Production Of High Quality Liquid Air Refresher

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Production Of High Quality Liquid Air Refresher


A project was carried out to produce high quality liquid air refreshner for domestic uses. The project was carried out using the following apparatus. Beakers (250ML), one conical flask, hydrometer, thermometer, two – 5ml of measuring cylinders, one reactor (plastic reactor), stirrer, weighing balance.

The chemicals used in the production of liquid air refreshner are; Amyl alcohol, ethanol, acetone, benzyl acetate, vitus vinyera (grape root extract), citranol (lemon grass extract), sodium benzoate, sodium lauryl sulphate, naphthalene, phenol and water as solvent.

Different sequence of addition of the chemicals was investigated and two correct sequence development. They are: Filtrate + Amyl Alcohol + Benzyl acetate + Acetone + Water + Sodium Benzoate + SLS + Naphthalene + Phenol. And Filtrate + Amyl alcohol + Water + Sodium Benzoate + Benzyl acetate + Phenol + Acetone + SLS + Naphthalene.

The effectiveness of the liquid air refreshner were tested using micro-organisms. From the result obtained, formation B gave phenol coefficient of 7.86 which was slightly above the standard phenol coefficient of odour control which is 7.74. Formulation A gave exactly 7.14 as the phenol coefficient which conforms with the standard phenol coefficient of odour control material costing as well as economics costing was equally carried out.

Table Of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Motivation
  • 1.2 Objectives Of The Project
  • 1.3 Concept Of Odour
  • 1.4 Electronic Nose
  • 1.5 Benefits Of Electronic Nose

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature Review
  • 2.1 How Deodorants Work
  • 2.2 Compounds Used As Deodorants
  • 2.3 Factors Affecting The Activity Of Liquid Deodorant
  • 2.4 Characteristics Of Any Air Freshner
  • 2.5 Anti-Microbial Agents And Preservative
  • 2.5.1 Common Anti-Microbial Agent And Their Uses.
  • 2.6 The Causes Of Odours
  • 2.7 Principles Guiding The Common And Affective Odour Control Methods
  • 2.7.1 Odour Control Methods.
  • 2.8 Odour Measurement And Evaluation
  • 2.9 Odorous Substance (Osono Genes) And Thresholds
  • 2.10 Classification Of Liquid Air Freshener
  • 2.11 Perfume As A Spray Type Liquid Air Freshener
  • 2.12 Some Materials Used In Odour Control Formulation
  • 2.13 Test For Standard

Chapter Three

  • 3.1 Experimental Procedure
  • 3.2 Raw Material Used
  • 3.3 Equipment And General Process Description
  • 3.4 Equipment Used
  • 3.5 Environmental Conditions
  • 3.6 Preparation Of The Filtrate
  • 3.7 General Process Description
  • 3.8 Costing

Chapter Four

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Evaluation Test Of Odour Control
  • 4.3 Discussion

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Conclusion
  • 5.1 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Historical Background

In the wake of early arts of advent of civilization efforts were made to prevent putrefaction and decaying of consumable food products. Many people suffer from all sorts of diseases as a result of air pollution and un-kept environment.

The use of disinfectants and air fresheners (deodorant) proceeded the scientific understanding of their action and seems to have arisen from the observation that certain substances stopped the putrefaction of meat or rotting of wood and even control of pollution.

The term deodorant (Air freshener) was first used by Pringle in 1950 to describe substance that prevent awful smell or odour from the environment. The idea was eventually applied to the treatment of odours from a piggery arenas. However, it was not until the nineteenth century that “Air freshener” came into general use.

The corner-stone of modern air fresheners was land by the end of the last century. By then the growing coal-tar industry was already producing phenol, phenolsulphonate, pyrethrin, cresol, creosote fractions and it was found that efficient deodorant could be made by using the ethyl or isopropyl alcohol.

In 1903, a third type of deodorant made its appearance, a coloured oil fluid (light blue) deodorant made by moral which was an emulsions of high aromatic chemicals. The fluid contained about 30 – 40% of phenols. A part from their much higher germicidal coefficients they were miscible in sea or very hard water without breakdown or loss in germicidal efficiency for this reason, they were largely indented for by the ‘Royal Navy’ in preference to other deodorizers.

In the pursuit of these deodorant that perfume emerge; which tends to pave way for liquid air fresheners.

Only occasionally has a new original odour been developed, such as old spice, which immediately won spontaneous and favourable response from consumers. Not many persons realize how complex the creation of an acceptable fragrance has become; it requires professionals knowledge, skill and experience, coupled with specialization in synthetic chemistry technical problems followed by consumer panel testing.

Air re-freshener takes times to act. The inherent rates of action of deodorants vary enormously; some powerful chemicals are effective in few seconds but must powerful chemicals requires minutes, hours and even days. A higher temperature, a higher concentration of air re-freshener and a smaller number of organism to be killed decreases the time required.

Some air re-fresheners are more active in acid, others in alkaline environment. All air re-fresheners are to some extent neutralized by organic matter. The power of penetration is important in enabling an air freshener reach organism protected by organic matter, and odour etc.

1.1 Motivation

It has been said by the Head of States and even passed into law, that importation of foreign goods must be stop. And that Nigerians as a whole should embark on made in Nigeria goods. The need arises for its production from locally raw material in order to reduce cost of buying from abroad and subsequently importation into the country.

