Production Of Wine From Banana And Sweet Orange

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

Production Of Wine From Banana And Sweet Orange


Abstract


This study was aimed at investigating the suitability of two fruits (Orange and Banana) as substrates for wine production and the efficiency of yeast isolated from palm wine for alcoholic fermentation of fruits. During fermentation aliquot samples were removed daily from the fermentation tank for analysis of pH, temperature, alcohol content and reducing sugars, using standard procedures. pH of the fruit “must”. During the period of fermentation ranged from 3.0 to 3.5. During the fermentation period consistent increase in alcohol content was observed with time. At the end of 21days fermentation, the concentration of alcohol in the fruit wine was observed to be 4.2%.The reducing sugar content of the wine was observed to be 0.082. This study revealed that acceptable wine could be produced from these fruits with yeast from palm wine.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table Of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background To The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of Problem
  • 1.3 Aim Of Study
  • 1.4 Scope Of The Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Indigenous Fruit Juices And Wines – The Traditional Approach Of Processing
  • 2.2 Juices And Wines From Tropical And Subtropical Fruits
  • 2.4 Wine Fermentation
  • 2.5 Factors That Affect Fermentation

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials And Methods

  • 3.1 Collection Of Samples
  • 3.2 Isolation Of Yeast
  • 3.3 Inoculums Development
  • 3.4 Preparation Of “Mixed Must”
  • 3.5 Fermentation
  • 3.6 Anaerobic Phase Of Fermentation
  • 3.7 Determination Of Physico-Chemical Test
  • 3.8 Organoleptic Evaluation
  • 3.9 Statistical Analyses

Chapter Four

4.0 Result And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary And Conclusion

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study

Bananas belong to the family Musaceae and genus Musa. Musa spp. already provided man with food, tools and shelter prior to recorded history. Bananas are major crops of West and East Africa and are grown in some 120 countries throughout the developing world. World banana production, according to available statistics, was 80.6 million tons per annum in the early 1990s (Food and Agriculture Organization, 1994), with Africa producing about 30 million tons per annum (Food and Agriculture Organization, 1996). According to the latest FAO statistical records as reported by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA, 2003), more than 58 million tons of bananas and 30 million tons of plantains were produced worldwide in 2000. India is the largest banana producer with an output of 16 million tons per annum and Uganda ranks second to it producing 12 million tons per annum (Sunday Monitor, 2007). South Africa produces 300 000 tons of bananas per annum (De Beer, 2004).

Banana is the fourth most important crop after rice, wheat and maize and international trade in bananas is valued at around US$5 billion per annum (Sunday Monitor, 2007). Traditional banana juice extraction and its subsequent fermentation to produce beer (tonto) is an important social and economic activity among many tribes in East Africa (Stover and Simmonds, 1987; Davies, 1993). Likimani (1991) reported that tonto is a popular traditional beverage in Burundi, Uganda and Rwanda. Banana juice and beer may however contain suspended solids which are not desired by some consumers. Therefore, efforts are made to reduce suspended solids by applying different processing technologies such as the addition of enzymes to pulps.

Although bananas have been traditionally dietary staples in many countries in Tropical Africa, they have until recently been relatively neglected by most policy makers and research institutions partly due to high post-harvest losses coupled with difficulty in marketing and processing of these highly perishable commodities (Olorunda, 2000). Generally, the most recent estimates of losses of cooking bananas and plantain differ in different countries and were 0-10% for Kampala in Uganda (Digger, 1994) and as high as 35% for the Ivory Coast (N’Guessan, 1991).

Biotechnology and other related technologies such as genetic engineering have played a significant role in food processing technologies. Enzymes play a pivotal role in the winemaking process. In addition to enzymes that occur in pre-and post fermentation operations, there are many more different enzymes driving the fermentation kinetics that convert grape juice to wine. Commercial enzyme preparations are widely used as supplements since the endogenous enzymes from yeasts and other micro organisms present in must and wine are often neither efficient nor sufficient under winemaking conditions to efficiently catalyse the various biotransformation reactions (for a detailed review on enzymes in winemaking, see Van Rensburg and Pretorius, 2000). Pectolytic enzyme preparations have been used with great success for many years in the fields of food technology (Ough and Berg, 1974). In wine and fruit juices, these enzyme preparations are mainly used to yield more juice and increase the press capacity (Wörner and et al., 1998). The use of pectolytic enzyme preparations has been reported to affect sensory quality, since these preparations often also contain other enzyme activities (for example, cinnamylesterase, glucosidase, oxidase) that can have a negative effect on wine (Lao et al., 1997). The best wines are produced when the desired enzymatic activities are optimally reinforced and the negative effects restricted to a minimal level (Van Rensburg and Pretorius, 2000).

Banana (Musa Sapientum) is a fruit common in the tropics and is non-seasonal. It is readily available in Nigeria. Due to its high sugar content, it is suitable for the production of wine (Robinson, 2006). Depending upon cultivar and ripeness, the flesh can vary in taste from starchy to sweet and texture from firm to mushy. Both skin and inner part can be eaten raw or cooked. Bananas’ flavor is due, amongst other chemicals, to isoamyl acetate which is one of the main constituents of banana oil. Wine is an alcoholic beverage typically made from fermented fruit juice. Any fruit with a good proportion of sugar may be used for wine production and the resulting wines are normally named after the fruit hence banana, apple, orange, pineapple, strawberries and coconut may be used to produce wine. The type of fruit wine to be produced dictates the fruit and strain of yeast to be involved (Alexander and Charpenter, 2004). Wine production has not been a major market in Nigeria although institutions such as NIFOR (Nigerian Institute for oil palm research) have been involved in production of bottled palm wine using chemical preservatives. Bioaccumulation of chemical preservatives poses potential dangers due to either toxicity or pro-toxicity (Idise and Izuagbe, 1988; Svans, 2008). It is thus pertinent to search for means of producing wines devoid of chemical additives. Banana possesses desirable qualities – high fiber-content which helps restore normal bowl action, stimulates the production of hemoglobin in the blood, contains potassium and has a low salt content which helps to lower blood pressure as well as control stroke and when consumed along with other fruits and vegetables, banana was observed to be associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer (Deneo-Pellegrini et al., 1996) and in women, breast cancer (Zhang, 2009) and renal cell carcinoma (Rashidkhani et al., 2005).

