A Projection Report On The Effect Of Geometric Properties (Shape) On The Strength Of Interlocking Paving Stone

Project and Seminar Material for Civil and Environmental Engineering

A Projection Report On The Effect Of Geometric Properties (Shape) On The Strength Of Interlocking Paving Stone


Interlocking paving stone is a good surface material produce as a result of mixture of aggregate to produce a good workability surface.

This research work investigates on how the shapes affect the strength after production. The materials used include cement, sharp sand, quarry dust or granite dust and water.

The structural engineering properties investigated include compressive strength, flexural strength of each types of interlocking paving stone produced that is 3 Star, Double T, Land Roman, Bubble Glover and Didalo tiles respectively. The mix ratio of each stone was also investigated as well as the rate of crushing of the paving stone were noted.

So, from the observation made from this project the average strength of the interlocking paving stone was found to be 5.7gN/mm2 and the highest strength received was found to be that of Bubble glover with a maximum strength of (6.39 N/mm2). While that of Double T (5.59N/mm2), 3 Star (5.39N/mm2), Land Roman (5.30N/mm2) and Digalo (5.19N/mm2)

Table Of Contents

  • Title Page
  • Certificate
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables
  • List of Figures
  • List of Plates
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Aims and Objective of the Project
  • 1.3 Justification of the Study
  • 1.4 Scope of the Project
  • 1.5 Proposed Methodology

Chapter Two:

2.0. Literature Review

  • 2.1 Preamble
  • 2.2 Structure of Interlocking Paving Blacks
  • 2.3 Various shapes of Interlocking Paving Blocks
  • 2.4 Laying Patterns
  • 2.5 Manufacturing of Interlocking Paving Blocks
  • 2.6 Materials Involved
  • 2.6.1 Granite (Stone Dust)
  • 2.6.2 Cement
  • 2.6.3 Interlocking Stone Treatment after Production
  • 2.6.4 Water

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Procurement of the material components
  • 3.2 Equipment used in interlocking paving stone production
  • 3.3 Mix Ratio
  • 3.4 Determination of the Quantities of Materials
  • 3.5 Sieve Analysis of the Material
  • 3.6 Experimental Tests
  • 3.6.1 Compressive strength test
  • 3.6.2 Flexural Strength Test

Chapter Four

4.0. Analysis of Result and Discussion

  • 4.1. Material Tests Performed on the Materials and Samples
  • 4.2. Material Tests
  • 4.3. Determination of Quantity of Materials

Chapter Five:

5.0. Conclusions and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusions
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

List of Tables

  • Table 4.1: Composition of Constituent Material Per Each Shape
  • Table 4.2: Sieve Analysis Result for Quarry Dust 33
  • Table 4.3: A Compressive strength result for the interlocking paving stones
  • Table 4.4: Flexural strength properties of interlocking paving blocks produced in laboratory
  • Table 4.5: Showing Flexural Strength properties of interlocking paving blocks produced in laboratory
  • Table 4.6: Showing Flexural strength properties of interlocking paving blocks produced in laboratory
  • Table: 4.7: Showing Flexural strength properties of interlocking paving blocks produced in laboratory
  • Table: 4.8: Showing Flexural strength properties of interlocking paving blocks produced in laboratory

List of Figures

  • Fig 2.1a: Small element pavement structure
  • Fig 2.1b: Load spreading in the small element top layer through shear forces in the joints
  • Fig 2.3a: Categories of Block shapes
  • Fig 2.4a: Types of laying patterns for concrete tiles
  • Fig 2.4b: Types of laying patterns for burnt clay bricks and concrete blocks
  • Fig 4.1: Particle size distribution for quarry dust

List of Plates

  • Plate 1: Bubble Glover Interlock Tiles
  • Plate 2: Didalo Interlock Tiles
  • Plate 3: Double T Interlock Tiles
  • Plate 4: 3 Star Interlock Tiles
  • Plate 5: Land Roman Interlock Tiles
  • Plate 6A: Crushing of the materials in progress
  • Plate 6B: Crushing of the materials

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Researchers have work on various materials for paving and method of pavement construction that will provide adequate support for traffic load with minimum construction cost and maintenance. The concept of interlocking stone pavers dated back over 200years ago to the Roman empire where over 800,000km of roads were built using interlocking paving blocks. The roman developed a simple system for building roads some of the roads are still in use today. The roads were constructed with a well compacted base of lime and gravel covered with a tight fitting cut stone which produced an excellent and economical roadway that remained virtually maintenance free in all types of weather (Wilford, 1994).

