Production Of Liquid And Vaporized Perfumes Using Local Materials

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Production Of Liquid And Vaporized Perfumes Using Local Materials


Abstract


Perfume extraction refers to the extraction of aromatic compounds from raw materials, using method such as distillation, solvent extraction, expression or effleurage. The extracts are essential oils, absolutes, concretes, or butters, depending on the amount of waxes in the extracted product. Heat, chemical solvents, or exposure to oxygen in the extraction process denature the aromatic compounds, either changing their odor, character or rendering them odorless. In this project water distillation and solvent extraction were used to extract essential oils from lemongrass, 0.67% and 1.22% of essential oil respectively was produced. The extracted essential oil was formulated into perfume using a fixative and carrier solvent.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background Of The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of Problem
  • 1.3 Objective Of The Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Perfume Concentration
  • 2.3 Perfume Notes
  • 2.4 Sources Of Perfume
  • 2.5 Lemongrass
  • 2.6 Extraction Of Essential Oil
  • 2.7 Important Physical And Chemical Properties Of Essential Oils
  • 2.8 Parameters Affecting Yield And Quality Of Essential Oils
  • 2.9 Formulation Of Perfume

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Sample Collection
  • 3.2 Sample Preparation
  • 3.3 Sample Analysis
  • 3.4 Oil Extraction Methods
  • 3.5 Components Of The Water Extraction Plant
  • 3.6 Formulation Of Perfume

Chapter Four

4.0 Result And Analysis

  • 4.1 Determination Of Moisture Contents
  • 4.2 Percentage Yield
  • 4.3 Factors Affected The Yield Of Extracted Oil
  • 4.4 Physical Properties
  • 4.5 Quality Evaluation Of The Lemongrass Oil
  • 4.6 Formulated Perfume

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

The word perfumes take its name form the latin word perfumery (to fill with smoke) since in its original form, it was incense burner in Egyptian temple early it was found in a mixture of finely ground spices help together by Mgrrh or storax.

It occur in certain spices and flowers were steeped in fat or oil, the fat or oil would retain a portion of the odoriferous principle which can be blended by a constitutes like vehicle a solvent and fixture.

It also occur in some leaves, seals fruits and grasses. It first production data back to the 6th century BC when God gave Moses an instruction to make an acter of twin incense and Aaron shall burn there on sweet morning (ref Exodus 30:23)

Early incenses was merely mixture of finely ground spices held together by myrrh or storax. The next advance was the discovery that, if certain spices and flower were steeped in fat & oil “Avicenna” the Arabian physician discovered steam distillation of volatile oils during his search for medical petion, he found that flower boiled in an alembic with water gave up some of their essence to the distillate.

Hence, the quest for sweet smelling substance (perfume) was born perfumery look it genesis from the midst of antiquity, and in present day’s till maintains its ageless quality “sweet smelling fragrance”.


1.2 Statement Of Problem

Due to the various uses of body perfume in the country, the new arises for its production from locally raw material in trade to reduce cost of buying from aboard and subsequent important into the country.

This project is therefore towards providing alternative source of raw material for the production of perfume. This will be in very large measure aid in minimizing, if not slopping entirely, the present important syndrome which does not only constitute a sever chain on our economy but has also turn our country into a fertile dumping ground for both low quality and out dates perfumery and it will also create job opportunities in the countries.


1.3 Objective Of The Study

This work is aimed at developing an economical and indigenous way of producing body perfume using locally raw material in the best interest of small scale industries there by conserving their foreign exchange earnings.

But in Nigeria over ninety percent of the perfumes in use are imported either as finished or semi finished product.

Even the very little produced locally are still based on synthetic raw material, which are also imported. This is rather unfortunate, considering that numerous natural sources locally available form which the basic raw material for the production of perfume can be obtained. In cognizance of these facts, it become necessary and indeed of paramount importance that alternative source of raw materials be sought.

Even if the raw material locally available in commercial quantities and at reasonable cost, and with other advantage, natural product must be used in other to achieve a certain richness and natural character in perfumes. Although study is progressing material and in reconstructing them by synthesis the moment is still far of when gravity, solubility, refractive index, optical rotation, acid value, ester value, iodine value and among other. A knowledge of these physical characteristics help in the designing of the quality of the eventual product obtained.

Finally, an attempt is made at formulating specific brands of perfume from different oils using standard procedures.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

In this work, extraction of lemongrass oil was carried out. Extraction time and particle size were considered as factors to see their effects on the yield of lemongrass oil extracted. The volume or mass of lemongrass oil increase as extraction time increased and particle size decreased. The maximum yield was found at extraction time of 36 and 3 hours using solvent extraction and water distillation respectively, with particle size range from 5 to 8mm for water distillation and the maximum yield is 1.22% for solvent extraction and 0.67% for water distillation. All these methods of extraction are special type of separation process used for heat sensitive materials like essential oils, resins, hydrocarbons, etc. which are insoluble in water and may decompose at their boiling point. The formulation of perfume from extracted essential oil was carried out. Finally, extraction of essential oil from lemongrass can also be used on industrial scale to make various finished product like body oils, cosmetic lotions, baths, hair rinse, soap etc.


5.2 Recommendation

In this work, the effect of temperature, pressure and chemical compounds of lemongrass oil were not studied due to the lack appropriate equipment. Therefore, further study is need on these effects.

Study can be carried on converting the residue or the waste valuable product and using the hydrosol as integrated small scale industry.

The temperature in water distillation must be high enough to vaporize the essential oil present, yet not destroy or burns the essential oils.


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