Production Of Liquid And Vapourised Air Freshener From Local Raw Materials
Essential oils are frequently used as natural fragrances in housecleaning products and air fresheners marketed as green and healthy. However, these substances are volatile and reactive chemical species. This study focuses on production of liquid and vaporized air freshener from local raw materials (terpenes) while assessing the impact of essential oil- based household products on indoor air quality. First, housecleaning products containing essential oils are explored in terms of composition and existing regulations.
Specific insight is provided regarding terpenes in fragranced housecleaning products, air fresheners, and pure essential oils. Second, experimental methodologies for terpene monitoring, from sampling to experimental chambers and analytical methods, are addressed, emphasizing the experimental issues in monitoring terpenes in indoor air. Third, the temporal dynamics of terpene emissions reported in the literature are discussed. Despite experimental discrepancies, essential oil-based products are significant sources of terpenes in indoor air, inducing a high exposure of occupants to terpenes.
Finally, the fate of terpenes is explored from sorptive and reactive points of view. In addition to terpene deposition on surfaces, indoor oxidants may induce homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions, resulting in secondary pollutants, such as formaldehyde and secondary organic aerosols. Overall, essential oil-based products can negatively impact indoor air quality; therefore, standard protocols and real-scale approaches are needed to explore the indoor physics and chemistry of terpenes, from emissions to reactivity.
Table Of Content
- Title page i
- Certification page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv
- Abstract v
- Table of content
- 1.1 Background Of The Study
- 1.2 Scope Of The Study
- 1.3 Objectives Of The Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Conceptual Review
- 2.2 Chemical Composition Of Essential Oil-Based Products
- 2.3 Fragrances Contained In Household Products
- 2.4 Industrial Use Of Essential Oils
- 2.5 Overview Of Application Methodologies For Air Fresheners And Purifiers
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Data Analysis
4.0 Results And Discussion
- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussion
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendations
1.1 Background Of The Study
An air freshener is a product designed to mask or remove unpleasant room odors, (Umbach, 1991). These products typically deliver fragrance and other odor counteractants into the air. They do so through a variety of product formats, including aerosols, candles, potpourri and gels. By the late 1990s, sales of air fresheners in the United States had exceeded several hundred million dollars per year. One of the most successful new products are Glade Plug-Ins, which use heat generated by electric current to vaporize air-freshening ingredients. (Umbach, 1991)
Air fresheners are commonplace in many homes, as a way of covering up cooking odors, musty smells, dank air and bathroom odors, (William Ramsay, 2004). In recent times, many commercially made air fresheners have relied on use of chemicals and artificial scents, as well as using electricity and materials such as plastics and metals to create complicated air fresheners that create rather strong odors in the home environment, (William Ramsay, 2004). They are not generally a sustainable product and there are many excellent alternatives to such air fresheners.
1.2 Scope Of The Study
The study will cover the qualitative and quantitative analysis that is involved in the production of liquid and vapourised air freshener from local raw materials that is:
- Easy and accurate dispensing
- Safe use and transport without risk of spillage
- Long-term durability thanks to a tight sealing of the can and impossible of re-entry of microbial contamination during use
- Recyclable packaging
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The project is aimed and designed to evaluate the production of liquid and vapourised air freshener with an attempt to show the key ingredient used in the production of liquid and vapourised air freshener. The study reveals that air freshener is a product designed to mask or remove unpleasant room odors. These products typically deliver fragrance and other odor counteractants into the air. Other objectives of these studies are stated below:
- To provide liquid and vapourised air freshener formulation that is easy to manufacture and does not require high temperature casting.
- It is provide liquid and vapourised air freshener formulation that includes greater than 10% fragrance.
- To provide liquid and vapourised air freshener that is stable and does not experience significant fragrance weeping across normal transportation temperatures of up to 30-50° C.
- To provide liquid and vapourised air freshener that is easily dissolvable in water, and creates a clear liquid composition that is free of large particles and clumps.
Other objective, aspects and advantages of this research will be apparent to one skilled in the art in view of the following disclosure, the drawings and the appended claims.
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
The perception of essential oils as ingredients of natural origin tends to obscure the potential impacts of these chemical species on IAQ when they are extensively used in housecleaning products and air fresheners. Essential oils mostly consist of complex mixtures of terpenes and terpenoids. The physical and chemical properties of TerVOCs lead to their direct transfer from the liquid phase to the gas phase, increasing inhalation exposure to allergens and pollutants. Moreover, TerVOCs can lead to sensitization and subsequent induction of allergic symptoms in the respiratory tract. Despite the possible health concerns related to the ubiquitous use of scented household products, no specific regulation is proposed. More restrictive requirements must be satisfied by household product manufacturers for the products to be certified as organic and/or green since the ecolabeling of products is based on the evaluation of their environmental impact and hazards to human health throughout their life cycles. However, whether conventional or eco-certified, fragranced products can contain a range of hazardous air pollutants, and only a few such pollutants are revealed to the public through product labels. As a consequence, consumers do not have adequate information concerning potential exposure to risks, and a fictitious perception of safety when buying “natural” household products is possible.
Although cleaning activities are performed to improve IAQ and hygiene, the reaction of terpenes with indoor oxidants might produce significant amounts of secondary air pollutants. Among such pollutants, formaldehyde and secondary organic aerosols might be generated in substantial amounts and may increase the exposure of occupants, exceeding relevant health standards and guidelines. The results reported in the literature related to outdoor chemistry provide relevant background information to understand the homogeneous reactivity of indoor TerVOCs. Nonetheless, homogeneous reactivity does not pre- clude that adsorbed terpenes do not react with indoor oxidants. In contrast, the formation yields of secondary pollutants are enhanced when TerVOCs are in the adsorbed phase, suggesting a predominant impact of heterogeneous processes on IAQ. The homogeneous and heterogeneous reactive behaviors of TerVOCs in the indoor environment reveal a further need to understand their indoor physics and chemistry.
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