The elements are laid directly on a bedding sand layer with edge restraints to allow block layer to develop limited load spreading capacity to keep bond together at great mass and strength (Wilford, 1994).

Investigation has not been intensified on the use of paving stone for pavement unlike surface dressed concrete pavement structures. The potential of different types of paving stone for pavement structure used as car park or foot paths.

In developing countries paving stone are used for the construction of paved area on a large scale. The material use in paving stone are of different variety of colours and shapes which are most likely have effect on the strength of the stone, they create unique and creative pattens while providing a surface that is durable and functional (Akinyemi, et al, 1992).

It is observed that various shapes of these paving stone are produced and widely used in our locality. These include: roman, zenith, double T, 3 star etc. And the laying pattern include, stretcher, running, digalo, bubble glover, diagonal, Herringbone and parquet bond but in lieu of this, different materials and mix ratio are used in order to determine various strength and durability of the paving material. (Shackel, 1990).

Some use dust from quarry with sharp sand and granite of specified size while others prefer using stone dust with granite only but the most commonly used are dust from quarry only. During laying some prefer placing the elements over a graded sand base and interlocked with bedding and joint sand. The jointing sand allows the pavers to interlock and structurally function as one durable layer while others use dust (Sambawa, 2010).
All those variations in materials and production account for variations in properties, quality and strength and it is therefore necessary to carry out a research work to know whether the shapes of the stone has any effect on the strength.

1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Project

The aims of this project is to determine the followings:

  1. To determine the strength of the stone
  2. To know whether the shapes of the stone has any effect on the strength
  3. To educate student on what they can lay their hand on after graduation.

1.3 Justification of the Study

Due to the versatile indestructible nature of paving stone or tiles, they have been used for about every conceivable application such as residential and commercial garage floor etc. There is need for indepth study of this interlocking paving stone as to why the sudden crack or breakdown of the stone pavers.

1.4 Scope of the Project

The scope of this study include, the following:

The use of cement, quarry sand, sharp sand and water for the production of the interlocking paving stone.

The mix ratio used in this project is ratio 1:4 to produce a certain no of interlocking stone of various shapes these are Roman, 3 star, double T, Bubble Glover and Didalo tiles were used as an example in the project

Also the various laboratory test carried out in this project are compressive strength test, flexural strength, particle size distribution or sieve analysis.

1.5 Proposed Methodology

To achieve the above aim and objectives of this research work, the following steps were taken:

  1. Procurement of materials
  2. Preparation of mould
  3. Laboratory tests on the materials
  4. Production of the interlocking paving stone
  5. Curing of the stones
  6. Determination of the strengths
  7. Analysis of the results

Chapter Five

5.0. Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1. Conclusions

Having established the compliance of the paving element produced with standard and specifications, one can therefore conclude that;

  1. The domineering materials commonly used for manufacture of paving blocks were stone dust, cement and water.
  2. The materials used for production are of adequate grading, shape and texture.
  3. The effect of laterite in the mix of the laboratory produced specimens reduces both the flexural and compressive strengths.
  4. The dimensional variations were adequate while the compressive and flexural strength properties were adequate, that is, the required standard was met.
  5. The geometric properties (shape) do affect the strength of the produced interlocking paving stone.

5.2 Recommendation

  1. Production of the concrete block should be strictly supervised to ensure consistency with specified variations of ±2mm for length and breadth and ±5mm for thickness.
  2. Mix ratio of specimen (A) Bubble glover which give the highest flexural and compressive strength may be employed for production.
  3. The produced interlocking stone must be properly cured
  4. Extension of the curing age of the element must be ensured so as to increase both the compressive and flexural strengths.

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