Production And Acceptability Studies Of Malted Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor) Biscuit

Project and Seminar Material for Food Science and Technology (FST)

Production And Acceptability Studies Of Malted Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor) Biscuit


Biscuit was produced from malted sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and wheat flour blend. Sorghum grains were sorted, steeped in water, germinated and kilned. Four samples of biscuit were produced using sorghum and wheat in the following ratios samples A; 30: 70, sample B; 50:50, sample C; 60:40, sample D; 100:0. Creaming method was used in biscuit production with specified ingredients. Proximate analysis of the product (biscuit) was determinate viz. moisture content for sample A; 2.5%, B; 3% C; 3.5%, D; 2%, fat content for the sample A; 15%, B; 16%, C; 17%, D, 15.5%, Protein content for A; 8.52%, B; 8.7%, C; 8.79%, D; 8.35%, Ash content for sample A; 0.5%, B; 1.0%, C; 1.5%, D; 0.5% and Carbohydrate content for A; 73.48%, B; 71.24%, C; 69.21%, D; 73.65% respectively. the sensory evaluation of the samples were carried out using hedonic scale. from the result, there was no significant difference at 5% level and 1% level between the four samples in terms of colour crispiness, flavour, and overall acceptance, but when compared with 100% wheat, there was a slight difference in texture of biscuits with “sorghum and wheat”, but from the score mean, sample B gave the best result.

Table of Contents

  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table Of Contents

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Objectives of the study

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature Review
  • 2.1 Origin of Sorghum
  • 2.2 Sorghum Utilization
  • 2.2.1 Production of Malted Sorghum Flour
  • 2.2.2 Malted of Sorghum
  • 2.2.3 Steeping
  • 2.2.4 Germination
  • 2.2.5 Kilning
  • 2.3 Method of Processing Wheat into Flour for Biscuit Making
  • 2.3.1 Wheat Flour Production
  • 2.3.2 Effects of Processing of Nutritional Value of wheat Flour
  • 2.3.3 Functional Processing of Nutritional Value of Wheat Flour
  • 2.4.0 Ginger
  • 2.4.1 The History of Ginger
  • 2.4.2 Ginger Cultivation
  • 2.4.3 Spices and Other Oils
  • 2.4.4 Ginger Processing
  • 2.4.5 Uses of Ginger
  • 2.4.6 Nutritional Composition
  • 2.5.0 Biscuit
  • 2.5.1 Definition of Biscuit
  • 2.5.2 Classification of Biscuits
  • 2.5.3 Hard Dough Biscuits
  • 2.5.4 Lean Hard Dough Biscuits
  • 2.5.5 Medium Hard Dough Biscuits
  • 2.5.6 Puff Hard Biscuits
  • 2.5.7 Lean Batter Biscuits
  • 2.5.8 Highly Enriched Biscuits
  • 2.5.9 Proximate Composition of Biscuits

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Materials and Method
  • 3.1 Sources of Raw Materials
  • 3.2 Raw Materials for Baking
  • 3.3 Equipment
  • 3.4 Chemicals
  • 3.5 Method for Processing Malted Sorghum
  • 3.6 Biscuit Production
  • 3.6.1 Proximate Analysis of the Prepared Biscuits
  • 3.6.2 Protein Determination
  • 3.6.3 Fat Determination
  • 3.6.4 Moisture Determination
  • 3.6.5 Total Ash Determination
  • 3.6.6 Carbohydrate Determination
  • 3.6.7 Sensory Evaluation of Prepared Samples

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Results and Discussions
  • 4.1 Proximate Composition of the Test Biscuits
  • 4.2 Sensory Evaluation
  • 4.3 Discussion

Chapter Five

  • Conclusion and Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Biscuit may be defined as a thin flat baked product made from flour, salt, sweetening agent fat and preservatives. They are crisps, unleavened and sometimes sweet pastry produced light by the addition – F baking powder or soda, sometimes with chocolate or fruit in put (Achukoh; 1992). Biscuit can also be defined as a baked product having not less than 8% of flour content calculated (Hannemah, 1981). Okaka, 1997 stated that biscuits are termed “cookies” in USA but the Word biscuit means a small cake like bun.

