Propose Medium Security Prison For Lafiagi, Kwara State

Project and Seminar Material for Architecture

Propose Medium Security Prison For Lafiagi, Kwara State


Table of Content


  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Declaration
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of content

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Definition
  • 1.2 Historical background in Nigeria
  • 1.3 Geographical location of lafiagi town
  • 1.4 Motivation
  • 1.5 Justification
  • 1.6 Aims and objectives of study
  • 1.7 Scope of the project
  • 1.8 Research methodology
  • 1.9 Conclusion

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Review of Literature
  • 2.1 Case studies

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Brief history of lafiagi town
  • 3.1 Physical features in lafiagi
  • 3.2 Site selection
  • 3.3 Site location and description
  • 3.4 Site analysis/inventory
  • 3.5 Geographical location
  • 3.6 Climatic condition

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Design Criteria
  • 4.1 Brief analysis
  • 4.2 Space allocation
  • 4.3 Functional relationship
  • 4.4 Conceptual development
  • 4.5 The site

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Aesthetic Appraisal of the Design
  • 5.1 Construction
  • 5.2 Site clearance
  • 5.3 Materials
  • 5.4 Services
  • 5.5 General maintenance
  • 5.6 Summary and conclusion
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Prison is a place used for confinement of convicted criminals. Aside from the death penalty a sentence to prison is the harvest punishment imposed on criminals.

Prisons are designed to house people who have broken the law and to move them from free society. In mates are locked away for a set period of time and have very limited freedom during their incarceration.

Confinement in prison, also known as a correctional facility, is the punishment that courts most commonly impose for serious crimes, such as felonies for lesser crimes, courts usually Impose short-term incarceration in a jail, detention center, or similar facility.

Confining criminals for long period of time as the primary form of punishment is a relatively new concept.

Throughout history, various countries have imprisoned criminal offenders, but imprisonment was usually reserved for pre detention or punishment of petty criminals with a short term of confinement.

Using long-term imprisonment as the primary punishment for convicted criminals began in the United States. In the late eighteenth century, the nonviolent quarters in Pennsylvania proposed long term confinement as an alternative to capital punishment. The Quakers stressed solitude, silence, rehabilitation, hard work, and religious faith. was originally intended not only as a punishment but an opportunity for renewal through religion.
Modern prisons often hold hundreds or thousands of inmates, and must have facilities onsite to meet most of their needs, including dietary.

Types of Prisons

  1. Juvenile prison
  2. Minimum, medium and high security prison
  3. Psychiatric prison
  4. Military prison

The Case Types and Offences in Respect to Prison Types.

  1. JUVENILE PRISON: an individual under the age of 18 is considered a juvenile. Any one who is not of a legal age is never locked up in a general prison with adults. They are instead placed in a facility that is designed exclusively for juveniles.
  2. INIMUM SECURITY PRISON: minimum security prisons are usually reserved for white collar criminals who have committed acts such as embezzlement or fraud. Although these are serious crimes, they are non-violent in nature and therefore the perpetrators are not considered to be a risk for violence. These perpetrators are sent to facilitate that offer a dormitory type living environment, fewer guards and personal freedom.
  3. MEDIUM SECURITY PRISON: medium security prisons are the standard facilities used to house most criminals guards and a much more regimented daily routine than minimum security.
  4. HIGH SECURITY PRISON: high security prisons are reserved for the most violent and dangerous offenders. These prisons include far more guards both minimum and medium securities have very little freedom. Each person confined to such a prison is considered to be a high-risk individual.
  5. PSYCHIATRIC PRISON: law-breakers who are deemed to be mentally unfit are sent to psychiatric prisons that are designed with resemblances to hospitals. Once there, the inmates, or patients receive psychiatric help for their mental disorders. As with any prison that pursues methods of rehabilitation, psychiatric prisons are intended to try and help people as opposed to just confining them as a means of punishment.
  6. MILITARY PRISON: every branch of military has their own prison facilities that are used specifically for military personnel who have broken laws that affect national security, or to house prisoners of war. The treatment of these prisoners has been a subject of much debate in recent times, and the definition of torture for enemy combatants has becomes a controversial and often discussed topic.

