Production And Characterization Of Soft Soap From Local Potash (NGU) Or Caustic Potash Laboratory Or Commercial Grade

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Production And Characterization Of Soft Soap From Local Potash (NGU) Or Caustic Potash Laboratory Or Commercial Grade


This project was aimed at producing a fine high quality toilet soap at a low cost which will be of used to home and commercial purposes.

The toilet soap produced has its major components caustic potash, palm kernel oil (pKo) caustic soda and soda ash. Other additives are perfume, coaming agent, sodium tripotiphosphate (STPP), colour, ptenus, glycerine, sodium silicate and pac-R or stabilizer. And a cold process was employed in the production.

However, at the end of the production, a light pink coloured toilet soap was produced which is of a high quality smooth with pleasant aroma and high foaming quality and at affordable cost.

Finally, there is little or no different when comparing this soap to the commercial grade because of its ability to lather, mildness to skin, colour (ester and bright looking), odour, shelf-life and stability of moisture content of firmness.

Table of Content

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.2 Objectives
  • 1.3 economic importance of soap
  • 1.4 scope

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 literature review
  • 2.1 chemistry of soap
  • 2.3 Extraction of Alkali from Ngu
  • 2.4 Raw material used for soap production
  • 2.5 Methods of soap production
  • 2.6 Cleaning action of soap

Chapter Three

  • 3.1 Experimental
  • 3.2 Apparatus and material used
  • 3.3 Experimental procedure
  • 3.4 Results and data analysis

Chapter Four

  • 4.1 Discussion
  • 4.2 Conclusion
  • 4.3 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter one

1.0 Introduction

The metal salts of the high molecular weight organics acids that occurs in fats as esters are called “soap” soaps are alkali salts of a fatty acid and or are detergents derived from naturally occurring oils, fats and waxed which in turns are available from vegetable sources.

Scientifically, soaps can be defined as a chemical compound or mixture of chemical compound that resulting from the interaction of fatty glyceride with a metal radical or organic base. The metal generally concerned with soap production are sodium (Na) and potassium (k), which produces water-soluble soap.

Soap belong to a class of the products that have the ability for cleaning materials/substances. It obtains the its useful cleaning characteristic from the combination of a long chaim hydrocarbon, which has good solvent action on others hydeocarbon, and its high water solubility.

Soft soap such as toilet soap, uses higher quality fat with water content reduced to about 10% or less. This soap is could and flaked, and passed through a hot air drying oven to reduce the water content prior to milling. Trace constituents are metered at the milling stage, since the soap is dried and higher pressure are required and subsequent plodding, the properties of the soft soap produced depends mainly on the alkali (potassium) and the fat/oil need. Due to this properties, it can be dissolved in water easily with high formability which makes it easy for washing soft soaps also contain additives such s perfumes, dyes, and antiseptic like sodium Tripoliphosphate (STPP).

The main difficulty with soaps is that in hard water which typically contains calcium (ca) ions, the soap propitiates as an insoluble calcium salt and this creates various problems particularly in laundering cloths. Soap contains a basic cleaning agent called a “surfactants or surface active agent”. The surface active agents consist of molecules that attach themselves to the dirt particles. The molecules pull these dirt particles out of the materials and hold them in the wash water until they are rinsed away.

Successful improvement in the production of soap industries have made it possible for the soap to receive public patronage as a result of certain materials that were added, vix alky/benzene sulphanate (ABS), which originated from the petrochemicals such as prophlene and benzene. This involves alkylatin of benzene with propylene and consequent suphonation of the resultant alky/benzene with sulphuric acid.

The alky/benzene sulphnates suffers from a major disadvantage; micro organism cannot degrade them, also the disposal of the waste products of soap causes a serious environmental pollution. As a result of this, in era alky/benzene sulphonate were developed which are more easily degraded by micro-organism.

Soap being derived from naturally substances were developed long before the mechanism of the detergent. There are a number of soaps prepared for special uses. Scouring soaps contain sand, pumice or similar material for abrasive action. Medicated soaps and soaps that smell like sheep dip contain antiseptics, and tailow is the must important fat for the production of soap, although coconut, babassu and palm-kernel oils are used in conjunction with tallow.

