Profession Ethics And Morality Required Of Secretaries In Federal Polytechnic Nekede

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Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management OTM

Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management OTM


This project work is highly and heartily dedicated to the Almighty God for His limitless grace and infinite mercies granted to me, Ijeoma throughout the course of this programme.
Father God, I say to you be all the glory for ever more, Amen.


One of the most important lessons I learnt in life is that no one ever does it alone and succeeds. Therefore, I would like to thank so many people who have contributed in one way of the other in making this dream a reality. First, I boast to appreciate my able supervisor Dr. S.N. Ohakwe and my H.O.D Mrs. P.O. Nwogwugwu for their guidance and encouragement. My profound gratitude also goes to the host of my amiable lecturers who enthusiastic audience sustained my confidence in this department.

Special sincere gratitude to all my mentors men and women who supported my activities through thick an thin, who urged, inspired and encouraged me throughout this programme, without them by the grace of God, this dream would not have seen the light of the God. I owe my thanks to you all.

Finally, whilst I cannot mention everyone by name, I wish in particular to thank my good boss, Engr. E.P Ezeokoye and family who to a large extent suggested and urged the inception of this programme. Remain in good health Sir Bro. Ken, Bro, Chris, Ndaa Chris, my friends, Pastor Ogege respectively, Prof. Osunkwu, Joe Nnem, Asika, Ify, Mrs. Onirokwu.

I thank you all very immensely. May God keep on supplying your needs in Jesus Name, Amen.


This study was a build of additional information on the extensions of knowledge in the area of secretarial profession. It stipulated the professional ethics and morality required of secretaries in the Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri.

Based on the observation that most secretaries are ignorant of the set of codes of conduct required of them, carrying out their duties in office organization, this research serves as guide to both executives and to employers in recruiting their secretaries. The secretaries oftentimes are faced with difficulties that hinder them from being ethical.

It is therefore not out of place to conclude that the secretaries, though may encounter some obstacles in the bid to be ethically principles in the workplace, they should also strive hard to handle these obstacles with diplomacy as professional ethics and morals have great positive impact on the job of the secretary.

Table Of Contents

  • Title page
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

  • Introduction
  • Background of the Study
  • Statement of the problem
  • Purpose of the Study
  • Research Question
  • Significant of the study
  • Scope of the Study

Chapter Two

  • Review of related literature
  • Ethics

Chapter Three

  • Research Methodology
  • Research design
  • Area of the study
  • Population of the study
  • Sample of the study
  • Instrument for data collection
  • Method of data analysis
  • Presentation and analysis of data
  • Presentation of data
  • Analysis of data
  • Discussion of findings

Chapter Five

  • Summary of findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
  • Re-statement of problem
  • Summary of findings
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendations
  • Limitations for further research
  • References
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaires

Chapter One


Background Of The Study

In as much as there are acceptable natures of morality and ethical standards of a class or a society, also there exists same specific rules of conduct for the increasingly growing number of professional activities which refers to well rooted standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans, especially the office secretaries ought to do usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to the society, fairness in judgment or specific rules and virtues, Richard, Donald, Arnold, Bernard, Presha (2005).

Elaborating further, they explained ethics as the system of conduct, science of morals or moral soundness which depicts a professional body and its members. By the above definition, one can simply say that ethics is study that mould ones standard and imposes reasonable obligation on a particular class of people in order to act right. Therefore, a secretary who is indispensable has special jobs she/he performs in the organization and the level of her ethical conduct goes a long way in making him/her outstanding in the workplace.

On the other hand, morality refers to an adopted code of conduct within an environment and a set of agreed upon rules for what is right and wrong. Morals have formed the spine of modern society, religion and every individual conscience. For example, “murder is immoral” but on the battle field murder is permissible. In a way, morality is sync with ethics, while morality is abstract in understanding. Ethics is defined in the form of written code, Iweajunwa, Nnorom, Iheukwumere, Uteh, Obeka, (2011).

Today, many professional bodies have developed policies and professional codes for practitioners and the secretary is not exempted from such rules that govern the behaviour of professionals. These set of codes of conduct are strictly adhere and inculcated in the discharge or conduct of these professional bodies. Professional ethics and morality play an important role in ensuring the continuity in the moral conduct development of the society.

Besides, they enhance a stable code in the moral life of people especially here forces of simple moral commandments grow weaker or flat. The ethics and social behaviour as well as the interest of a secretary is certain only in the extent to which she puts into practice. The general principle of social and moral attributes adopted to the specific features of her/his profession, and the degree of her/his awareness, his/her responsibility to the performance and conduct of his/her job.

A low level of professional ethics and morality is a major destructive administrative and protracted consequence of the unwanted professionals as regards to their careers, e.g. doctors, lawyers, secretaries, engineers, accountants, teachers, etc are expected to behave in a certain way or follow specific codes of conduct in performing their jobs as this guards against their actions or behaviour towards bringing their professionals to disrepute.

Since secretaryship is a profession, it must have a set of codes of conducts expected from its practitioners. Therefore, this project discusses those professional ethics and morality which are required in the conduct of secretarial jobs to make for better performance.

Statement Of The Problem

Professional ethics and morality are part of the requirements for efficiency and productivity in the conduct of a secretary’s job. The secretary is required to keep the secretes of her employer and the entire organization in which she works with, as this determines her duration as a confidential secretary. The problem of this study posed as a question in line with Kelinger 1995 which asked such question as this:apart from keeping secrets and confidentiality, are there no other ethics or set of code of conduct for the professional secretary? In the bid to answer this question, this project is set to address and generate empirical data on the professional ethics and morality required in the conduct of the secretary’s job for a better performance.

Purpose Of The Study

The major purpose of this study is to determine the professional ethics and morality which are required of secretaries in Federal Polytechnic Nekede, in the conduct of their job for better performance.

Specifically, the study attempts to:

  1. Find out the professional ethics of a secretary
  2. Evaluated the impact of code of ethics on the job of a secretary
  3. Narrate the positive and negative work ethics of a secretary
  4. Enumerate the admirable secretarial work ethics and morality
  5. Identify problems and proffer solutions as well as highlights some benefits of ethical standards and morality on the job of a secretary.

Research Question

For the objective of this research to be realized, the following questions are put forward as guide for the search. The responses received from them will be basis for the decision making in this project.

  1. What are the professional ethics of a secretary?
  2. What are the impacts of code of ethics on the job of a secretary?
  3. What are the positive and negative work ethics of a secretary?
  4. What are the admirable secretarial work ethics and morality?
  5. What are the benefits of ethical standards and morality on the job of secretary?

Significance Of The Study

This study is a built of additional information as an extension of knowledge in the secretarial profession. The findings of this study will enhance the professionalism of secretaryship and its ethical conduct. Being aware of their profession ethics and morality, the secretary will improve the secretarial image and enhance the acceptability of the profession in the society.

In addition, this research being completed will be an eye-opener or guide for the chief executive in employing secretaries, and also for the secretaries, and also for the secretary in the performance and conduct of his/her job which will spell organizational objectives and goals.

Above all, this project when completed will serve as a reference material for prospective secretaries who may wish to be enlightened more on the professional ethics and morality required of secretaries especially in Federal Polytechnic Nekede in the conduct of their job.

Finally, it will be of immense help to other students, researchers, and even lectures who may wish to embark on similar research in the future

Scope Of The Study

This research project was highly restricted to examine the professional ethics and morality required of secretaries in Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri.

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic

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How to nail it on the head during your project defence

You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic

Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.



Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy ( a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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