Production Of Soybean Fortified Powdered Paip From Maize

Project and Seminar Material for Food Science and Technology (FST)

Production Of Soybean Fortified Powdered Paip From Maize


Abstract


The purpose of this study is to examine the production of soyabean fortified powdered paip from maize in Abuja metropolis, FCT, Nigeria. A total of 134 respondents were selected from the population figure out of which the sample size was determined. The primary source of data collected was mainly the use of a structured questionnaire which was designed to elicit information on the production. The data collected will be analyzed using frequency table, percentage and mean score analysis while the nonparametric statistical test (Chi-square) was used to test the formulated hypothesis using SPSS (statistical package for social sciences). The results showed that the supplementation of sorghum with sprouted soybean in akamu preparation is compatible as different proportions of the formulations contributed significant increase in protein, fat, ash, crude fiber and energy, and lowered carbohydrate contents. The sensory evaluation revealed only increase in smoothness while appearance, taste, thickness, and general acceptability were reduced most especially at inclusion level of gruel above 25%. Soya-ogi is therefore a good candidate for complementary feeding, breakfast meal for elderly people and those recovering from sickness to combat hidden hunger and protein energy malnutrition (PEM) problems among children of developing countries.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Akamu in Igbo or ogi in Yoruba is a fermented cereal paste made from maize (Zea mays), sorghum or guinea corn (Sorghum vulgare) or millet (Pennisetum typoideum). The colour of akamu depends on the cereal colour used which may be creamcolour from maize, reddish-brown colour from sorghum. Akamu from sorghum is popular in northern Nigeria and most parts of West Africa which porridge or gruel is very smooth in texture and has a sour taste (pH 4.8) and inhibits growth of some bacteria. Fortification of ogi with legumes, vitamins and minerals alongside improvement on the production techniques which led to the development of soya-ogi, a combination of maize and soybeans have been reported.

Increase food use of sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa will alleviate the problem of chronic under-nourishment, as sorghum is readily available in all parts of the countries. However, nutritional problems associated with cereals are their general low protein content and significant less digestible nature when cooked compared to other cooked cereal protein. This could cause protein malnutrition for infants fed exclusively on sorghum-based meal.

Also, cereals are low in minerals and vitamins which along with protein are essential nutrients needed for the wellbeing and healthy growth and development of infants, children and adults who relish exclusively on akamu.

Supplementation of cereals with locally available legumes that is high in protein will increase protein quality and the nutritive values of akamu lost during steeping, milling and sieving processes compared to the use of single cereal. Also, protein supplementation will prevent protein-energy malnutrition in infants weaned exclusively on akamu. As cereals and their products are invariably cooked prior to consumption, these problems are inevitable and require urgent attention.

Several efforts are currently on, in Africa to modify the processing of akamu with a view to enhancing its nutritive value, shelf life and possible therapeutic qualities. One likely method of achieving this is by formulation with soybeans alone or by formulation or may be fortified with vitamins and minerals Also, cereal fermentation was employed to preserve, impart aroma and flavour while producing novelty foods products with improved nutrients for complimentary feeding.

Soybean oil varies between 13.9 to 23.2% depending on locality, cultivar and horticultural practices and 40% higher calorific value than protein and carbohydrates. Soybean is a cheap source of good quality protein with good balance of the essential amino acid and high quality oil. Protein content of soybean contains considerable quantity of lysine (6.2g/16gN), but limited by methionine and cystine content (2.9g/16gN). Absence of cholesterol, lactose and presence of essential amino acids makes soybean vital for infant growth and maintenance.

Soybean sprouting is an age long act of improving the nutritive value of legumes, reduction in anti-nutrients and flatulence causing oligosaccharides (stachyose and raffinose), thereby increasing protein digestibility and sensory properties. Also, sprouting increases vitamins, minerals (calcium, copper, manganese, and zinc), nutrient bioavailability and free amino acid. Sprouted soybean had been used to formulate complementary foods.

Gruel also known as akamu or ogi when prepared from the paste with hot water after dissolving same with tap water into light thick consistency serves as a major weaning food for the infants in West Africa or by nursing mothers as it encourages breast milk supply, a good vehicle for food nutrients to sick people because it is an energy food rich in carbohydrates with traces of vitamins (Oyelana et al; 2012). it is easily digested and light in the stomach. A blend of sorghum- sprouted soybean will not only boost the nutritive value of akamu as a breakfast meal, weaning food and choice food for the sick but will also boost production and consumption of soybean. This work therefore aimed at improving the protein content of akamu using sprouted soybean paste.


1.2 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to examine the production of soyabean fortified powdered paip from maize.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study include but are not limited to;

  1. To examine the nutritional content of soyabean in powdered pap.
  2. To determine the utilization of soyabeans in powder pap from maize.
  3. To carefully study the antinutritional factors in soyabeans.

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.


1.5 Scope of the Study

This study is focused sole on the production of soyabean fortified powdered paip from maize in Abuja Metropolis.

The research study will cover the entire staff of Dufil Prima Foods Plc. All departments of the organization will be involved and both management and staff of the organization will be sampled in the collection of data for the study.

The study will cover a fair balance of male and female employees of the company and cut across the entire staff of the organization, thus from junior staff to management staff.


1.6 Limitations of the Study

The demanding schedule of respondents at work made it very difficult getting the respondents to participate in the survey. As a result, retrieving copies of questionnaire in timely fashion was very challenging. Also, the researcher is a student and therefore has limited time as well as resources in covering extensive literature available in conducting this research. Information provided by the researcher may not hold true for all businesses or organizations but is restricted to the selected organization used as a study in this research especially in the locality where this study is being conducted. Finally, the researcher is restricted only to the evidence provided by the participants in the research and therefore cannot determine the reliability and accuracy of the information provided.

Financial constraint:

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint:

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Pap:

bland soft or semi-liquid food such as that suitable for babies or invalids.

Maize:

Maize is a tall plant which produces long objects covered with yellow seeds called sweetcorn. It is often grown as a food crop.

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Conclusion and Recommendations


Soybean flour has huge potentials of being used to enrich foods in order to provide adequate nutrients for individuals not meeting daily needs. Based on the available information on the nutrients profile of soybean including the amino profiles, human consumption of soybean flour can be promoted because of its positive effect on nutritional enhancement on different fortified food products. However, more efforts need to be directed at addressing associated technological issue which is flatulence to further increase effective utilization of the food product in food fortification.

Supplementation of sorghum with sprouted soybean in akamu preparation is compatible as different proportions of the formulations contributed significant increase in protein, fat, ash, crude fiber and energy, and lowered carbohydrate contents. Some of the functional properties of the supplemented gruel samples like bulk density, swelling power and gelatinization time were also increased while viscosity and gelatinization temperature were decreased. Sensory evaluation revealed only increase in smoothness while appearance, taste, thickness and general acceptability were reduced most especially at inclusion level of sprouted soybean above 25%.

Therefore, supplementation should be with caution, not more than 25%, to avoid loss of acceptability and thickness. Soy-akamu is therefore a good candidate for complementary feeding, breakfast meal for elderly people and those recovering from sickness to combat hidden hunger and protein energy malnutrition (PEM) problems among children of developing countries.

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