The term soap is broad enough to include the metal salts of carboxylic acids which are not used for cleaning purposes.

Those include the aluminum , calcium and aithium soaps used in greases, aluminum soaps used in cosmetics and zinc soaps used in antiseptic powers. Other metal soaps are used for water proofing, as derivers in paints, to kill fungi and as mordents.

1.2 Objectives

The objectives of this project are:

  1. To produce soft soap either from the local potash (Ngu) or from the laboratory grade.
  2. To compare the characteristic of the soft soap produced with the characteristics of the either soaps produced from different sources.
  3. To provide a means of producing soft soaps in the most economic way for the commercial grade.

1.3 Economic Importance of Soap

Soap have many household and industrial beneficial uses. People use these products to wash their dishes and laundry to scrub flours, to clean wall and windows and to do may other household job.

Industrially, soaps and detergents can be used as cleaners, lubricants, softeners and polishers. For instance tire manufactures apply soap to hot tire to prevent them foom sticking to the moulds used in vulcanizing or hardening rubber. However, therefore, soaps can be used to polish jewelry and to soften leather for shoes and purses.

1.4 Scope

The scope of this project work is limited to the production and characterization of the soft soap from the caustic potash for commercial grade.

Chapter Four

4.1 Discussion

Cold process is one of the processes used to manufacture toilet soap in small-scale and small batch production. Fast/oils of better quality is required than in the hot process and a higher concentration or strength of caustic solution is used during the process of soap making, and all materials used are made into solution for uniform reaction or mixing.

The finishing products should that for a satisfactory soap production process the fats or oils have to be saponified to produce soap with a low water content of about 10 or 15 percent during the preparation of the toilet soap, the caustic potash was fermented for upwards of 48 hours or 2 days and soda ash for upwards of 24 hours before been reacted with the palm kernel oil (pko) to obtained not only proper dissolution but also to allowed the soda ash to acquire water of crystallization to produce a real or idea toilet soap.

The additions like magnesium sulphate (mgso4) was dissolved in a small portion of the caustic or soda ash to minise the quantity of the water entering the reaction sodium silicate and carbonate (iv) acid added inhibit corrosion, bind and shine the toilet soap and improve the lathering and hardening of the soap products.

The samples produced formed lather very well, while some smell the caustic and this may be due to an excess caustic and very weak perfume used. The tested one, also showed that the toilet soaps are harmless to the skin or the substrate after use. The is, its good quality does not peels the skin or materials after using for washing or bathing, and this is because moderate or low strength of caustic solution was used.

The soaps have good shelf-life with complete saponification process or reaction.

4.2 Conclusion

From the experimental result, it was seen from the graph of temperature versus corresponding time that at a point there was a rise in temperature, and this indicates that the reaction release heat which, therefore, shows that the production of the toilet soap under goes an exothermic reaction.

Moreso, it can be concluded that the manufacturing process of the toilet soap as the same as in the laundry soap up to the barring except that caustic potash which is less corrosive or a mixture of caustic potash and soda ash may replace the caustic soda (more corrosive), and additives are withheld a longer drying period was required for toilet soap.

4.3 Recommendation

For commercialization, it is desired to sue the hot saponification or process to produce soap because cold process is only application in small scale or small batch production and its simplicity operation required low cost of plant and labour.

However, in preparation of the toilet soap titanium dioxide (T1/2), and additive, may be added prior to the addition of the colourant to prepare the crude soap for the reception of the colourant. And during the process of drying, the soap should be allowed to dry well for the complete saponification that might eliminate oily smell of the soap or excessive unsaponified oil. It is skin after wash due to the high strength of the caustic solution used, such solution should be mined down before use.

Further research works are recommended when using the cold process for soap production;

  1. That the proportion of the palm kernel oil (pko) should twice that of caustic solution
  2. That the materials should thoroughly mix to avoid high water content which after evaporation disfigure the shape of the soap.

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