Problems Of Town Planning Development
This study is on the problem of town planning development. The total population for the study is 200 residents of Abakpa Nike, Enugu state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up civil servants,elderly men,elderly women and youths was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
1.1 Background of the Study
Town planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and use of land, protection and use of the environment, public welfare, and the design of the urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks. It can be referred to as urban and regional, regional, town, city, rural planning or some combination in various areas worldwide. Town planning takes many forms and it can share perspectives and practices with urban design (Robert, 2010).
Town planning development is the process of developing urban, suburban and rural areas orderly. Although predominantly concerned with the planning of settlements and communities, town planning is also responsible for the planning and development of water use and resources, rural and agricultural land, parks and conserving areas of natural environmental significance. The major reason for town planning is urbanization.
Urbanization is not a recent phenomenon in Nigeria. Indeed many ancient cities such as Enugu, Ile Ife, Kano, Ibadan, Benin and Sokoto have had a rich history of urbanization. Urbanization however increased significantly during the colonial administrations. It is apparent that the rate of urbanization in recent period has been vigorous, alarming and unsustainable. The most serious problems confronting cities, towns and their inhabitants as identified in Agenda (2010) include the following: Inadequate financial resources, lack of employment opportunities, spreading homelessness and expansion of squatter settlements, increased poverty and a widening gap between the rich and poor, growing insecurity and rising crime rates, inadequate and deteriorating building stock, services and infrastructure. Other problems include lack of health and educational facilities, improper land use, insecure land tenure, rising traffic congestion, increasing pollution, lack of green spaces, inadequate water supply and sanitation, uncoordinated urban development and an increasing vulnerability to disaster. All these have seriously challenged the town planning development in place like Abakpa Nike. The capacity of government at all levels to realize socio- economic development and environmental protection, which is all components of sustainable development, is also challenged.
Nigeria as a nation has been experiencing an accelerated shift of her populations from rural to urban areas. This rapid rate of urbanization has engendered several challenges and problems in town planning development similar to situations in other parts of the world. The problems identified in Agenda (2010) are prevalent in Enugu state. Today’s Enugu city, according to Mabogunje (2012) is typified by substandard and inadequate housing, slums, and lack of infrastructure, transportation problems, low productivity, poverty, crime and juvenile delinquency. Urbanization, according to him is the root cause of the high rates of environmental degradation, pollution and social delinquency.
In order to address the problem of town planning development and promote sustainable development, the United Nations Millennium Declaration was adopted in September 2000, committing countries both rich and poor to do all they can to eradicate poverty, promote human dignity and equality and achieve peace, democracy and environmental stability. The goals include those dedicated to eradicating poverty, achieving universal primary education, promoting gender equality, reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensuring environmental sustainability and developing a global partnership for development. Nigeria is a signatory to the Millennium Declaration and has a responsibility to implement the goals.
Various scholars have studied the challenges of town planning development in Nigeria. Some of them include Falade (1999) whose study focused on the challenges of a sustainable Nigeria, Abumere (2002) whose research centered on urban governance and the challenges of urban poverty, Odeyemi (2002) who did a study on gender and urbanization and Olanrewaju (2003) who focused on sustainability and urban poverty.
However, since urban development occurs in a continuum, this paper focuses on the problems of town planning development in Abakpa Nike Enugu Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Town planning development control is one of the measures applied by physical planning agencies, town planners particularly, local planning authority. The town planning has also been linked to poverty reduction and innovation. Almost universally, access to basic urban services such as health, education, water, sanitation and electricity are higher in urban areas than in rural areas and are higher in larger urban areas than in smaller urban areas.
With the increasing population explosions and massive rural-urban migration accompanying the urbanization process in the developing cities, global economic integration, increased international trade, capital flows, telecommunication, new waves of technologies, and shifts in the comparative advantage of production continue to play a central role in integrating major urban centers and shaping the spatial organization of the cities (Jiboye, 2010).