This project is designed towards providing alternative sources of raw materials for production of liquid deodorants. This will in very production of liquid deodorants. This will in very large measure and in minimizing, if not stopping entirely, the present syndrome which does not only constitute a severe drain on our economy but has also turn our country into a fertile dumping ground for both low quality and out dated liquid deodorant and it will also create job opportunities for the producers in the country.

1.2 Objectives

This work is aimed at developing an economical and indigenous way of producing liquid deodorant using locally raw materials in the best interest of small-scale industries thereby conserving their foreign exchange earnings.

But in Nigeria, over ninety percent of the liquid deodorant in use are imported either as finished or semi-finished product. Even the very little produced locally are still based on synthetic raw materials, which are also imported. This is rather unfortunate considering that numerous natural sources locally available form which the basic raw materials for the production of liquid deodorant can be obtained.

In cognizance of these facts, it becomes necessary and indeed of paramount importance that alternative sources of raw material be sought.

Even if the raw materials become locally available in commercial quantities and at reasonable cost, and with other to achieve a certain richness and natural character in liquid deodorants.

Although study processing of materials and reconstructing them by synthesis, the moment is far when gravity, solubility, refractive index, optical rotation, acid value, extra-value and among others knowledge of these physical characteristics helps in the designing of the quality of the eventual product obtained.

Finally an attempts is made at formulating specific brands of liquid deodorants from different oils using standard procedures.

1.3 Concept Of Odour

Odours whether emanating from a sweet-smelling gardenia or a rank sweat sock are volatile chemicals that can kill olfactory neukons. Odour can induce bad mood, interfere with falling asleep, disturb sleep induce headche, nausea, fit of coughing, interfere with reading and thinking, interfere with recreation, induce vomiting, and interfere with bad breathing.

We smell by a chemical and physiological process. The keys to this process have only recently been discovered. Smells are carried on objectives, air and water. We smell by certain molecules dissolving onto hair-like cilia receptors that extend down from the olfactory bulb of the brain and into the nasal cavity.

The nose can distinguish more than 10,000 different odours in nature with only about 1000 different odour nerve receptors available in the nose for that purpose.

We detect odours by using at least a thousand different special genes that are active exclusively in the cells of our odour nerve receptors. These special genes help our odour nerve receptors paint a picture for each colour. Any slight change in the molecular “picture” can charge a sweet smell into a foul one and vice versa.

1.4 Electronic Nose

Scientists have endowed computers with eyes to see (digital cameras) ad ears to hear (via microphones and sophisticated recognition software). Now they are taking computes further into the realm of the senses with the development of an “Artificial Nose”.

An electronic nose must be “trained” to recognize an odour abnormality. Electronic noses combined with artificial neural (ANN) technology allow these instruments to be trained. ANNS are artificial intelligence Networks which, like humans, can “Learn” through exposure to stimuli.

1.5 Benefits Of Electronic Noses

The benefits of electronic noses include compactness, portability, real-time analysis, and automation. In some instances, electronic noses can be used to argument or replace panels of human experts. In other cases, electronic noses can be used to reduce the amount of analytical chemistry that is performed in food production especially when qualitative results will do. An electronic nose has applicability as a diagnostic tool. An electronic nose can examine odours from the body (eg breath, wounds, body fluid etc) and identity possible problems.

Chapter Five


An effective odour control was produced after so many trials and errors. The effectiveness of the odour control was tested thoroughly before it was recommended for practical use. Different grades of odour control can be obtained for different purposes. The factors which influence the effectiveness of odour control include: concentration, contact time, external condition such as temperature, PH and extraneous organic matter.

The odour control posses the following characteristics: non corrosive, stability, penetration power, homogeneity and effectiveness.

The majority of domestic perfume houses do not manufacture their own scents; they usually import or buy from the importers or sellers such as retailers of various perfumes.

The odour control manufacturers skill and resources increase with experience and research, new equipment’s is being developed for identifying fragrance components even in trace quantities, such as infrared and ultraviolet spectrographs and vapour phase chromatographs eventually, such instrumentations will be perfected to expedite production; but currently the odour control manufactures nose is regarded as the more discriminatory in arriving at a creative blend of exotic ingredients.

Even he does not know precisely what will make one formulations successful where several hundred others may fail.
Furthermore, after months of trail to attain objectives, a consumer panel may be unenthusiastic over his product.

Provided success is met thus far, the name, the package, the advertising, must all be perfectly orchestrated with the product odour control.

The psychological effect of odour is successfully used primarily to increase customer appeal.

Making use of the fact that perfumed merchandise out sells its odourless counterparts by a large margin of profit.

Furthermore, the comparison of the result of experiment with that of literature shows that or a higher yield, a method of thorough mixing and blending will be used with the adequate type of raw materials.


The odour control used should be for domestic purpose.

The dilution of the odour control should not be too much as to permit the killing of the organism within short time. Since it has been proven that high concentration of phenol is harmful to human consumption which is in the test undergone, the dilution should be systematic in order to meet the required food and drug administration standard which is 7.14 (phenol coefficient).

Many grades of the odour control can be produced by varying the concentration or quantities of the chemicals. The sequence of addition of the chemicals should be strictly followed to obtain a effective and homogenous mixture.

In order to improve on the performance of the mixing and blending process, since both is an effective and efficient method and means of production of odour control / air refreshner, it should be perfected by using the usual casketing form but in a faster rate. More especially with the fact that odiferous oils are not soluble in water but only soluble in organic solvents.

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