should subsidize the cost of printing materials; the Newspaper companies should ensure the recruitment of properly trained personnel; Newspaper houses should be given to motivate staff. If these suggestions are adhered to, problems facing the newspaper industry would be ameliorated and performance enhanced.
1.1 Background of the Study
Media are those channels of information, radio, TV Newspaper, magazine and journals, which can make the same message available to a cross section of people spite their distance from the source of the message
Just as the nervous system receives, processes and interprets stimuli reaching the body, in order to achieve the needs, organize and correlate the activities of the body, the media industry today collects information from a wide diversity of sources and places in the globe, processes and reports back to people located in an equally wide diversity of places in the Diaspora in an effort to bind parts of society together in their interactions and interdependency moves. McLuhan’s postulations attracted widespread reactions, though. One such reaction says the theory is at the very least technological over-determinism. Thus critics believe the concentration on the differences between media could undermine class examination of various types of messages in the same medium or similar messages, across media.
Nevertheless, the extent to which media have gone in making the work smaller and more interactive is obviously lucid. The effects of these media are becoming so pervasive that people in the communication field are today talking of global neighborhood family. Therefore, regardless of whatever the radio and television say, their very form (broadcast simultaneity in reaching a heterogeneous audience) facilitates relationship in the world to an unspeakable degree. During world soccer and Olympic event, at least half the world is focused on one topic – a sports encounter between nations. The media thus set agenda, interests and pursuits.
Accordingly, it entails a system comprising nations in the Diasporal where people live and work in unison regarding given social, economic and political objectives regardless of religious learnings, ethnic nationalities, languages, race, geography, etc. and where also communication is used to give expression to the interactions.
Meanwhile, many factors as been discovered to have be the challenges of the media but quite unfortunate that the management may take the core part of media problems and prospects. The ownership influences the direction of the media activities. No media is ready to produce anything that will go against the management intention as well as the ownership structure.
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
It has always been claimed by government and private that interferences with the activities of the media, is non-conformity to the policies of owners have always resulted in the immediate dismissed of journalist from their duties. This research intends to look at the prospect and challenges of media management in Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study is to find the prospect and challenges of media management in Nigeria ( A study of Vanguard Newspaper and Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria). The objectives under studies are:
- To examine the problems confronting Vanguard Newspaper and Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria
- To know if ownership affects the effective management of media?
- To determine how the organizational structure affect the effective performance of the organization?
- To ascertain the main sources of revenue generation for Vanguard Newspaper and Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria?
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study is no doubt very unique in the sense that it focuses prospect and challenges of media management in Nigeria. This obviously makes this project quite understanding since the research is concentrated on Vanguard Newspaper and Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria.
However, the study in its simplistic approach or analysis would make it possible for the researcher and more importantly those that are at the helms of affairs know the power of media and the challenges they face in the course of news dissemination.
As an academic work which intends to pass through scientific scrutiny in terms of empirical analysis, it aims to add to the academic knowledge both for the benefit of researchers and students of great minds. More so, those who want to engage in similar topic will find it very useful by serving as a reference point.
1.5 Research Questions
These are agitating questions toward solving the research topic. In this wise, the research questions for this study are highlighted below
- Does ownership affects the effective management of media?
- What are the problems confronting Vanguard Newspaper and Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria?
- How does the organizational structure affect the effective performance of the organization?
- What are the main sources of revenue generation for Vanguard Newspaper and Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria?
1.6 Delimitation of Study
For the purpose of this study, due to time constraints and inability to study all the media houses in Nigeria, this research would only cover the vanguard Newspaper and Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria Owerri. It will however, look at a few news papers which have suffered from similar problems.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
It is any periodical publication printed with the assistance of a mechanical device and carries timely variegated events for the consumption of;
According to the NEW ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA: Publishing is defined as the selection, preparation, and marketing of printed materials including books, newspapers, magazines and pamphlets.