Capacity of Some Nigerian Prisons

  1. Maiduguri 1600
  2. Yola 500
  3. Gombe 379
  4. kaduna convict prison 889
  5. Kano central prison 690
  6. Katsina central prison 237
  7. Benin 240
  8. Sokoto central prison 576
  9. Zamfara medium security 406
  10. Makurdi 1149
  11. Keffi 160
  12. Ilorin 121
  13. Kuje 560
  14. Minna 149
  15. Okene 160
  16. Borstal prison Kaduna 208
  17. Jalingo 250

1.1 Project Definition

  • A prison is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms as a form of punishment.
  • Medium security prison: is refers to that class of inmates who are eligible for placement at a work camp with a secure perimeter but who are not eligible for placement in an outside work assignment without armed supervision.

Medium security prisons are for offenders with lower security concerns. These institutions limit inmate activities but also encourage inmates to participate in various programs to address their needs. Significant controls over inmate activities and privileges are in place. The most common use of prisons is as part of a criminal justice system, in which individuals officially charged with or convicted of crimes are confined to a jail or prison until they either brought to trial to determine their guilt or complete the period of incarceration they trial, outside of their use for punishing civil crimes, authoritarian regimes also frequently use prisons and jails as tools of political repression to punish political crimes, often without trial or other legal due process; this use is illegal under most forms of international law governing fair administration of justice. In times of war or conflict, prisoners of war may also be detained in military prisons or prisoner of war camps, and large groups of civilians might be imprisoned in internment camps.

The medium security prisons are the standard facilities used to house most criminals. They feature cage-style housing, armed guards, and a much more regimented daily routine than minimum security.


1.2 Historical Background of Nigeria Prison

The origin of modern prisons service in Nigeria is 1861. That was the year when conceptually, western- type prison was established in Nigeria. The declaration of Lagos as a colony in 1861 marked the beginning of the institution of formal machinery of governance. At this stage the preoccupation of the colonial government was to preoccupation of the colonial government was to protect legitimate trade, guarantee the profit of British merchants as well as guarantee the activities of the missionaries. To this end by 1861 the acting governor of the Lagos colony and who was then a prominent British merchant in Lagos, formed a police force of about 25 constables. This was followed in 1863 by the establishment in Lagos of four courts, a police court to resolve petty disputes, a criminal court to try the more serious cases, a slave court to try cases arising from the efforts to abolish the trade in slaves and a commercial court to resolve disputes among merchants and traders. The functioning of these courts and the police in that colonial setting necessarily means that prisons was needed to complete the system. And it was not long in coming for in 1872. The Broad street prison was established with an initial inmate capacity of 300. In the Niger Delta the relationship between the local people and the British merchants had before than bee moderated by special courts of merchants backed by the British Navy especially with the appointment of John Beecroft as a consul in 1849. The need for a merchant court was underscored by the fact that most conflicts between the merchants and the local people were in the main commercial. Although there was evidence of prison in Bonny at this time, not much is known about its size and content. But these who were later to oppose British rule were usually reported as happened in the case of Jaja of Opobo and King Dappa of Bonny.

However, the progressive incursion of the British into the hinterland and the establishment of British protectorate towards the end of the 19th century necessitated the establishment of prison as the last link in the criminal justice system. Thus by 1910, there already were prisons in Degema, Calabar, Onisha, Benin, Ibadan, sapele, Jebba and Lokoja. The declaration of protectorates over the East, west and North by 1906 effectively brought the entire Nigeria area under British rule. However, that did not mark the beginning of a unified Nigeria. Prisons. Had that been so, it would have negated official colonial policy for that would have required funds which the colonial power was not prepared to expand.

Even so, the colonial prison at this stage was not designed to reform anyone. There was no systematic penal policy from which direction could be sought for penal administration. Instead prisoners were in the main used for public works and other jobs for the colonial administration. For that reason there was no need for recruitment of trained officers of the prisons. Hence, colonial prisons had no trained and developed staff of their own and instead the police also performed prisons duties. As time went on ex-servicemen were recruited to do the job.

They were also very poorly run and the local prison conditions varied from one place to another in their disorganization, callousness and exploitation. But so long as they served the colonial interest of ensuring law and order collecting taxes, and providing labour for public works, they were generally left alone. The result was that the prisons served the purpose of punishing those who had the guts to oppose colonial administration in one form or the other while at the same time cowing those who might want to stir up trouble for the colonial set up.

