Professional Ethics Required Of Office Managers In A Changing Office Environment (A Case Study Of Selected FUTO In Owerri Imo State)

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Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management OTM

Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management OTM


This project is dedicated to our Lord Jesus Christ who saw as us through this period of academic struggle.


I wish to thank God Almighty for providing me with good health before, during and after the preparation of this work.

I owe a lot to the authors of different works cited in this book for without them; this project would not have been successful.

My special thanks goes to my lovely sister Mrs. Susann Maduforu, Agatha Nnodim, Nwamaka Egeonu and Chinye Korie for their financial supports, love and encouragement towards my education. My wonderful siblings for believing in me, my very good friend, Goodlife Nwaozuzu, for all the advice God bless you all.

I also wish to express my appreciation to my able supervisor, Mrs E.I.N IDIH for her advice in ensuring that this project work is completed on time and successfully.

Finally, I appreciate the entire staff and student in the department of office technology and management, most especially, HND final year students (2015/2016) session. May God bless all your efforts with resounding success.


This study a build of additional information as an extension of knowledge in office manager profession. It studied the profession ethics required of office managers in a changing office environment.

Because it has been observed with total dismay that some office managers are ignorant of the set of codes of conduct that is required of their in discharging their duties.

This research work will enlighten the office manager profession to the public. It also served as a guide to employers in recruiting the office managers. The analyzed data code of conduct in carrying out jobs in the work place.

The office manager offend times faced with problems that tend to hinder his from being ethical. It is therefore net out of place to conclude that the office manager, through may encounter obstacles strive to at ethics has a great positive impact on the job of the office manager.

Table Of Contents

  • Title page i
  • Approval page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of content vi

Chapter One

  • Introduction 1
  • Background of study 1
  • Statement of problem 4
  • Purpose of the study 5
  • Research questions 5
  • Significance of the study 6
  • Scope of study 7
  • Definition of terms 7

Chapter Two

  • Review of related literature 9
  • The concept of ethics and professional ethics 9
  • Ethics and people’s management 13
  • Ethics in the workplace 15
  • Professional ethics 17
  • Professional ethics of the office manager 19
  • Problems encountered by the office managers 28
  • Summary of review of related literature 35

Chapter Three

  • Research methodology 37
  • Research design 37
  • Area of the study 38
  • Population of the study 38
  • Sample and sampling techniques 38
  • Instrument for data collection 39
  • Method of data collection 39
  • Method of data analysis 40

Chapter Four

  • Presentation and Analysis of data 42
  • Analysis of data 42
  • Discussion of findings 53

Chapter Five

  • Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations 57
  • Re-statement of the problems 57
  • Summary of findings 58
  • Conclusions 60
  • Recommendations 61
  • Limitations of the study 62
  • Suggestion for further research 63
  • References 64
  • Appendix 1 65
  • Appendix 11 66

Chapter One


Background Of Study

In spite of the widely acceptance nature of moral requirements and the presence of universal work ethics of a class or society, there also exist specific rules of conduct for the increasingly growing number of professional activities.
These rules of conduct for ethics of two things, it refers to well based standard of right and wrongs that prescribes what human ought to do, usually in terms of right, obligations, benefits to society, fairness or specific rules and virtues. (Richard, Donald, Arnold, Bernard, Presha, 2005).

Stressing further, they explained ethics to mean the basic concept and fundamental principle of decent human conduct. it includes study of universal vales such as the essential equality of all men and women, human or natural rights, obedience to the law of land concern health and safety and increasingly, also for the natural environment.
From the above definition, it can be deduced that ethics is a study that moulds ones standard and impose reasonable obligations on a particular class of people act right.

Since business organizations do not function without workers who carry out different duties to achieve the objectives of the organization. A manager who is indispensible worker has the special job he performs in the organization and the level of her ethical conduct goes a long way in making her stand out of the crowd in the work place.

Today, many professional bodies have developed policies and professional codes for their practitioners and the secretary is not exempted from those rules that govern the behaviours of professionals. These set of moral or codes of conduct are strictly adhered to an inculcated in the discharge or conduct of these professional bodies.