The behaviour, skill or qualities shown by a person practicing a particular field or activity to earn money. It is the act of an expert, engaging in some activity as a remunerated occupation.
A professional journalist working in a Newspaper production house. He could also be referred to as a reporter who is in the business of gathering, processing and designating information to target audience.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
This work studied the problems and prospects of media management in Nigeria. It used Vanguard Newspapers, Owerri, as a case. Findings from the study revealed that Vanguard Newspapers has been plagued by problems such as inadequate funding, management, economic crunch in the country, such as high cost of newsprint and the low per capita income which has invariably decreased the readership level; inadequate vehicles for distribution; depreciation of printing equipment and staff related problems. These has resulted in the poor quality of news product and an increase in the cover price of the newspaper.
Government and economic policies such as import duties, foreign exchange rate and taxes have also affected the smooth operations of the newspaper house with “taxing” as a major problem.
Due to decrease in readership, many copies of newspapers are returned unsold, thereby worsening the profitable standing of the company. The Managing Editor of Vanguard Newspapers, Owerri, said that these unsold copies are sold to the public for other uses and also the companies for recycling. There has been no apparent problem of location witnessed by. The media house as shown in their response to item 10 on the questionnaire.
In spite of these if these menace, Vanguard Newspapers through the introduction of simultaneous printing ensures that eastern readers can obtain fresh news. Also, in trying to achieve their goal of a better society, Vanguard organizes an annual lecture series which bother on society and topical issues of interest to their patrons.
Management their equipment are being refurbished and a new printing press has been bought to ensure quality newspaper.
Having analyzed the data collected for this study the following conclusions could be made based on the study.
The study was able to unearth the numerous factors inhibiting the smooth operations of newspaper companies in Nigeria using the sample mentioned earlier.
Most newspaper companies especially the private ones have been faced with the challenge of funding. Since the newspaper business requires huge capital for maintenance and operations, Government subsidies on printing materials would reduce the high financial risk borne by the proprietors. The high cost of printing materials such as newsprint leads to poor profit, poor remuneration of staff and little or no incentives to motivate workers.
Due to the poor remuneration of workers in the industry, some Journalists are seen as business men whose sentiments can be bought over.
Through the demand and acceptance of gratification, some of these Journalists have mortgaged their consciences with little or no regard for professional code of ethics and credibility.
No wonder, the Nigerian Press Organization (1979) in its code of conduct stated that it is the duty of the Journalist to refuse any reward for publishing or suppressing news or comments, other than salaries and allowances legitimately earned in the discharge of his professional duties.
According to the Nigeria Press Council (1998), “nothing is perhaps more important than a good pay to keep the reporter on the ethical path”.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher recommends the following:
- Government should subsidize the cost of printing materials and reduce the high import duty on newsprint.
- Newspaper houses should carry out a staff audit in order to replace workers on jobs that they are proficient in. this would encourage and enhance specialization in various news beats which would also improve the quality of news reporting.
- Since the newspaper houses pay Value Added Tax (VAT) on newsprint and other printing inputs, the federal Government should restrain the federal inland Revenue service from threatening and harassing the newspaper companies on the issue of VAT, As Ekpu (2002) puts it “we’re rendering a service that is different from many others and in an environment that is business unfriendly, we need no additional road blocks”.
- The Newspaper houses should be properly funded in order to perform their traditional functions of educating, informing and entertaining the people.
- The Government at any level should be at the vanguard of bringing the media close and carrying them along in order to have a mutual relationship with them during its period of governance. Through this way, the people would see the transparency in government policies.
- Newsmen should be properly paid and offered incentives in order to motivate them to work better. This would also reduce their demand for special gratification and enhance objective reporting.
- The Newspaper company should ensure the recruitment of properly trained personnel, for, according to the Nigerian Press Council (1998), the more educated a reporter is, the more confident and secure he’s likely to feel.
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