The person regulation was published in 1917 to prescribe admission, custody, treatment and classification procedures as well as staffing, dieting and clothing regimes for the prisons. These processes were limited in one very sense. They were not geared towards any particular type of treatment of inmates. Instead they represent just policies of containment of those who were already in prison. Besides, they were limited in application to those who were convicted or remanded in custody by criminal courts of the British-inspired supreme or provincial types. Those remanded or convicted by the native courts were sent to Native authority prisons. The prison regulation also distinguished between Awaiting Trail and Convicted Inmates application of this general rule to the national prison while the native authority prison went their own way effectively stultified the appearance of a national prison goal- orientation in terms of inmate treatment.

It was not until 1934 that any meaningful attempt was made to introduce relative modernization into the prison service. It was at this time that Colonel V.L. Mabb was appointed Director of prisons by the then Governor Sir Donald Cameron. Although a military officers, Mabb had an understanding of what prisons should be. And he went on to do his best. What he seemed to have focused his attention on was the formation of a unified prison structure for the whole country but he failed. Yet he succeeded in extending the substantive Director of prisons Supervisory and inspectoral power over the Native Authority Prisons by this time dominant in the North. It was also during his tenure that the prisons warders’ welfare Board was formed.

His efforts were to be continued by his successor R.H. Dolan (1946-1955). Mr. Dolan was a trained prisons officer and when he assumes duties in Nigeria he already had a wealth of experience ion prison administration in both Britain and the colonies. Although a scheme for the introduction of vocational training in the National prisons had been introduced in 1917 and it failed except in Kaduna and Lokoja prisons where it was functioning in 1926, Mr. Dolan reintroduced it in 1949 as a cardinal part of a penal treatment in Nigeria. He also made classification of prisoners mandatory in all prisons and went on to introduce visits by relations to inmates. He also introduced progressive earning schemes for long term first offenders. He also transferred the prisons Head quarters formerly in Enugu to Lagos to facilitate close cooperation with other department of state. He also introduced moral and adult education classes to be handled by competent ministers and teachers for both Christian and Islamic education programmes for recreation and relaxation of prisons were introduces during his tenure as well as the formation of an association for the care and rehabilitation of discharged prisoners. But above all. He initiated a programme for the construction and expansion of even bigger convict prisons to enhance the proper classification and accommodation of prisoners.
On manpower developments he was instrumental to the prison training school, Enugu in 1947. He also saw to the appointment of educated wardresses to take charge of the female wings of the service conditions of the prison staff.

In addition, he took classification a step further when in 1948 he opened four reformatories in Lagos and converted part of the Port-Harcourt prisons for the housing and treatment of juveniles, five years later he was to build an open prison in Kakuri-Kaduna to take care of first offenders who had committed such crimes as murder and manslaughters, and who are serving term of 15years or more. The idea was to train them with minimum supervision in agriculture so that on discharge they could employ themselves gainfully. In fact, Dolan’s tenure represented a very high point in the evolution of Nigeria prisons service.


1.3 Geographical Location of Lafiagi Town

Lafiagi town is bi=bounded in the north by Niger state in the south, is bounded by Shonga and Gbugbu while Patagi Local government on the east – side of the town.

The Lafiagi town covers a land mass of about 1849 sq kilometers, the largest populace of this town concentrated on agriculture as a result of abundant fertile farm land. The town has some satellites town like Isaragi, Shonga, Patigi and a number of villages surrounding it, also historical lafiagi main market is at the center of the town, lafiagi is now the headquarters of the Edu local government council most of the traditional emirates inhabitants are Muslim Nupe people.

A market centre for rice, yams, sorghum, millet, corn (maize), sugarcane, kolanuts, peanuts (groundnuts), palm produce, fish, cattle, and cotton, the town is also a collecting point for the rice grown on the fasamas (flood plains0 of the Niger and for dried fish. Cotton weaving is traditionally important. Lafiagi has a government maternity clinic dispensing general hospital. Population (2008) 30,976.

MOTIVATION/JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROJECT TOPIC


1.4 Motivation

Today Nigeria is facing the problem of insecurity and also the problem of unemployment in the country which increases the rate of crimes committed in this country such as rapping, robbery, and smoking e.t.c
So it is my desire to embark on this project and design a well functional medium security prison at Lafiagi.