Oyesiku (2011) opined that the pressure created by population growth from natural increase and migration on little investment in infrastructure and services in Nigerian cities is indeed so great that declines in quality and quantity of these are inevitable. This emigrational factor often results to over urbanization, which constitutes a “strike back” effect on the environment. (Awosusi and Jegede 2013)
The study examines the problems of town planning development and sustainability in Nigeria, and analyzes the implementation of some suggested ways targeted with emphasis on Abakpa Nike Enugu state, Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The aim of this project is to present a study on the problems of town planning development in Abakpa Enugu. Therefore, the specific objectives are as follows;
- To assess the level of town planning development in Abakpa Nike Enugu
- To find out the authorities involved in town planning in Abakpa Nike Enugu
- To find out the problems of town planning development in Abakpa Enugu
- To suggest ways that will help control and sustain town planning development in Abakpa Enugu.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
- H0: there are no authorities involved in town planning in Abakpa Nike Enugu
H1: there are authorities involved in town planning in Abakpa Nike Enugu
- H02: there are no problems of town planning development in Abakpa Enugu
H2: there are problems of town planning development in Abakpa Enugu
1.5 Significance of the Study
The importance of the study cannot be overemphasized. This is because the benefits accrued to sustainable town planning and development can be felt when there is proper land use and town planning.
Also, the authorities will be aware of the various problems and get solutions to them through this study.
This will benefit the public as they will live conveniently without complain of bad drainages, improper town planning, adequate infrastructures etc.
Finally, it will benefit students who intends to carryout similar research as it will serve as a secondary material for the student.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of the study covers the problem of town planning development. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational Privacy:
Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 Definition of Terms
A matter or situation regarded as unwelcome or harmful and needing to be dealt with and overcome.
The planning and control of the construction, growth, and development of a town or other urban area
The process of developing or being developed.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the problem of town planning development
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of the problem of town planning development
This study was on the problem of town planning development. Four objectives were raised which included:To assess the level of town planning development in Abakpa Nike Enugu, to find out the authorities involved in town planning in Abakpa Nike Enugu, to find out the problems of town planning development in Abakpa Enugu, to suggest ways that will help control and sustain town planning development in Abakpa Enugu. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 residents of Abakpa Nike, Enugu state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up civil servants,elderly men,elderly womenand youths was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
The lessons from the above issues are that the Town Planning profession is being realized as an indispensable tool for urban planning and proper development. The planning profession is definitely reaping the dividends of democracy from the realization of the misrule and improper application of planning laws in the past. There are now indications of the tendencies to remedy the past failures of the planning rules because of the previous coercive ways. The environment is now conducive and legal cases are properly channeled through the law courts without fear and torture. Virtually all states in the federation and the National Assembly recognize the significance of physical planning as it has been made compulsory in their ministries and parastatals. Having examined the situations during the military regime and the situations now, it is evident that there are a lot of dividends for the Town Planning profession from the present civilian dispensation. Town planning as a professional discipline in the field of environmental studies and management is essentially for all town and country planning activities and development in the country. The town planning profession will have a lot of things to say as regards good governance. The profession flourished well before the Land Use Act, suffered grievously during the thick of Land Use Act, which eroded a lot of functions in the preparation of layouts due to the executive power of the State Administrators over land. The military regime dealt a serious blow to the progress and implementation of planning programmes by flagrant abuses and imposition of orders. Planning became full government controlled and development control was public oriented. Decisions by state chief executives for changing of plans were mostly taken even before consulting the planning officers. But because of the planners’ anticipated gains, they overlook the planning implications
Whereas under the effective rule of law and good governance, physical planning is meant to take adequate control of future development by plan preparation and administration as well as development control. The systematic development is essential and necessary for the orderly growth of the towns and cities with the use of master plans, land use zoning, and layout of new areas as some of the planners’ techniques for achieving the desired goal. That is why good governance and effective leadership control is an asset for city development.
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