Project Planning And Programming As Tools For Effective Project Delivery

Project and Seminar Material for Building Technology BT

Project Planning And Programming As Tools For Effective Project Delivery


This project is written to identify the steps towards achieving a plan on which a project is to be based, programmed for the execution of the project at a required time and estimated cost for each of the task in the program drawn or scheduled. Project planning determines what has to be done to accomplish the project this involves the objective and content of the project which entails definition of work requirement, definition of resources needed and definition of quality of work. These are achieved in two techniques that deal on network scheduling techniques and bar chart. Project program establishes a sequence of work and specifying the inter-relationship between jobs. These relationships have some logical operations, thus finish to start, start to start, finish to finish and start to finish. Programming as tool for scheduling programs includes bar charts, progress curve, critical part method (arrow diagram) progress and graphical evaluation and review techniques, line of balance, precedence network diagram, any may be used depending on the nature of the project, the needs, and capabilities of its staff, each have an advantages and disadvantages in use. Project planning and programming reviews the human and material resources, finance needed, office administration and educational training of workers in programming.

Table of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Significance of the Study
  • 1.5 Research Questions
  • 1.6 Delimitation of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 History Of Project Planning And Programming In Project Delivery
  • 2.2 Project Planning
  • 2.3 Project Programming
  • 2.3.1 Bar Chart
  • 2.3.2 Linked Bar Chart
  • 2.3.3 Resource Aggregation Chart
  • 2.3.4 Progress Curves Or S-Curve
  • 2.3.5 Space Time Diagram
  • 2.3.6 Line of Balance
  • 2.3.7 Critical Path Method (CPM)
  • 2.3.8 Progress Evaluation and Review Techniques (Pert)
  • 2.3.9 Graphical Evaluation and Review Techniques (Gert)
  • 2.3.10 Precedence Network Diagram

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Plan
  • 3.1.1 Research Design
  • 3.1.2 Area of the Study
  • 3.1.3 Population of the Study
  • 3.1.4 Sampling Method
  • 3.2 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.2.1 Sources of Data Collection
  • Primary Sources of Data Collection
  • Secondary Sources of Data Collection
  • 3.2.2 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.2.3 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Data Presentation, Analysis and Discussion

  • 4.1 Presentation and Analysis of Data
  • 4.2 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Principal Findings
  • 5.2 Conclusions
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • 5.4 References
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaires

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

Project planning and programming is the business of creating a unique product, service or result. A project is finite activity having specific start and completion dates, undertaken to create a quantifiable, derivable element.

Project planning and program undergo progressive elaboration by developing in steps and predictable increment that are tied to benchmarks, mile stone and completion dates.

Programming involves the arrangement of items in order of their purpose to achieve a clear task execution in a specified duration, at a particular area. These have three objectives say, correctness, clarity and efficiency in project delivery.

Project planning and programming had been introduced over centuries ago, to guide construction activities on how time resources and human factors are employed in project delivery.

The level of development now made it easy for project program to be done using computer software as a scientific approach to project delivery processes. This development saves time and human resources involved in preparing it manually.

1.1 Background of the Study

This project is written to solve the problems of improper project delivering and to improve the organization of projects activities in our construction industries through planning and programming. Most projects seem to be unplanned or unprogrammed, due to inability of the project managers and supervisors to handle the activities of the project well. These may lead to abandoning the projects, as a result of bankruptcy of the project manager, inability to meet the time requirements, lack of monitoring the activities of the projects etc.

The primary challenges of project management is to achieve all the goals of the project charter while adhering to the three classic project constraint; sometimes referred as “triple constraints”, that is scope, time and cost.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Ineffective project delivery has resulted to the low development of our environment. Buildings should be improved in its construction and it should be standard and delivered to meet the modern esthetics of project delivery, the professionals involved should also improve in their field. This is prepared to review the ideas involved on project planning and its programming for effective delivery and the methods at using different programming tools to actualize a stated project goals.

1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study

The thesis report is aimed at reviewing the process of project planning, its techniques and different methods of programming through network scheduling techniques and bar charts, that enable the project delivering team (not just the project manager) to organize their work to meet the classic triple project constraints namely; time, scope and cost (project management triangle).

Their technique refers to the sequence of work and specifying the interrelationship between jobs, through logical operations.

Objectives of the Study

Project planning process involves the determination of the project objectives and contents which refers to definition of work requirement, definition of resources needed and definition of quality of work. This objectives are as follows;

  1. To organize project tasks to meet the classic triple project constraints.
  2. To show the use of different programming techniques.
  3. Ensure s determination of project objective and its contents.
  4. To show steps toward effective project planning.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The report will provide a powerful analytical technique for resource allocation to ensure that the project can be completed within finite resource limit and improving the logical operation diagrammatically. The relationship between activities on a node and other task or job is shown to improve project delivery.

The findings will benefit industries, manufacturing companies, construction firm, and any management oriented
firms and researches. Every organization needs to plan and think of ways to run the affairs to meet up the stated goals, industries and manufacturing companies planned and programmed their workers function into different section to carry two or more functions at a time and schedule the time of purchasing raw materials and budgeted the amount for each task and its duration.

Construction firm uses the report as they low their task using work breakdown system to differentiate the task involved and determining the interrelationship that exist and allocate time and cost for each project task and using the prepared schedule to monitor the progress of the work and cost requirement of tasks.

Researchers benefit as they use the progress programme evaluation and review techniques (pert) as it deal with the uncertainty of information employed in planning by introducing three values of activities duration to replace the single time adopted for arrow diagram, thus optimistic duration (do), pessimistic duration (dp) and most likely duration (dm).

1.5 Research Questions

These under listed questions are the things which the research intends to find answers in the course of this writings.

The questions on this research include:

  1. What are the components of project planning?
  2. What are the factors to be considered before project planning and programming?
  3. Is there any other method of achieving effective project delivery apart from planning and programming?
  4. Differentiate between network scheduling techniques and analysis?
  5. What are the procedures for project planning?
  6. What are the project delivery constraints?

1.6 Delimitation of the Study

This report or study is delimited on the general procedure of planning and the techniques of programming project using different types of network scheduling techniques and bar charts methods.

The procedure towards planning effectively on project delivery and detailing the programming tools used in different project delivery is to be focused on this study.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

The study is limited by the use of schedule and computer base application in project delivery. The complete schedule is based on chosen resources, the rates of construction calculated have taken account of these resources but is different to the network calculation, which separate logic and resource allocation.

1.8 Definition of Term.

These are the definitions of difficult words used in the write up below. These are defined for easy understanding, the words include.


Having definite limit.


An attempt to do something.


Describing or expressing something as amount or number.


Product that are promise to keep ready for a client.


In favor of a new ideas, or modern methods and change.


Carefully prepared and organized.


Something which can be measured and used as standard that other thing can be compared with.


Very important stage or key event on a prgramme using critical path method.


Without enough money to pay what you owe.


Written statement describing the right that a particular group should have.


Things that limits or restrict something.

Project Planning And Programming As Tools For Effective Project Delivery

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