1.5 Justification

Nowadays, due to unemployment in the country, there are many criminal activities such as robbery, raping, smoking, murder e.t.c. the alarming rate of these crimes requires the provision of medium security prisons at strategic areas across the country. The capacity of Lafiagi is 34 and presently occupied over 100 prisoners.
For the above stated reasons, it is my desire to design a well functional and modern prison to house convict, C.C, ATM, ATF criminals.


1.6 Aims and Objectives

Aim

To design a well functional and aesthetically balance building that will suit the taste of time and easy to maintain.

Objectives
  1. To promote enough security.
  2. To create prison vocational centre, where prisoners will be reformed and rehabilitated
  3. To design a functioning and aesthetically balanced building.
  4. To design more cells for the comfort of the prisoners.
  5. To design modern medium security prison.

1.7 Scope of the Project

  1. Male and female cell
  2. Security room
  3. Armed forces post
  4. Kitchen
  5. Canteen
  6. Holding cell (temporary cell)
  7. Storage
  8. Exhibition space.
  9. Library
  10. Shower
  11. Infirmary
  12. Morgue
  13. Yard
  14. Execution room
  15. Visitation room
  16. Prisoner’s reception
  17. Administrative block
  18. Laundry
  19. Chaplain/mosque
  20. Vocational center
  21. Conveniences
  22. Garage.

1.8 Research Methodology

This project is undertaking by way of careful selection of some methods. The methods involved are:

  1. Cases studies
  2. Oral interview
  3. Literature review
  4. Photograph
Case Studies:

It’s a review of some existing formal prisons, which reveals notable merits and demerits.

Oral Interview:

Was carried out with the officers to enhance the technical details and utility.

Literature Review:

References were made to some Architecture books in the library and on-line research.

Photograph:

Some photos were taking during the case studies.


1.9 Conclusion

This assessment does appear to have implications both for prison authorities and prison inmates as well for the Nigeria prison Authorities, the international standards states that each prisoner must have enough space, although definitions of adequacy vary from country to country and depend among other factors on how much time prisoner spend in their cells. It is one thing to sleep in a confided space another to spend 23 hours a day. The prison standard minimum rules do say that all cells and perimeter walls and dormitories must have adequate heating, lighting and ventilation and that every detained or inmate should have his/her own bed or mattress with clean bedding to enhance the psychological well being of the inmates fall short of these basic needs.

Moreover, the prisons studied for this research work will hold more prisoners than the official capacity. By implication, the minimum required standard in respect of dimensions e.g. minimum space per prisoner should not less than 3.4 sq


Chapter Five


5.0 Aesthetic Appraisal of the Proposed Design

The provision of open spaces, hard and soft landscape elements are all features that make a prison an environment to love in.

An interestingly beautiful view is not left out of the characterizing element that such a facility should possess.
The design concept for this prison accommodation emphasizes comfort and security. The elevations create as well security and it also gives a sense of excitement.

The design and construction emphasize; spacious, durable and easy to maintain spaces, considering the use these spaces will be put to. Another important feature is the emphasis on simplicity in the design, circulation, functionality, zoning, rehabilitation, reformation and integration.

The materials used in the construction of the buildings are carefully chosen for their strength, durability of adequate convenience, which encourages discipline and enough security.

In all, the design requirements regarding the site, its location, layout, services e.t.c have been weighed and considered and made to evolve a balanced, pleasant and comfort environment in a functional and beautiful facility for the inmates of the prison.


5.1 Construction

The construction of a building is regarded as a process that has a defined beginning and an end with limits on cost, time and standard performance.

For a building project to be successfully implemented, the builder requires, labour, materials, plant and machineries. All of which have to be controlled and proportioned to advantageous ratios. The materials bought are stacked on site for easy access when they are needed and in places away from general circulation. To obtain maximum efficiency on site, there should be laid down site layout as replaced to the construction to be executed. This will take care of all post contract preliminaries required for a successful building project.


5.2 Site Clearance

Before construction begins, the site is first of all cleared of grasses; tress and other forms of waste not wanted on the site and setting out should be in accordance to the rules of the town planning authority of such area. The design takes into consideration important things like orientation of the building in relation with facilities surrounding the site, keeping in mind the climate factors that may be utilized or designed against for comfort and adequacy.


