Problems Of Teaching And Learning Physics In Some Selected Senior Secondary Schools In Niger State

Physics Education Project Material

Problems Of Teaching And Learning Physics In Some Selected Senior Secondary Schools In Niger State


Abstract


This study was carried out on the problems of teaching and learning physics in some selected senior secondary schools in Niger State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to find out whether negative attitude of students towards learning physics affect the teaching of physics in Nigerian Secondary schools, find out whether unavailability of qualified teachers, and teachers lack of competencies affect the teaching of physics in Nigerian Secondary schools, find out whether complex scientific language used in teaching physics affect the teaching of the subject in Nigerian Secondary schools and find out whether lack of modern laboratory apparatus, and inconsistency in government policies affect the teaching of physics in Nigerian Secondary schools. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of physics students and teachers in some selected senior secondary schools in Niger State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 229 respondents and 210 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that negative attitude of students towards learning physics affect the teaching of physics in Nigerian Secondary schools. The result of the findings reveals that lack of modern laboratory apparatus, and inconsistency in government policies affect the teaching of physics in Nigerian Secondary schools. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers should be encouraged to go for workshop training in their area of specialization so that they can have knowledge of current ideas and innovations that have taken place in the educational field. Especially in their area of specialization. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organizations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review
  • 2.4 Chapter Summary

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

There are no historical records as regards the introduction of physics in the Nigerian school system, but the fact remains that it is a popular subject of choice among the secondary school students on Nigerian schools.It is however very disheartening and heart breaking that despite the key role and much emphasis, physics students at secondary school level still perform poorly in the subject (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2001), which has been an issue of great concern to stake holders in education especially those in the field of sciences. However, students of physics do not perform so well in senior secondary certificate examinations, a fact which is possible because of inadequate use of available teaching media. In spite of the objectives and benefits of physics in the school curriculum, the teaching of the subject is characterized with conventional method of teaching which leads to ineffective learning and poor attitude of students towards the subject.

In addition to the conventional method of teaching, other problems are poor location of the school, incessant changes in government policies, closure of schools (which is contingent upon teachers strike) home school distance, high physics student teacher ratio, lack of supervision, monitoring and evaluation machinery, lack of good text books, poor content and context of instruction, poor and non- conducive environment, lack of instructional materials (Adegboye, Olanyi & Adepoju, 2003).

One of proven ways of studying physics is by use of of instructional materials. Thompson (2012) observed that students remembers 10% of what they read, 20% what they hear, 80% of what they see and do. This implies that if instructional materials are used in teaching and learning of physics, it can produce the most effective results.
Socio-economic problems are also believed to be among the problems affecting the teaching and learning of physics. High level of illiteracy, poverty and low socio-economic status coupled with high rates of material deprivation of physics students’ academic needs affects teaching and learning.Psychological problems also create an impact on teaching and learning of physics, one of which is street hawking among physics students. Danesy and Okediran (2002), evaluated that street hawking among physics students have psychologically imposed other problems like sex networking behaviour, juvenile sequent behaviour. Environmental problems also affects teaching and learning in physics, learning environment not free of distractions or barriers such as noise, gas/smoke pollution can constitute health hazards in turn affects physics students concentration or perspective/conceptive focus to learning (Sprint Hall, 2001).

According to Ezejiegwu (2012), learning depends on practice and experience of which the importance of learning for prospective teachers cannot be overemphasized. The operation and approaches to make students learn and develop better teaching strategies. As the teacher understands the individual differences in learning among learners, it makes adaptation to teaching (according to requirements using different methods) easier. Opute (2012) opined the concept of learning as not having a universally accepted definition but there is a general consensus that learning means modification of behaviour as a function of practice. He goes on saying that it takes places when the performance of the organism is changed through stimulating contacts with the environment. It is a well-known statement that wen the students have not learnt, the teacher have not taught. With this, teaching can be described as a job or an assignment carried out by any individual as long as such an individual spends all or part of his life influencing the thoughts, feelings or the behaviour of another individual or group of individuals. It can also be seen as any interpersonal influence which aims at changing behaviour of other persons ( Ezeani, 2012).


1.2 Statement of Problem

Adegboye (2003) believed that the main problem affecting the teaching and learning of physics is the fear of sciences. According to Oladimeji (2008), there are various reasons for improving science equipment’s and the circumstances in which the physics teacher finds himself dictates the reasons. Igbokidi (2000), asserts that lack of adequate equipment’s makes learning and teaching of physics difficult thereby making the unintelligent ones abandon physics classes within five years in senior secondary schools. Apata (2007), confirmed that physics students taught by qualifies and experienced teachers performed better than physics taught by unqualified and inexperienced teachers.