According to Terrell, 1981 there are basically some ingredients that are used for biscuit production such as sugar, salt, milk, shortening flavour leavening. Egg improves the volume of biscuit as well as the taste and flavour. Egg and butter are also used for variety, these improves the quality of the products.

Wheat flour is a critical and principal raw material in biscuit production its. Superiority over other cereals is due to the presence of gluten which inherently imparts all the essential qualities to their products. The absence of this simple protein in non-wheat flour makes them unsuitable as substitutes for wheat flour. Unfortunately, wheat is a temperature crop, there fore, our tropical climate does not favour its cultivation. Flour which has high gluten content are classified as a strong hard flour, and therefore produces a strong dough and thus a strong biscuit is produced (Richtea), while flour with small gluten content produces a soft I weak biscuit (Digestive) Aerating chemicals, syrups and water were further added as one of the basis ingredients for biscuit making (Achukoh; 1992). The production of biscuits involves weighing, mixing, dough formation, kneading and rolling out, machining and shaping, prickling Bakino, cooling and packaging (Okaka, 1997).

The malting potentials of sorghum grains can be utilized to produce soft dough biscuit. Germinated sorghum grains, develop alpha – amylase, carboxy peptidase, endo – beta – 1, 3 – glucanase, pentosanase, limit dextrinase and endo – protease in the grain during malting. Malting involves essentially steeping, germination and limiting cereals, seedling growth by kilning. During germination enzymes are produced for the degradation of starch and protein in the cereal grain. Malting yields higher proportions of hydrolytic enzymes such as X and B – amylases which may be either completely soluble or largely insoluble depending on the variety.

Malted sorghum and wheat flour are used in order to check the baking potential of biscuit, malts produce from sweet sorghum and related variety usually contain insoluble amylase. The insoluble substances that make aqueous extraction impossible (Amori, 1 9 8 7) – Glucosidase in sorghum malt is also highly insoluble malt solid (Barry, and Dorota 1988).

Malting causes a decrease in the density of caryposis in sorghum grain (Isola, 1992). Lower the amount of lysine from 0.25% in unmalted sorghum to 0.18% in sorghum malt (Ilori, 1989) and reduces the milling energy (Swanstoo et al, 1994).

Time and temperature of storage influence the percentage soluble amylase in sorghum grain. For example, sorghum grain stored at 12t 23oc temperature for 2 to 3 years give higher levels of soluble amylase (between 57 – 73%) while nearly harvested grain give about 25%. Lowering the temperature to 7oc reduces the level of soluble amylase in the level of soluble amylase in the grains to about 37% after 3 years (Novellie et al, 1973).

Aims and Objectives of the Study

To evaluate the acceptability of the biscuit made from malted sorghum and wheat flour blend and to reduce cost of production manufacturers, so as to break even and make gain.

Malted sorghum flour has blended with wheat flour in the preparation of some confectioneries will go a long way in reducing he country’s heavy reliance on imported wheat and conserve the Nation Foreign Exchange

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

A good quality biscuit can be described as one which is crispy and soft enough to be masticated.

The baking of biscuit with malted sorghum flour which helps in the development of amylase and proteolytic enzymes activity which break down carbohydrate and protein to low molecular weight which makes it easily convertible to the desired product.

By consume biscuit made from malted sorghum / wheat composite flour rather then that made from just wheat, the problem of malnutrition which is of high incidence in low income section of the populace will be minimized.
In this work, it was discovered that the biscuit made from 50:50 malted sorghum / wheat composite flour was the best when compared with the biscuit made from 30:70, 60:40 and 100.0 malted sorghum / wheat composite flour in term of crispiness, flavour and overall acceptance. On the nutritional value the biscuit made from 60:40 malted sorghum / wheat flour was discovered to have highest protein and fat content and is therefore the best nutritionally.
This followed by the biscuit of 50.50, 30:70 and 100.0. There was however, no significant difference in the overall acceptability of the different biscuit products at 5% and 1% probability levels


I recommend that biscuit industries should start substituting wheat flour with malted sorghum flour to the level of 50.50 ratio. This practice would lead to availability of biscuits with higher levels of protein and reduction of wheat import bill to developing countries and cultivate much.

I also recommend that more research should be done to know why 60:40 did not meet up with standard and also why 30:70 and 100.0% was over taken by 50:50 respectively.

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