5.3 Materials

Materials deal with the properties of a building. To satisfy their performance requirement, economic cost , stability, deterioration and easy replacement of materials to be used are of importance to the building. Some of the basic materials to be used for this project are materials such as concrete, block, cement, mortar, steel, iron, wood, glass, tiles, paint, roofing sheet, interlog e.t.c.

The properties of these materials are classified generally as physical, chemical and mechanical. The choice made stems from their tested characterized properties, availability and work ability, which breaks down the construction process to a less tedious operation and this makes the economic viability of this project lie on the factor which remains the ultimate design goal.

The concrete materials and steel has to be used in constructing cells to provide enough security and some of these materials are

  1. CONCRETE: concrete is an artificial stone resulting from hardening of a rationally chosen mixture of materials such as, water, sand, stone and aggregate. The mixed together and left to cure or set, which then becomes concrete when concrete has tensile elements at the base in form of steel rods which makes concrete stronger, it becomes reinforced concrete.
  2. PAINT FINISHES: the purpose of a finishing is to protect, preserve or enhance the surface to which it is applied. Any recommended paint resist deterioration of the wall to sunlight, heat, temperature, variation and it must have a positive psychological effect on its users e.g.
    • Dulux weather shield texture paint, it is water and fungi resistant, fire retarded, durable and economical.
  3. CEMENT: the most popular cement in Nigeria is Portland cement. It is made from a sherry of clay (silica, Alumina and iron oxide) with lime stone (caco3). In a rotating furnace of about 180m in length, the resulting residue after drying is called clinker and mixed with a small portion of gypsum to retard the setting time of cement and grounded to a fine power and bagged with the performance rating according to the requirement of BS 12-1958.
  4. CONCRETE BLOCK: in this design, concrete blocks are expected to perform two functions, load bearing and non-load bearing or partition walls. The load bearing walls transfer load from the roof drawn to the foundation according to BS6073 (26) it recognizes 3 types of blocks, namely, solid, hollow and cellular, with hollow blocks most commonly used for construction in Nigeria with it size 450 X 225mm and a range of thickness of either 225mm or 150mm. the same standard stipulates a strength not less than 7N/sq meter as the compressive strength of hollow block wall.
  5. MARTAR: blocks and bricks are bonded with mortar when joining them. Mortar is made of sand, cement and water in a certain ratio depending on the strength of the mortar is too strong it concentrate effect of differential movement is lesser and wider cracks but for the choice of mortar to be used is cement mortar in a ratio of 3:1 mix (sand, cement). The sand should be clean and graded in compliance with Bs 1200 (28) to give adequate strength for the mortar to be used for plastering. Both in wet and dry periods, care should be taken so that water does not weaken the mix and it doesn’t dry too quickly in respective weather conditions.
  6. TIMBER: the origin of timber is the trunk of tress, recently increase in knowledge and of improvement of timber use has helped in encouraging their uses and protection from harmful parasites like fungi, insect and fire, timber used in this project work are used in areas such as roofing, furniture, frame work and scaffolding.
5.3.1 Foundation

The plan of the foundation is simply derived by loading, that is the bearing capacity of the subsoil. The service of a structural engineer to formulate an economic decision is essential so that he can identify areas in tension and specify tensional support requirements. The foundation is the base on which the building is to rest on and transfer its load into the subsoil. The foundation system must distribute vertical loads so that the settlement of the building is uniform. The advice of foundation to be used is determined by the soil type and its load bearing capacity. For the nature of this work, it is recommended that raft foundation to be used since the soil nature loamy with a bearing capacity of 600KN/m2 . A dam proof course is very important to avoid moisture penetration from ground water.

5.3.2 Structural Systems

A building structural system helps to identify the type of forces acting and their effects which gives an insight into how best they can be treated.

5.3.3 Doors and Window

They provide for physical and visual penetration of light and sound. They are briefly the sources of ventilation and access to the building. There are many types of doors and windows the choice of which effects the physical appearance of the building, lightening and view in or out of the building. For this project standard hard wood doors polished to be used for internal doors of admin block, mosque, church, medical centre, vocational centre e.t.c. but external doors would be made of metal doors of a steel frames. The cells, the burglary doors are to be used in internals. The windows would have cross bars running along the span of the windows to serve as burglar proof for security.