Professional ethics play an important role in ensuring the continuity in the moral conduct development of the society. Bedside, it enhances a stable code in the moral life of people especially where forces of simple moral commandment grow weaker or fails. Besides, social system and regulations surpasses one another due to intensify social tensions (Richard, et al 2005).

The ethics and social behaviours as well as the interest of an office manager is asserted only to the which she puts into practice the general principles of social and moral attributes adopted to the specific features of his profession and the degree of his awareness of his responsibility to the performance and conduct of his job. A low level of professional ethics is one of the most destructive and protracted consequences of the unwanted.

Professional ethics normally is indentified in these varieties of specialized activities in which man himself is the object of research thus, it relates to the behaviour of people. Professional as regards to the career Doctors, lawyers, accountants and office managers etc are expected to behave in a certain way or fellow specific codes of conduct in performing their jobs this will guard against their actions or behaviours bringing their profession to disrepute.

Since office manager ship is a profession, it must have set of code of conduct expected from practitioners of the profession. Therefore, this project will discuss those professional ethics which which are required in the conduct of office manager’s job for better performance.

Statement Of Problem

Professional ethics is the part of the requirements for efficiency in the conduct of the secretary’s job. The office manager is required to keep secrets of his employer and organization as this will determine the duration of his job as a confidential office manager. The problem of this study posed as a question in line with kelinger (1973) “apart from keeping secrets and confidentiality, are there no other ethics or set of code of conduct for the professional office manager ”?

To answer this question, this study is set to address and generate empirical data on professional ethics required in the conduct of the office manager’s job for better performance.

Purpose Of The Study

The main purpose of this study is to determine the professional ethics which the secretary requires in the conduct of his job for better performance.

Specifically, the study will attempt to:

  1. Find out professional ethics of the office manager.
  2. Evaluate the extent to which these codes of ethics have impacted the job of the office manager.
  3. Identify problems and proffer solutions.

Research Questions

For the objective of this research to be realized, the following questions are being put forward as a guide for the research. The response received from them will be the basis for decision making in this project.

  1. What does professional ethics mean?
  2. What are the professional ethics of the office manager?
  3. To what extent have these codes of ethics impacted the job of the office manager?
  4. What are the problems encountered by an office manager in exhibiting these codes and what are the solutions to these problems?

Significance Of The Study

This study is a build-up of additional information as an extension of knowledge in office manager profession. The findings of the study will enhance the professionalization of office manager ship and its ethical conduct. Being aware of their professional ethics, the office manager will improve secretarial image and enhance acceptability of the profession by the society.

In addition, this work when completed will be an eye-opener or guide for the chief executive in employing office managers and also for the office manager in the performance and conduct of job which will speed organizational objectives/goals.

Above all, this project when completed will serve as reference materials for prospective office managers who may wish to be enlightened more on the professional ethics required of the office manager in the conduct of her job.
Finally, it will be of immense help to other students and researchers who may wish to embark on similar research in the future.

Scope Of Study

This research project was restricted to examine the professional ethics required of the office manager’s job for better performance in two selected institutions from owerri local government area.

Definition Of Terms


Is a person formally certified by a professional body of belonging to a specific profession by virtue of having completed a required course of studies and or practice.


“An ethics has to do with what my feelings tell me is right or wrong”. An ethics has to do with my religious beliefs”. “Being ethical is doing what the law requires”.

Office Manager:

Is an employee of a business or organization whose duties typically include allocating physical resources such as office space and supplies. Scheduling internal events overseeing operational staff such as accountants, technicians, and administrative personnel, and other details necessary to run on office in any industry or field.

Office Environment:

Is a location where a task is completed. When pertaining to a place of employment, the work environment involves the physical geographical location as well as the immediate surroundings of the work place, such as a construction site or office building. Typically involves other factors relating to the place of employment such as the quality of the air, noise level and additional perk and benefits of employment such as free child care or unlimited coffee, or adequate parking.

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic

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How to nail it on the head during your project defence

You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic

Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.



Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy ( a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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