Proper Implementation Of U.B.E Curriculum As A Panacea For Enhance Educational Development Of Primary Schools In Yakurr Local Government Area

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Proper Implementation Of U.B.E Curriculum As A Panacea For Enhance Educational Development Of Primary Schools In Yakurr Local Government Area


Abstract


This study was carried out on the proper implementation of U.B.E curriculum as a panacea for enhance educational development of primary schools in Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross Rivers State. The study was specifically carried out to identify the purposes for the introduction of UBE in Nigeria, find out whether the UBE curriculum is being effectively implemented in primary schools, ascertain the factors affecting the effective implementation UBE curriculum in Nigerian primary schools, and determine whether the effective implementation of U.B.E curriculum will facilitate the enhancement of educational development of primary schools in Nigeria. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of academic and administrative staff of some selected primary schools in Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross Rivers State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 65 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores, while the hypotheses was tested using Chi-square Statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the UBE curriculum is not effectively implemented in primary schools. The study further reveals that the effective implementation of U.B.E curriculum will facilitate the enhancement of educational development of primary schools in Nigeria. Therefore, it is recommended that government should organize regular seminar and workshop for teachers to enable them to make meaningful contributions for the effective implementation of UBE programme in the primary schools. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Enrollment into and completing of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) program allows for the development of basic literacy and arithmetic abilities as outlined in the National Policy on Education (NPE). It also results in good behavioral changes that benefit the family, society, and nation (FGN, 2004). The completion of basic education benefits students by broadening their horizons. It offers chances for self-development throughout the rest of one’s life. It also contributes to stronger families, improved health for both parents and students, and participation in governance (World Bank, 2012 cited in Kane, 2004).

On September 9, 1976, Obasanjo’s military regime implemented the Universal Primary Education (UPE) program. This initiative, which began with zeal and great hopes of solving the country’s perceived socioeconomic needs, crashed and burned halfway through. Financial issues, insufficient proficient teachers, class sizes, narrow curriculum content, shift in family structure, absenteeism, residential location, cultural variation, and a high rate of drop-out were cited as reasons for its failure (Omotayo, Ihebereme, and Maduewesi 2008). According to Jaiyeoba (2007), low enrollment increase, teachers shortage, insufficient infrastructure, insufficient financing, and a poor family background, among other factors, contributed to the UPE program’s failure.

It should be recognized that education suffered significant neglect in the years after the demise of the UPE system. This exacerbated decay in the educational system, particularly at the basic education level, to the point where illiteracy was outrageously high, teachers were poorly trained and motivated, infrastructure was in disrepair, school drop-out was increasing at an alarming rate, and funding for basic education in particular remained inadequate (Tahir, 2003).

Many Nigerians breathed a sigh of relief on September 30, 1999, when the democratic administration of Obasanjo established the Universal Basic Education (UBE) project in an effort to remedy the aforementioned problems. The curriculum, which was designed in accordance with the National Policy on Education’s 6-3-3-4 framework, now has a 9-3-4 structure. Basic education consists of nine (9) years of continuous, free, and obligatory education, of which six (6) years are spent in primary school and three (3) years in junior secondary school. Its primary goal is to eliminate illiteracy, ignorance, and poverty while also promoting and speeding national growth, political consciousness, and national integration.

According to the Implementation Guidelines (FRN, 2000), the objectives of the UBE include: developing in the entire citizenry a strong consciousness for education and a strong commitment to its vigorous promotion; providing free, universal basic education to every Nigerian child of school-going age; and drastically reducing the incidence of dropout from the formal school system.

In order to attain the program’s aims, concerted efforts were required to counteract the elements that were known to have hampered the program’s goals. Despite the fact that the Universal Basic Education (UBE) program’s aims are admirable and that well-thought-out procedures have been put in place to achieve these objectives, the expected impact has yet to be realized.