The windows are 600mm 1000 width and height, 1500mm X 1200mm. Doors are 2100mm in height and width ranges between 750mm-1800mm for the main entrance doors and all others to specification.

5.3.4 Walls and Wall Finishes

Walls are vertical planner elements composed of linear bearing elements along structural and non-structural panels, between them. The walls are to be constructed using hollow sand Crete blocks of 450 X 225mm. in some units while full concrete walls are to be used in some areas such as cells. The walls of the exterior service as a protection shield against external elements, such should be durable, resistant to environmental conditions, to some extent it should control air flow, moisture, sound and wind flow, internal wall composition may be load or non-load bearing, but they are basically dividers, giving privacy or exclusion from other spaces, they must be durable and weather resistant.

The finishers pot into consideration because of maintenance walls also serve the purpose of concealing conduit cable for electrification and pipe fitting for plumbing. The use of texcote is suggested as well finish, vanish and polish for panels. It is suggested that the textcote be used on walls from the floor level and a splash back painted in cream and green 450mm from the natural ground level. It also important to note the type of window used and their sizes affects the total integration of the structure. For the purpose of this project, emphasis is made on durability, cost maintenance, strength, quality of materials and workmanship.

5.3.5 Floors and Floor Finish

For this facility, the floor is made of hard wearing, porous materials such as granolithic screed, floor tiles, terrazzo, in places of where its specified .

All of these floor and floor finishing’s used are for easy maintenance and durability.

5.3.6 Roof

The general principle of roofs is to perform the function of insulation, strength, force and weather resistance and to give a beautiful appearance. The choice of roof in this design is green lougspan aluminum sheet on timber roof trusses decking (lab) has to be done before roof in cells. There would also be a roof gutter incorporated in the roof design. The choice of this design is for the function they perform, appearance and aesthetics. The roof should form a focus of attraction from a distance.


5.2. Ceilings

The recommendation ceiling type in building with out storey, the normal ceilings are recommended non-suspended ceilings. The ceilings using timber framing, in this way non-service can be accommodated within ceiling. The choice of the ceiling would be an asbestos ceilings.


5.4 Services

Introduction

The natural environment does not adequately provide for human comfort dwellings and buildings have been set out to provide protection from the elements for the building occupants. Therefore the best combination of materials and form develops as a result of technology, which is now resent in a vast range of building materials and products. The aim of environment control is human comfort, which is paramount such that the psychology of human sensation and perception must be regarded as owe of the basic of environmental work. Any improvement in environmental condition is regarded as a worth while achievement. The considerable effect which the building itself has on its own environment is not consciously considered nor is it rewarding to do so. The best balance between the use of the building, its forms and construction and the installation, present no special problems with an increased consciousness of economy now present at a very different situation. If satisfaction is to be achieved, it is vital to take into consideration the pattern of the use of the building and the way the fabric of the building will react to the natural environmental conditions, installation, form space occupied by installation, form of building locations of plant and distributing ducts. Not only must environmental consideration be taken into account in the fundamental design of the building they also must balance one another. Large windows give better day lighting and make less heat intensity. For comfort and efficiency, the human body requires to be maintained within a limited range of environmental conditions.

5.4.1 Plumbing

Public utility water serves the building, but because of inconsistency in the supply system predominant in the country, private water supply is provided through dug bore holes, which are generated into the overhead tank by a water pump. The usual consumption of water approximates to 0.9-0.18 cubic meters per day, per person. For the gardens, pipes padded under the garden soil and perforated.

5.4.2 Electrical Installation

The Nigeria Power 000Authority must be informed of the estimated electrical load expected to be consumed on site and a transformer is necessary to regulate the coming current.

The electrical engineer to certify that appropriate materials are used should ensure the service connection used as the switchboard, panel board installation and separate wire circuit used for alarm and cables. Conduits are hid in concrete floors, blocks walls with convenient outlets to be accessible easily and should be well in saluted.

The risk of fire and electrocution must be guarded against electrical installations by taking precautions like introducing a circuit breaker

Insulation:

All conductors are to be covered with insulating materials.

