The Problems Of Teaching Physical And Health Education In Junior Secondary Schools (A Case Study Of Selected Schools In Bwari Area Council, FCT-Abuja)

Health Education Project Material

The Problems Of Teaching Physical And Health Education In Junior Secondary Schools (A Case Study Of Selected Schools In Bwari Area Council, FCT-Abuja)


Abstract


The importance of physical and health education in human life cannot be over emphasized when the kind of life to be enjoyed and productivity to various phases of human endeavor are considered. This research work examines Physical and Health Education; its prospects and challenges in the junior secondary schools. It provides an overview of health education, values of health education, why physical and health education is necessary in the school curriculum, state of physical and health education in Nigeria schools and problems facing physical and health education in Nigeria. The study concludes that the efficient implementation of school health programme is the best hope of achieving significant life extension and learning process among junior secondary school children which has been poorly implemented by stakeholders.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Physical and Health Education is a systematic instruction in sports, training, practice, gymnastics, exercises, and hygiene given as part of a school or college program. Physical and Health Education is the study, practice, and appreciation of the art and science of human movement (Hardman, 2002b). Physical and Health Education is course in the curricula that utilizes the learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains in a play or movement exploration setting (Kirui, 2007). In this study, it refers to an instructional program built around basic motor activities, which help achieve the goal of physical, emotional and mental wellbeing for every pupil, student and student-teachers. It includes education in health, hygiene, first aid, personal safety, and the teaching of manipulative skills. It is an integral part of the schooling process. In schools Physical and Health Education is usually referred to by the abbreviation P.H.E.The teacher is considered to be the major and first instrument in education. School relies upon teacher in preparing generations of students and in facing problems that hinder their ability to perform duties represented in student progress and leveraging their level. There is no doubt that Physical and Health Education course carries a primary significance among the entire student body with all their differences, status and experience. Thus, teacher is the corner stone in learning and teaching, and the most important factor in education process. This requires the availability of an effective teacher who seeks to be competent and influential. His desire stems from professional commitment to provide the best education possible to his student in one hand, and to his need in facing regulatory process and situations of management in learning environment, on the other hand. Tal, et al (1993) and Kurdi (1986) cited by Abedalbasit, (2013) points out that revealing the importance magnitude of Physical and Health Education is the school’s responsibility. This can be achieved through providing sufficient opportunities to sports practicing, achieving physical fitness, adopt health information and habits, and safe attitudes in order to enable a Physical and Health Education program that helps in stabilizing their emotions and assure themselves through several activities.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

With the increase of sedentary activities such as watching television, playing videogames, increased computer technology, automation and reduction of high school Physical and Health Education schedules, young people are most likely to become overweight, and less fit. Based on previous review of literature, it is very understandable that there is a lack of research in Nigeria regarding Physical and Health Education as an important subject in public schools for junior classes especially in Abuja. Lack of good health among Nigeria students in public schools is noticeable because of many reasons such as obesity, lack of self-awareness of health fitness and health related issues. Based on this, the study was design to investigate the problems of teaching Physical and Health Education in Nigerian Junior Secondary Schools: An Implication for Future Generation, A Case Study of selected schools in Bwari Area council, FCT, Abuja.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

This study was undertaken majorly to investigate the problems of teaching physical and health education in junior secondary schools.

Specifically, the study intends to:

  1. To examine the factors that inhibits the teaching of physical and health education in junior secondary schools.
  2. To find out if junior secondary school Physical and Health Education teachers are exposed to new technologies.
  3. To know whether or not Physical and Health Education teachers are aware of the new technologies and whether these new technologies are also available for teaching PHE in junior secondary schools.
  4. To ascertain the challenges of teaching physical and health education in junior secondary schools.
  5. To proffer recommendations to these challenges.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the factors that inhibit the teaching of Physical and Health Education in junior secondary schools?
  2. Are junior secondary school Physical and Health Education teachers are exposed to new technologies?
  3. Are Physical and Health Education teachers are aware of the new technologies use in teaching PHE?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  1. Ho: There are no problems that inhibits the teaching of Physical and Health Education in junior secondary schools.
    Hi: There are problems that inhibits the teaching of Physical and Health Education in junior secondary schools.
  2. Ho2: The study and practice of physical and health education does not have significant impact on the psycho-motor of the students.
    Hi2: The study and practice of physical and health education have significant impact on the psycho-motor of the students.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this topic or related topics and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their work.


