Production Of Domestic Powder

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Production Of Domestic Powder


Abstract


This research project is aimed at producing domestic powder and consequently, three different types of powder were produced, namely, simple face powder (pan-cake), medicated/Antiseptic powder (dristing powder).

During the various production Talcum, Zinc-oxide, Perfume, Menthol, Tragasan 300 DP (Triclosan), Mineral oil and colour (brown) were the materials used in the production of different powders. And equipment and apparatus used for production of the three different powders products are electronic weighing balance, mortar and pistle, beaker, filter paper, mixer and spatula.

The simple face powder production. Talcum and perfume or Zinc-oxide and perfume were used and was ratio or measured in other to standize the product. Also the Brown powder (pan-cake) Talcum, mineral oil Zinc-sterate (Zinc-oxide) and colour were the material used in the production. Thus the Medicated / Antiseptic powder (dustin powder) comprises of Talcum, Irzasan 300 Dp, Menthol, and little addition of zinc-oxide.


Chapter One


Introduction

Cosmetics are referred to as substances that make the face, body and hair look more attractive; generally, the study of cosmetology came into existence in the year 1895, in Chicago. Cosmetology is a branch of applied science, which deals with the external embellishment of the human, through the use of cosmetic products.

Cosmetics are of different types and are divided into hair care, body care, and make-up. Concisely, hair care cosmetics are referred to as the shampoo, Relaxers, conditioners, styling gel, pink oil, etc. Thus, there are used to beautify the hair. The body care cosmetics are the body creams and body lotions; they are cleansing creams and moisturizers, which are used for the body (Skin) Beautification.

Make-up cosmetics are referred to as powders, lipsticks, Wet-lips, cortex etc. powder is one of the cosmetic product that is widely used and very important to man since individuals want to promote their beauty.

Thus, powders are chemical formulation which are used on the external part of the skin e.g. face.

Powders are classified into three different types which are known as the simple powders, Antiseptic/Medicated powders, and Brown powders. Though, generally, the various powders are being applied on the skin but two of the powders named are basically for face beautification e.g Simple powder and Brown powder. The Antiseptic/Medicated are being applied on the body (Skin), when there is prickly heat rashes on the skin in other to inhabit or eliminate the micro-organisms that are infectious or causes infection to the human skin.

The qualities of the different powder products depends on the active ingredients and other additives added to it during it’s formulation. No single powder contains all the desired qualities needed by man and as such different powder cosmetics products exist in the market so as to meet the choice of individuals and as to such any of the product becomes medicated/Antiseptic powder when it contains germicidal or Antiseptic compounds including materials like Irzasan DP 300, Triclosan, menthol etc.

Any antiseptic added to powder must have selective toxicity so that it can only affact the particular micro-organisms activity to be controlled or eliminated and do not have any negative effect when applied on the skin (face or any part of the body.).

Hence, the brown powder (pan-cake or pressed powder) are pro duced purposely for the compliment of the skin colour.

Though, they vary in colours they are produced through the same medium the brown powder has three different colours namely colour 1

Colour 2, colour 3. Basically, colour 1 is produced for those with white skin colour people, colour 2 is produced for chocolate colour people, and colour 3 is produced for black skin colour people. Thus, the production of the brown powder is more tedious when compared to simple and Antiseptic/Medicated powders. Due to the process it under goes during the production. Thus, the simple powder is the most easiest and cheapest to produce among the three different types of powder.


Statement of the Study

Generally, in the production of various powders, the materials used are the talcum, Zinc-oxide, Perfume, Menthol, Mineral oil, Irgasan DP 300, but not all the materials named above are used in the production of the different powders, like the simple powder, Talcum, Perfume and Zinc oxide; if the need arise but it can be produced using Talcum and perfume. The Antiseptic /Medicated powders, Irgasan DP 300,Talcum are used in the production process, while the brown powders zinc state, talcum mineral oil, colour and perfume are used during the production.

Hence, in the production of powder, there are some quality control the producer must adhere to during production, the powder materials must be smooth and very fine in texture, in other words, there should not be particles in the powder and furthermore, the oil level must not exceed the normal quantity and a good oil should be used and the mineral oil should be very pure (Technical oil) that is a purified oil.


Aim of the Study

To produce a simple powder (face powder ) whose specification nearly conform to the standard specification for face powder formulation.


Significance of the Study

At the end of this study/experiment we will be able to shed light on the process of producing domestic powder whose specification nearly conform to the standard specification for face powder formulation

It will serve as a resource material for further research on the topic.


Scope of the Study

The study focused on the production of domestic powder. The various material used for the production of the different dome4stic powders were bought from Ogbete main market , Onitsha main market and from Mack son che4mical.

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Conclusion


The result obtained from the testing of the produced powders shows that the various ingredients in grammes needed for their formulations as well as the weight percent of these ingredients used for the production of the three different powders under consideration.

From the physical test carried out on the three different powder products and in accordance to the weight percent of the ingredients used for the various formulations, hence, the simple face powder is properly meant for normal use, that’s to mask shine and impart a smooth and velvet-like finish to the skin as well as looking very pleasant to touch.
Brown powder has three different colours namely, colour1, colour2, colour3, and each of colours are meant exclusively for three different colours like colour1 is meant for the white skin, colour2, for the chocolate skin and colour 3 is for black skin. It is purposely meant for4 those who wish to supplement the brown powder in place of the simple face powder.

The Medicated/Antiseptic powder is meant for control of prickly heat absorption of excessive perspirations and has cooling effect on the ski8n, because of the presence of menthol in the production of the Medicated/Antiseptic powder. In other to show that the research project to be a viable one because from markrt5 survey shows that the price of 250g of Medicated/Antiseptic powder , simple face powder of 250g and Brown powder are sold for N 250, N150, and N100 respectively, but the cost of the produced powder from the research project for 250g of Medicated/Antiseptic powder, simple face powder and Brown powder are N 440 & N353.55k, N425 & N340 and N453 & N420.8 respectively for the Zinc-oxide and Talcum productions.

Thus, from the cost of the three difficult powder produced shows that the simple face powder was the cheapest followed by the Medicated/Antiseptic powder with little difference from Brown powder due to the mineral oil added.


Recommendations


The research project was adequately done and in the course of doing it, we discovered some lapses in some powder production that are being sold in the market that doesn’t meet the requirement and some ingredient used. We hereby recommend highly that the subsequent persons who might take up. This project should adhere to the following

  1. Starch from cassava should not be used as an ingredient to impact absorbent property since it easily undergoes bacteria decomposition.
  2. Zinc oxide or Talcum forms more than 90% of the powder formulation because of it high covering powder/opacifying properties
  3. Before this precise project work is being taken up a [proper research should be done may other any powder producing company in other meet up with standard spec9fication for powder production
  4. Water should not be used in the formulation because it has no impact in the powder production
  5. Since it i8s produced in batch, proper minimizing of the various ingredient should be taken into consideration
  6. The weight percent of each ingredient to be used in the powder production should be taken in to considerat5ion
  7. The powder material must be smooth and very fine in texture
  8. The mineral oil used in the brown powder production should be very pure (purified oil)
  9. The mineral oil level must not exceed the normal percentage (quantity)
  10. If atmospheric pressure is used in the drying process, it should not exceed more than 5 mi8nute, and at temperature of 30oc
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