Fusing:

Each section of writing must be protected by having a fuse wire in the circuit that will melt at a passenger of high voltage, in safe wiring. This prevents over heating and fire out break.

Switch Polarity:

This has some effect on fuse field on the please phase side of the apparatus they control.

Earthling:

All metal works could become live if installation ails, so earthling is done on the metal works so that heavy current flows to earth and fuse blown immediately. A power failure. Light is to be installed all over the site in an attractive and natural manner.

5.4.3 Mechanical Services.

In planning the layout of mechanical services, there must be adequate coordination between the various municipal bodies in charge of these services of a logical and economic plan and installation programme is to be formulated. Sewers should be considered due to their low flexibility, the specification as to duct size, cover and access for any further services should be determined by the board concerned. All service should be kept away at least /500mm away from any tree trunk.

A life is to install which requires an expert in such an installation to meet up its requirement and function for adequacy.

5.4.4 Fire Protection

The principal aim of the fire protection is to simply safeguard lives and property and this is achieved by

  1. Reducing fire incidence
  2. Controlling adequate means of escape for occupants of the building errors or negligence.

For the purpose of this project, fire security would be taken care of through, fire detection, extinguishing of fire and fire escape means.

Fire Detection:

The function of the fire detector is to detect and to discriminate between absence and presence of fire within a building. If should be too sensitive as to give false alarms but it should be heat detector (point and line type) smoke detector and flame detector. It should be placed along strategies parts of the buildings.

Extinguishing:

There are many methods of extinguishing fire, while the addition of dilatants to the combustion/flame zone stops fire spread. The method include; coolant concept using water and carbon dioxide, isolation concept (foam process) and the chemical physical inhibition process that works by breaking down the chain reaction essential to combustion process. The simple fire fighting equipments to be used are:
Soda-acid extinguisher, a normal standard of provision for ten liters of extinguishing capacity for every 250m of floor area.

Fire Escape Means:

Fire escape means is considered dry providing a stair case that will inhibit fire spread and the materials used in the staircase should have a reasonable safety level in controlling fire spread and give the occupants sufficient time to escape, passage to exist are direct and unobstructed, well lit and accessible. This is to satisfy safety measures.

5.4.5 Waste Disposal

Dustbins are cheap methods of refuse disposal on a small scale, but on a large scale, an incinerator is provided for on site to take care of the refuse. It is positioned away from where wind can propagate the smell and it should be a solid clay blocks wall domed.

5.4.6 Ventilation Design

The ventilation designs got rid of excessive heat, moisture and excessive product such as smokes and dust as close as possible to the point of generation. The proper orientations is the proposed building i.e in the direction of prevailing winds (North – East and South – West) coupled with spacious and useful open space afford all the functional part of the building enough natural ventilation, comfort could be achieved by admitting cool air through vegetation.

Insulation is also avoided through the planting of shrubs and grasses as well as application of natural shading devices (tress).


5.5 General Maintenance

Maintenance work in real technology is defined as work undertaken to keep or restore every facility; i.e every part of the site and building in an acceptable standard. For proper working conditions to enhance good workability, planned maintenance may be highly preventive by providing regular attention and servicing by the maintenance section. In the proposed prison accommodation, durable materials are chosen to reduce the time and cost of maintenance. Maintenance work will be carried out on an organized basis or in an emergency, when the need arises.


5.5 Summary and Conclusion

The importance of an achievement is in its being a fulfillment in what it was originally set out to do.

The underlying aim of federal government has always been intended to provide constructive outlets for reformation and rehabilitation.

This design, through its concept and philosophy (aims and objectives) has worked at creating a facility for Nigerian prisoners. The aim of this project is to provide the prisoners with accommodation conductive, aesthetic balance buildings (cells) for reformation, rehabilitation and integration of inmates.

The whole idea is kept as simple as possible, to meet the taste of the users.

To the best of my ability I believe I have done a through research on the planning and designing of medium security prison in different towns and states which enables me to know about prison and the merit and demerit which help in my design.

Lastly, this project fulfils my ambition to contribute my small quota to the development of our prison in my town (Lafiagi Edu L.G.A of Kwara state) to reduce the problem facing the prison such as prison congested.


Propose Medium Security Prison For Lafiagi, Kwara State


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Propose Medium Security Prison For Lafiagi, Kwara State


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