It seems incomprehensible that millions of children still lack access to basic education after many years of the program’s inception, despite the federal government’s commitment to its success. This dismal record was ascribed to insufficient and inequitable access, low student learning attainment, a lack of accountability and transparency in the use of education funding, an acute scarcity of qualified instructors, infrastructure degradation and shortage, a poorly motivated, ill-equipped, and inexperienced teaching staff, and insufficient instructional resources (UBEC, 2008).

With the aforementioned examples, as well as countless more not recorded in this study, there is no denying that the basic education sub-sector is in a very bad position that requires immediate remedial remedies. Many governmental policies and programs in Nigeria perform poorly in terms of achieving their stated objectives, owing mostly to implementation failure. In light of the foregoing, the purpose of this research is to examine the proper implementation of U.B.E curriculum as a panacea for enhance educational development of primary schools in Yakurr Local Government Area.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The UBE program faces significant hurdles at both the federal and state levels. The inability to appropriate funds for a program remains the most significant impediment to its execution (McDelat, 2013). This is especially the case for the financing of UBE in Nigeria between 1999 and 2000. Another barrier to the successful execution of the UBE scheme or program is a lack of appropriate planning on the part of the government, and other stakeholders (UNESCO, 2000). Faulty census exercises are one example of poor planning. Almost all of Nigeria’s censuses, whether before or after independence, have been plagued by huge anomalies (Oni, 2008). The dropout rate in elementary school is another concern, given the scheme’s goals of providing education to all school-aged children. As a result, the primary goal of this research is to investigate the proper implementation of U.B.E curriculum as a panacea for enhance educational development of primary schools in Yakurr Local Government Area. Furthermore, if appropriately handled, the elements highlighted for reinforcement in the preceding paragraph will almost certainly result in a large percentage of the program’s stated objectives being met. Among these identified factors, the teacher factor, infrastructure, textbooks/instructional materials, and improved funding, insufficient competent teachers, overcrowded classrooms, narrow curriculum content, changes in family structure, absenteeism, residential location, cultural variation, and high drop-out rate are critical to the success of any education program.

It is important to remember, however, that it is one thing to present a program with lofty implementation techniques and another thing to successfully implement it. Perhaps the aforementioned problems were not successfully addressed during implementation, resulting in the bad state of affairs in our basic education sub-sector. The importance of the basic education sub-sector in our educational system cannot be overstated, since it serves as the basis for all subsequent levels of education. As a result, its failure entails the collapse of the entire educational system. The current inadequate status of basic education in the country, despite advances in other sectors of education, is consequently alarming and need immediate corrective action.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

Generally, this study examines the proper implementation of U.B.E curriculum as a panacea for enhance educational development of primary schools in Yakurr Local Government Area. The study expands to the following specific objectives;

  1. Identify the purposes for the introduction of UBE in Nigeria.
  2. Find out whether the UBE curriculum is being effectively implemented in primary schools.
  3. Ascertain the factors affecting the effective implementation UBE curriculum in Nigerian primary schools.
  4. Determine whether the effective implementation of U.B.E curriculum will facilitate the enhancement of educational development of primary schools in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What are the purposes for the introduction of UBE in Nigeria?
  2. Is the UBE curriculum being effectively implemented in primary schools?
  3. What are the factors affecting the effective implementation UBE curriculum in Nigerian primary schools?
  4. Will the effective implementation of U.B.E curriculum will facilitate the enhancement of educational development of primary schools in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Ho: The effective implementation of U.B.E curriculum will not facilitate the enhancement of educational development of primary schools in Nigeria.

Ha: The effective implementation of U.B.E curriculum will facilitate the enhancement of educational development of primary schools in Nigeria.


1.5 Significance of the Study

This study would provide information on the status of management and challenges on the UBE programme at the primary school level. This information would be useful to policy makers and education managers as it would most likely provide the basis upon which decisions can be taken to address the inadequacies in key areas like provision of teachers, infrastructural facilities, textbooks/instructional materials and funding.

The role of the teachers as the implementers of the UBE programme cannot be over-emphasized and the need to motivate them to perform their tasks optimally is very vital. It is hoped that this study would also be beneficial to the teachers as recommendations towards their welfare, training, retraining, improved infrastructure and instructional materials were made, where necessary, to boost their productivity.