An orange specifically, the sweet orange is the citrus (Citrus sinensis) and its fruit. It is the most commonly grown tree fruit in the world, primarily in Brazil and the US states California and Florida (Idise, 2012). The orange fruit is a hesperidium, a type of berry (Ramachandra and Arun, 2005).

Orange trees are widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates for sweet fruit, which is peeled or cut (to avoid the bitter rind) and eaten whole, or processed to extract orange juice, and also for the fragnant peel. The fruit of Citrus sinensis is called sweet orange to distinguish it from Citrus aurantium, the bitter orange. The name is thought to derive ultimately from the Sanskrit for the orange tree, with its final form developing after passing through numerous intermediate languages. In a number of languages, it is known as a “Chinese apple”, e.g., Dutch sinaasapel (“China‟s apple”) or appelsien, or northern German Apfelsine. In English, however, “Chinese apple” generally refers to the pomegranate (Idise, 2012).

According to Uraih and Izuagbe (1990), eating banana as a regular diet can cut the risk of death by stroke as much as 40%. Thus, a wine produced from banana is a worthwhile venture. This study was aimed at small-scale wine production with desirable organoleptic properties from banana for immediate consumption without chemical preservatives.


1.2 Statement Of Problem

According to Adams and Moss (1995) maize and cassava dough are fermented and maize, millet, and other cereal grains are brewed into local drinks such as „pito‟ and „toosi‟ in Nigeria and in other Sub-Saharan African countries. Very little however is known about fermentation of pineapple, cashew, mango, and orange juices into wine (Au Du, 2010).

Inyang (1989) reported that a major breakthrough in wine making technology by Nigerians which received patent right was the production of cocoa wine in 1983. Although, there has been tremendous efforts at exploring different forms of fruits from which wine is made such that wines like coconut wine, kolanut wine (Odutuga, 1973) pineapple wine (Opara et al 1983) cashewapple wine (Ogumoyela. 1983) and star apple wine (Eka, 1983) have been produced, yet the large-scale production of most of these wines remain abysmal.

Wine has enormous health benefits similar to those of fruits from which they are derived (Jacob, 2001). e.g. almonds have been found to be more effective in reducing blood levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) when combined with other foods known to independently lower cholesterol (Lamarche, et al.2004). The consumption of citrus fruits like orange and lemon singly and especially when combined offer significant protection against various cancers, diabetes, Parkinson‟s disease and inflammatory bowel disease (CSIRO, 2003).

Palm wine is the fermented sap of the tropical plants of the Palmae family. It is produced and consumed in very large quantities in the south-eastern Nigeria. It contains nutritionally important components including amino acids, protein, vitamins and sugars (Okafor; 1987). Palm wine is a traditional wine extracted from palm trees; Elaeisguineenis and Raphiahookeri. Although palm wine may be presented in a variety of flavors, ranging from sweet (Unfermented) to sour (fermented) and vine gary, it is mostly enjoyed by people when sweet. (Elijah et al., 2010). Most studies on palm wine have reported its potentials as source yeast isolate for the fermentation industries.


1.3 Aim Of Study

The aim of the study is to investigate the suitability of two fruits (Orange and Banana) locally available fruits in Nigeria as substrate for wine production and the efficiency of yeast isolated from palm wine for alcoholic fermentation of fruits. The overall health benefit of wine differs and, in this research, wine produced from a combination of two local fruits is expected to have a positive cumulative health benefit than single fruit wine.


1.4 Scope Of The Study

The research was limited to enzymatic processing of orange and banana juice and wine. A comparative study in terms of physicochemical characteristics was done on one cultivar (Musa, AAA genotype) known as Williams in sub-tropical South Africa. The enzymes that were used were selected based on their capability to influence higher juice yields than the others after carrying out preliminary experiments with various enzymes.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary And Conclusion

5.1 Summary

There is the possibility of banana wine production using various recipes and the flow chart in our homes for immediate consumption within 48 h without addition of chemical preservatives. There was evidence of Malo- lactic fermentation. The wines produced showed no appreciable differences in the tested parameters – pH, temperature, optical density, specific gravity, total aerobic counts, percentage (%) alcohol (v/v) and percentage (%) titratable acidity – taste-testing as well as statistically at 95% confidence level. However, there is the need for further research to ascertain the shelf life of the wines.


5.2 Conclusion

Fruits both in fresh as well as in processed form not only improve the quality of our diet but also provide essential ingredients like vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates etc. Fruit wines from grapes or other fruits such as orange and banana etc. which are nutritive, more tasty and mild stimulants because they are undistilled alcoholic beverages. An acceptable tropically sourced wine can be produced from the combined use of ripe orange and banana fruit juice and pure culture of yeast cells obtained from palm wine. This study also gave an insight into the efficiency and role of local yeast (palm wine yeast) during alcohol fermentation of fruits. For this successful fermentation, wine making should be encouraged commercially in Nigerian using our locally available fruits. This will earn income and revenue for both our citizens and government, reduce dependency on foreign and imported wines and grow our economy.


Production Of Wine From Banana And Sweet Orange


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