1.7 Scope / Limitations of the Study

This study on the problems of teaching physical and health education in Junior Secondary Schools will focus on selected schools in Bwari Area Council of Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) of Nigeria.

Limitations of study
a. Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

b. Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Physical Education:

Also called physical training (PT) or gym in less progressive settings, is a course in the curriculum which utilizes learning in the cognitive, affective and psycho motor domains in a play or movement exploration setting. It is the instruction in physical exercise and games, especially in schools.

Health Education:

Is any combination of learning experiences designed to help individuals and communities improve their health, by increasing their knowledge or influencing their attitudes.

Teacher:

A teacher (also called a school teacher) is a person who provides education for students

Student:

A student or pupil is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to reiterate that the objective of this study was to examine the problem of teaching physical and health education in junior secondary school.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in examining the problem of teaching physical and health education in junior secondary school.


5.2 Summary

This study was undertaken to examine the problem of teaching physical and health education in junior secondary school. The study was introduced with chapter one where the statement of the problem was clearly defined. The study objectives and research hypotheses were defined and formulated respectively. The study reviewed related and relevant literatures. The chapter two gave the conceptual framework, empirical and theoretical studies. The third chapter described the methodology employed by the researcher in collecting both the primary and the secondary data. The research method employed here is the descriptive survey method. The study analyzed and presented the data collected in tables and tested the hypotheses using the chi-square statistical tool. While the fifth chapter gives the study summary and conclusion.


5.3 Conclusions and Recommendation

It could be concluded that Health and physical education have been found to bring individuals and communities together, highlighting commonalities and bridging cultural and ethnic divides. It has also provided a forum to learn skills such as discipline and leadership, and they convey core principles that are important in a democracy, such as tolerance, solidarity, cooperation; and respect. Access to and participation in health and physical education provide an opportunity to experience social and moral inclusion for individuals and populations otherwise marginalized by social, ethnic, cultural or religious barriers. Through physicalandHealth education, individuals can experience equality, freedom and a dignifying means for empowerment particularly for girls and women, for people with a disability, for those living in conflict areas and for people recovering from trauma. Therefore, physical education teachers should re-invigorate their efforts in spite of these challenges and develop spoils in their various schools and communities.

However, from observation and through the questionnaire, it was discovered that the junior secondary schools do not have competent and willing teachers who will teach this subject. Also, from some school, it was discovered that the subject is theoretically taught and not practiced. Furthermore, the competent and willing teachers are not given the right motivation to do the job.

Based on the foregoing, the following recommendations were made:

  1. Health education should be given priority in Nigerian Educational curriculum right from basic schools through secondary and tertiary institutions.
  2. The proposed restructuring of NCE programmes by National commission for colleges of Education to scrap health education as a teaching subject should be jettisoned
  3. In-service training programme should be provided for active health educators in both basic and secondary school level.
  4. The organs of school health programmes; school health instructions, school health services, healthful school environment and school community relation should be given recognition in all levels of education through coordinated efforts of all stake holders.
  5. All tiers of government should expedite actions in the provision of facilities, equipment and materials for the effective implementation of School Health Instruction at all levels of educational system.
  6. Emphasis should be placed on the recruitment of personnel such as physicians, nurses, counsellors, grounds men and cleaners to complement the programme of instruction imparted by trained health educators at basic and secondary school levels.

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