In view of the above, the problem of the study is to find out the problems of teaching and learning physics in some selected senior secondary schools in Niger State.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main aim of this study is to find out the problems of teaching and learning physics in some selected senior secondary schools in Niger State.

Other aims of this study are:

  1. Find out whether negative attitude of students towards learning physics affect the teaching of physics in Nigerian Secondary schools.
  2. Find out whether unavailability of qualified teachers, and teachers lack of competencies affect the teaching of physics in Nigerian Secondary schools.
  3. Find out whether complex scientific language used in teaching physics affect the teaching of the subject in Nigerian Secondary schools.
  4. Find out whether lack of modern laboratory apparatus, and inconsistency in government policies affect the teaching of physics in Nigerian Secondary schools.

1.4 Research Question

  1. Does negative attitude of students towards learning physics affect the teaching of physics in Nigerian Secondary schools?
  2. Does unavailability of qualified teachers, and teachers lack of competencies affect the teaching of physics in Nigerian Secondary schools?
  3. Does complex scientific language used in teaching physics affect the teaching of the subject in Nigerian Secondary schools?
  4. Does lack of modern laboratory apparatus, and inconsistency in government policies affect the teaching of physics in Nigerian Secondary schools?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho: The problems identified has no significant effect on the teaching and learning of physics in secondary schools.

Ha: The problems identified has a significant effect on the teaching and learning of physics in secondary schools.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The study will be beneficial to physics teachers in secondary schools who may wish to utilize the findings of this study to improve their teaching method. The study will also be beneficial to policy makers in education sector especially as they utilize the findings of this study as a basis for policy formulation concerning teaching and learning of physics. It should be noted that the study will enhance existing knowledge about the problem and prospect of teaching and learning physics in secondary school level. The study can also be used as a springboard to carryout similar research as incoming students can use it as a reference material.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is delimited to the problems affecting the teaching of physics in the Secondary schools in Niger state. The study investigated instructional-related, time-related and teacher-related challenges. It also focused on strategies that could be employed to ameliorate the problems affecting the teaching of physics in Secondary schools in Niger state.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of the Terms

Teaching Physics:

The ability to impact knowledge in physics to students.

Learning Physics:

The ability to assimilate physics lessons by students.

Attitude:

The way students feel and behave towards learning of physics.

Performance:

How well or badly students learn physics in secondary school.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the problems of teaching and learning physics in some selected senior secondary schools in Niger State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the problems of teaching and learning physics in some selected senior secondary schools in Niger State as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to find out whether negative attitude of students towards learning physics affect the teaching of physics in Nigerian Secondary schools, find out whether unavailability of qualified teachers, and teachers lack of competencies affect the teaching of physics in Nigerian Secondary schools, find out whether complex scientific language used in teaching physics affect the teaching of the subject in Nigerian Secondary schools and find out whether lack of modern laboratory apparatus, and inconsistency in government policies affect the teaching of physics in Nigerian Secondary schools.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are physics teachers and students in some selected senior secondary schools in Niger State.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Negative attitude of students towards learning physics affect the teaching of physics in Nigerian Secondary schools.
  2. Unavailability of qualified teachers, and teachers lack of competencies affect the teaching of physics in Nigerian Secondary schools.
  3. Complex scientific language used in teaching physics affect the teaching of the subject in Nigerian Secondary schools.
  4. Lack of modern laboratory apparatus, and inconsistency in government policies affect the teaching of physics in Nigerian Secondary schools.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Teachers should be encouraged to go for workshop training in their area of specialization so that they can have knowledge of current ideas and innovations that have taken place in the educational field. Especially in their area of specialization.
  2. Teachers teaching physics in the secondary schools should be qualified/professional teachers who specialize in chemistry education.
  3. When physics teachers are faced with unfamiliar content areas, inability to meaningfully interpret the performance objectives, inability to organize activities for pupils and inability to organize activities for pupils and inability to organize activities for pupils and inability identifying sources of teaching aids, they should do a lot of reading to become familiar with the content areas or seek the assistance of more experienced teachers.
  4. When physics teachers are faced with the problem of non-availability of materials/equipment for practical purposes, they should improvise.
  5. To avoid rushing students to finish the physics science of work, teachers should be dedicated to their work and by so doing they can plan their lessons thoroughly and start on time.

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