The recommendations based on the findings of this study, would create an environment conducive to learning, both in terms of human and material resources provision. In this respect, students would benefit as there is bound to be improved quality education delivery.

Primary education, which comprises the lower and middle basic levels of the UBE programme, is the foundation of the nation’s educational system. This implies that the success of the other levels of education depends on it. Hence, studies to address the challenges facing the primary level of education are by extension, studies to improve the entire educational system. Ultimately, therefore, the findings and recommendations of this study, if implemented, would assist in developing a credible and sustainable educational system in Kano State.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The study will basically focus on the the proper implementation of U.B.E curriculum as a panacea for enhance educational development of primary schools in Yakurr Local Government Area. However, the study will examine the reasons why the universal basic education was introduced in Nigeria, determine if the challenges contribute to the rate of pupils dropout in primary schools, and prove the possible solutions to the identified challenges.

The respondents for this study will be obtained among teachers in some selected primary schools in Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross Rivers State.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents.

In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed.

More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.


1.8 Definitions of Terms

UBE:

Transmission of fundamental knowledge to all facets of the Nigerian society from generation to generation

Challenge:

Some constraint which affects the success rate of the UBE programme in the Local Government include payment of staff salaries, in arrears, non-completion of new constructions and schools rehabilitation, insufficient teachers guide which are faced by policies.

Implementation:

Translation of government policies and programmes regarding UBE into reality.

Management:

Getting things done throughout people’s effort by Federal State and Local Government.


1.9 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms.

The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, empirical review, and chapter summary. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the proper implementation of U.B.E curriculum as a panacea for enhance educational development of primary schools in Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross Rivers State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was onthe proper implementation of U.B.E curriculum as a panacea for enhance educational development of primary schools in Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross Rivers State. The study is was specifically focused on identifying the purposes for the introduction of UBE in Nigeria, find out whether the UBE curriculum is being effectively implemented in primary schools, ascertain the factors affecting the effective implementation UBE curriculum in Nigerian primary schools, and determine whether the effective implementation of U.B.E curriculum will facilitate the enhancement of educational development of primary schools in Nigeria.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are academic and administrative staff of some selected primary schools in Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross Rivers State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The purposes for the introduction of UBE in Nigeria includes; developing in the entire citizenry a strong consciousness for education, provide free, compulsory, universal basic education for every Nigerian child of school age group, reduce drastically, dropout rage from the formal school system through improved relevance and efficiency, cater for drop outs and out of school children/adolescent through various forms of complementary approaches to the provision and promotion of basic education, and ensure the acquisition of the appropriate levels of literacy, manipulative and life skill.
  2. The UBE curriculum is not effectively implemented in primary schools.
  3. The factors affecting the effective implementation UBE curriculum in Nigerian primary schools includes; poor planning, inadequate funding, paucity of qualified teachers, insufficient and dilapidated infrastructure, including ICT facilities, unenabling and unconducive UBE programme environment of the country, and poor programmed supervision and management.
  4. The effective implementation of U.B.E curriculum will facilitate the enhancement of educational development of primary schools in Nigeria.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. Government should organize regular seminar and workshop for teachers to enable them to make meaningful contributions for the effective implementation of UBE programme in the primary schools.
  2. Head teachers of primary schools should be properly trained as to guide the conduct of other teachers who are not functional in the on-going implementation of the UBE programme.
  3. Government should recruit more teaching staff for the primary schools and provide adequate infrastructural facilities, instructional materials and funding for the effective implementation of UBE in primary schools.
  4. Parents with in the education zone should throw their lots and provide basic facilities that are required for effective teaching to take place. This is needed because the government cannot provide all the needed facilities for the implementation of UBE programme
  5. Both government and individual should provide additional assistance to the development of classroom structure and building of additional library facilities with the aim of resolving the problem of over-crowded classes in the primary schools.
  6. Capital grants allocation for universal Basic Education should be improved and increase by the government and be supported with the individuals with the intension of providing sufficient funds for successful implementation of UBE programme.

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