A Project On Construction Of Propeller Agitator

Project and Seminar Material for Mechanical Engineering ME

Project and Seminar Material for Mechanical Engineering ME


Abstract


Propeller agitator is a specialized of various types of substances. It consists of three basic components which are the shaft, blade and the vessel.

In the construction, mild steel was chosen due to it’s inherent properties. After the procurement, the following constructional operations were carried out which included marking out, center punching folding, welding, filling operation, assembling, and painting to beautify the equipment and for other purposes.

The shapes and forms are formulated to obtain the following dimensions of the agitator. These are length of handle = 320mm, diameter of gear teeth = 100mm, thickness of shaft = 20mm, thickness of gear = 12mm, size of blade = 50mm x 100mm, blade diameter = 63mm, inside diameter of pump = 12mm, outside diameter of pump = 20mm, shat height = 470mm, vessel diameter = 340mm and height = 560mm

The agitating mixer has high efficiency of comparable to those produced industrially. The estimated rate of rotation is 1720 rpm.

The cost of construction of the agitator is however minimized due to the preferred choice of the raw material and method of fabrication.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Propeller agitator mixing is one of the most common operations carried out in chemical, processing and allied industries. The terms “mixing” is applied to the processes used to reduce the degree of non uniformity or gradual of a property in a system such as concentration, viscosity, temperature and so on.

Mixing is achieved by moving material from one region to another. It may be of interests simply as a means of achieving a desired degree of homogeneity or it may be used two proote heat undergoing a chemical reaction.

At the outset I t is useful to consider some common examples of problems encountered in industrial mixing operations, since this will nto only reveal the ubiquitous nature of the process but will also provide an appreciation of some of the associated. Difficulties. Several attempts have been made to classify mixing problems, and for example “REAVELL” used as a criterion for mixing of powders, the flowability of the final products, HARNEY et al based their classification on the phases present, that is liquid – liquid, solid – liquid and so on. This is probably the most useful description of mixing as it allows the adoption of a unified approach to the problems encountered in a range of industries.

The term agitation is applied to a variety of operations differing in the degree of homogeneity of the mixed material. In chemical engineering, it is conventional to treat agitation and multi purpose operations for which the principles of equipment design and operation can be stated generally, such operations in agitation like crystallization, Ion exchange and colliding are advanced of this study and construction.

In most homes, industries and chemical operations, two or more substances are required to be mixed for users demand, in mixing as a unit operation, the substance is fed into the vessel or mixing tank containing the agitator in either one form, liquid, solid or gas. The product obtained should either be homogenous or heterogeneous depending on demand or desired product.

The selection of a particular agitator for a particular purpose requirement, the flow properties of the process fluid, equipment cost and the construction material required must be considered. Ideally, the equipment chosen should be that which has the lowest cost but meets all process requirement. In a given problem, the agitator given must handle the material when it is in it’s worst condition and may not be so effective as other design during other parts of mixing cycle. As with other equipments, the choice of an agitator for heavy material is always a compromise and arbitrary.

Liquids are agitated for a number of purpose, depending on the objective of the processing step, soe of the purpose includes

  1. Promoting heat transfer between the liquid and a coil or jacket
  2. Blending immiscible liquids, for example, methyl alcohol and water.
  3. Dispensing a second liquid, immiscible wt h the first to form an emulsion or suspension of fine drops
  4. Suspending solid particles
  5. Dispersing a gas through the liquid in the form of small bubbles.

A typical application of propeller agitator is in mixing of high viscosity liquids or solid in solids. Most factories produce and products using blended liquids like in the confectionery industries, liquids food drinks like canned juices as well as canned and bottled drinks.

Many a times, one agitator serves several purposes at the same time, as in the catalytic hydrogenation of a liquid, in a hydrogenation vessel, the hydrogen gas is dispersed through the liquid in which solid particles of catalyst are suspended, with the heat of reaction simultaneously removed by a cooling coil or jacket.


1.1 Objective of the Project

The objective of the project is to construct a portable propeller agitator with high efficiency and durability, which will be used for good mixing operation in smalls scale industries or in the laboratories and other applications such as domestic and pharmaceutical industries.

The preferred choice of raw material of the construction is mild steel because of it’s excellent properties which included high resistance to corrosion, machineability, ductility, malleability, it resistance to react with the material or reactant when agitating as any reaction between the vessel and the material to be mixed will affect the product. Moreover, it is cheap and available.

The dimensions of the propeller agitator are length of handle = 320mm, diameter of gear teeth = 100mm, thickness of shaft = 20mm, thickness of gear = 12mm, size of blade = 50mm x 100mm, blade diameter = 63mm, inside diameter of pump = 12mm outside diameter of pump = 20mm, shaft height = 470mm, vessel diameter = 340mm and vessel height = 560mm.


Chapter Five


Discussion, Recommendation and Conclusion

5.1 Discussion

This portable propeller agitator was constructed with mild still. The agitator has the following parts: Shaft, Vertical baffle, Vessel Support/ Seating drain Valve, Handle steady bearing and Propellers. All these performs one function or another as outlined below.

Shaft:

This is a galvanized pipe machine at top for the seating of the bearing.

Vertical Baffles:

These are those metallic rods mounted at the sides of the vessel, they are stationed at equal distance from each other at four locations. The baffles minimize swirling and vortex formation. It also brings about through mixing, rate and efficiency of mixing.

Steady Bearing:

This effectively provides a hole into which the shaft rotates for effective turning the bearing should always be properly greased for rotation and working ability of the propeller agitator.


5.2 Recommendation

The propeller agitator just like all other equipment’s should be properly protected and caved for it is to last for a long time. Infact, for a long testing and maximum following instructions should be strictly achieved to:

  1. The propeller shaft assembly should be fixed to the motor to avoid worning out of the thread grub screw owing to regular loosening and tightening.
  2. It should be used for.
  3. It should be properly washed after use and raw materials in the reactor.
  4. The bearing should be always and properly greased to improve the rate of turning of the shaft during the operation.
  5. Insoluble materials should not be introduced into the agitator to avoid blocking the drain valve.
  6. It should always be stored in a cool dry place when not in use.
  7. When all these instructions are obeyed the equipment can be very effective and hence e recommendation for good mixing operation in our small scale industries or in the laboratories.
Vessel Support:

This series as the support for the base of the mixer and provides effective passage for the outlet of the mixed liquid it also provides the support for the mixer during operation from vibrations shaking.

Handle:

This is where the force for turning of the blades for agitation or mixing is applied it is used for manual rotation of the blades for easy mixing during operation.

Propellers:

This does the actual work or agitating the liquid or material to be mixed. It is positioned in such a way that it comes in to contact with the material to be mixed and drives in clockwise or anticlockwise depending on the position of the propeller and direction of rotation. The agitator comprises of two sets of propeller blades which is aimed at increasing the rate of mixing and the effectiveness of the agitator to produce a homogenous and uniform mixture.

Drain Value:

This is the outlet of the mixer from where the already mixer material passes out and.


5.3 Conclusion

The propeller agitator constructed is cylindrical in shape consisting of three basic components which are the shaft, blade and the vessel. It was constructed with mild steel and can be used for making operations and other applications.

The importance of propeller agitator can be enumerate below:

  1. For blending immiscible liquids.
  2. The acids in achieving effective and efficient mixing.
  3. To promote heat transfer between the liquid and the jacket.

During the selection of materials it was found onto that stainless steel can also be used as material of construction of the propeller agitation but mild steel was selected for the constructed propeller Agitator was portable, during and has high efficiency and stability.


A Project On Construction Of Propeller Agitator


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