Production Of Chemical Insecticides Using Neem Oil And The Processes Involved
Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is perhaps the most useful traditional medicinal plant in India. Each part of the neem tree has huge insecticidal property and is thus commercially exploitaed. During the last two decades, apart from the chemistry of the neem compounds, considerable progress has been achieved regarding the biological activity and insecticidal applications of neem. It is now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for botanical insecticides against various pests. This review gives a bird’s eye view mainly on the biological activities of some of the neem compounds isolated, insecticidal actions of the neem extracts, applications of neem has an eco friendly botanical insecticide in pest management along with their safety evaluation.
Research into the insecticidal effects of azadirachtin, a limonoid from the Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) has been ongoing for some 30 years. Its strong antifeedant, insect growth regulatory and reproductive effects are now well understood and documented. Antiffedancy varies markedly between species with mosquitoes being particularly sensitive to azadirachtin. The mode of action of azadirachtin lies in (i) effects on deterrent and other chemoreceptors resulting in antifeedancy and (ii) direct effects on most other tissues studied resulting in an overall loss of fitness of the insect.
The complexity of the molecular structure of azadirachtin has precluded its synthesis for pesticide use although novel synthesis of the parent molecule is now almost complete and research into simpler mimetic substances is ongoing. Applied research has concentrated on a variety of natural formulations from neem seed kernels which contain azadirachtin together with several structurally related molecules.
This study brings the reader up to date with both pure and applied research in the field, and provides a detailed overview of present thinking into the mode of action of azadirachtin. Wherever possible comparative approaches have been made between species of the effects of pure azadirachtin and areas for future research are indicated.
Table Of Content
- Title page
- Certification page
- Table of content
- 1.1 Background Of The Study
- 1.2 Scope Of The Study
- 1.3 Aims And Objectives Of The Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Conceptual Review
- 2.2 Neem
- 2.3 Mode Of Action
- 2.4 Agricultural Crop Pests Rice
- 2.5 Safety On Natural Enemies
- 2.6 Precautions For Effective Application
3.0 Materials And Methods
- 3.1 Study Area
- 3.2 Preparation Of The Insecticide
- 3.3 Statistical Analysis
4.0 Result And Discussion
- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussion
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendation
1.1 Background Of The Study
According to Wikipedia “An insecticide is a chemical used against insects. They include homicides and parricides used against the eggs and larvae of insects, respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry, and general home use. The use of insecticides is believed to be one of the major factors behind the increase in agricultural productivity in the 20th century. Nearly all insecticides have the potential to significantly alter ecosystems; many are toxic to humans; and others are concentrated in the food chain.
The classification of insecticides is done in several different ways
Systemic insecticides are incorporated by treated plants. Insects ingest the insecticide while feeding on the plants.
Contact insecticides are toxic to insects brought into direct contact. Efficacy is often related to the quality of pesticide application, with small droplets (such as aerosols) often improving performance.
Natural insecticides, such as nicotine, pyrethrum, and neem extracts are made by plants as defenses against insects. Nicotine-based insecticides are still being widely used in the US and Canada, however they are barred in the EU
Plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs) are insecticidal substances produced by plants after genetic modification. For instance, a gene that codes for a specific Baccilus thuringiensis biocidal protein is introduced into a crop plant’s genetic material. Then, the plant manufactures the protein. Since the biocide is incorporated into the plant, additional applications, at least of the same compound, are not required.
Inorganic insecticides are manufactured with metals and include arsenates, copper compounds and fluorine compounds, which are now seldom used, and sulfur, which is commonly used.
Organic insecticides are synthetic chemicals that comprise the largest numbers of pesticides available for use today.
Mode of action—how the pesticide kills or inactivates a pest—is another way of classifying insecticides. Mode of action is important in predicting whether an insecticide will be toxic to unrelated species, such as fish, birds, and mammals.
1.2 Scope Of The Study
This study focuses on the production of chemical insecticides using neem oil and the process or procedures involve in neem oil.
1.3 Aims And Objectives Of The Study
The purpose of this study is to known and illustrate the following:
- The equipment involve in the production of chemical insecticide using neem oil
- The quality or measurement of the materials needed for the production of chemical insecticide using neem oil
- The acidic content of the materials needed for the production of chemical insecticide using neem oil
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
Neem can be considered as the most important among all biopesticides for controlling pests due to its non-toxicity and environmental safety. Azadirachtin is found to be the most potent neem fraction that adversely affects the growth and development of different insects in specific manner by different actions like repellent, oviposition deterrent and growth inhibition action. It is widely used in several countries around the world today either singly or in combination with synthetic pesticides in integrated pest management. The produced pesticides neem leaf extract and oil-based pesticide were sprayed on pest-infested subjects and the following results were obtained.
- The Neem leaf extract showed significant reduction in pest infestation in a period of seven days
- The oil-based pesticide showed reduction in pest infestation in four days time
Hence we can conclude that the oil-based pesticide is more efficient in pest control than the neem leaf extract. The maximum yield obtained from extraction of neem oil was 32% for n-hexane at 50°C and 0.5 – 1mm particle size. This extraction follows first order kinetic with smaller value as decrease of temperature. It also found that ΔH is positive, ΔS is positive, and ΔG is negative indicating that this process is endothermic, irreversible, and spontaneous.
The research has shown that insecticides made from natural botanical source such as neem leaves for mosquito eradication are less toxic as compared to those from the synthetic origin hence it is safer to use insecticides prepared from natural raw materials since they have little or no adverse effects on human health.
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