Problems Of Teaching Health Education In Secondary Schools

Health Education Project Material

Problems Of Teaching Health Education In Secondary Schools


The topic of this study is the problems associated with teaching health education in secondary schools. The study intends to determine the availability of facilities needed for the study of health education in schools, the competency of teachers, and seriousness of students in health education. The data used for the study were obtained by the use of structured questionnaire. The study adopted random sampling techniques using a sample size of 78 teachers from the 4 selected government secondary schools, mean and grand mean was used for data analysis. The sampling technique used in this study was simple random sampling technique. The researcher therefore recommended that the government should put forward a teachers training program to enable teachers’ improvement in teaching, also the provision of teaching materials in classrooms to make learning more interesting for students.

Chapter One


Most people say that health is wealth; this means that, to be healthy means to be rich. However, it may sound mysterious how health is wealth.

This can be seen in such a way that, many rich people spend huge amount of money to acquire health but end up in permanent sickness, then, it can be understand that, a person who is not rich will also be healthy.

There exist numerous problems which are fighting against the effective teaching of health education in schools and colleges of education.

The question here is, “what is health?”

The world health organization defines health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. This means that, unless an individual posse these attributes (physical, mental and social) he/she is not healthy.

Also, Williams defines health as the quality of life that renders the individual fit to live most and to serve best.
Meanwhile, this first chapter of the research work deals with the introduction, background of the study, statement of the research problem, research questions, purpose of the study, significance of the study,
delimitation/scope and definition of terms.

1.1 Background of the Study.

Ukum local government area was curved out of Katsina-Ala local government on the 1st October 1991 under the regime of General Ibrahim Banbangida (Rtd). The local government head quarter is Sankara, situated in the north-east of Benue state.

Ukum local government swhares boundaries with Wukari in Taraba state in the east, in the south-east and south-west by Katsina-Ala and Logo local government areas respectively. It has a population of 183,422 people (1991 census) and a land mass of 429.10 km2. The inabitants of the local government predominantly are Tiv farmers. Others include; Rausa, Tho, Idoma, Udam who are mainly traders.

Ukum local government area is made up of thirteen council wards namely;

  1. Kendev
  2. Kundav
  3. Uyam
  4. Mbatiam
  5. Borikyo
  6. Ugbaam
  7. Mbayenge
  8. Mbazum
  9. Azendeshi
  10. Tyuluv
  11. Tsaa
  12. Lumbuu
  13. Atereyange

The local government area has about 155 secondary schools. The main occupation of the people living in the local government is farming, though, some people depend on trading but such people are mostly visitors as mentioned earlier.

The main food crops produced are: yam, rice, cassava, groundnut, beniseeds, pepper, tomatoes, guinea com, beans and so on. Some of the mentioned food items are sold out for money even though they can be consumed as food and others are mainly for food.

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem

The problems of teaching health education in Secondary schools in Ukum local government area of Benue state is a point of concern, the researcher therefore tries to review and identify various problems that are responsible for this.

This research work is designed purposely to know whether there are enough health facilities or not, quality teaching staff or not, enough time allotted or not, and others.

The researcher ought to identify some of the problems that a working tirelessly against the effective teaching of health education as a field of discipline in Secondary school in particular and makes possible suggestions to the solution of such problems.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

  1. Determine the available resources for teaching and learning health education subject in secondary schools in Ukum local government area of Benue State.
  2. Ascertain the extent to which Secondary School students learning health education subject are influenced by the use of instructional materials.
  3. Evaluate the state of resources available for the teaching of health education in Ukum local government area of Benue State.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What resources are available for teaching and learning of health education subject in secondary schools?
  2. Which educational resources will influence the teaching and application of health education subject in secondary schools?
  3. What is the state or condition of the available resources to teach and learn health education subject in secondary school?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  1. There is no significant difference in the mean responses of male and female teachers on the effectiveness of the use of instructional resources to teaching of health education subject.
  2. There is no significant difference between the responses of experienced and inexperience teachers on the effective use of instructional resources on the teaching of health education subject.

1.6 Significance of the Study.

This study intends to identify the problems militating against the effective teaching of health education in Secondary schools in Ukum local government area with a view to analyze each aspect of teaching health education such as facilities and equipment, attitudes of teachers and pupils towards the subject health education and give recommendations on how to improve on them.

It explores possible ways of insuring the full utilization of inherent values of health education to Secondary schools through the careful analysis of problems from the teaching of health education. In this way, appropriate suggestions aimed at ensuring good teaching and organization of health education programmes based on this study.

This will also help the teachers in this discipline to explore their roles through acquisition of right value of health education among Secondary schools in the proper teaching gained not only in the classroom but also outside the classroom which is the practical application.

It is also important (significant) for the reason that, it will help teachers in the field to impart the correct skills, knowledge etc both theoretically and practically in their preparation process which in tum is related to the quality of their personal life.

Simply, this work is significant to every living being as far as health is concerned.

1.7 Delimitation / Scope.

The fact that, Ukum local government area of Benue state is a big local government area as far as Secondary schools are concerned, it is impossible for the researcher to research in all the Secondary schools within the local government area due to financial, economic and other constraints, the research or study therefore covers only five selected Secondary schools within the local government area.

1.8 Definition of Terms.

Below are the definitions of terms as used in this study?

i. Teaching:

To give lessons to students in schools, colleges etc to help students learn something by giving information about it. Or a process of imparting knowledge, skills etc to the learners.

ii. Problems:

Things that is difficult to deal with or understand.

iii. Health:

A state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not mere by the absence of disease or infirmity.

IV. Education:

A continuous process through which individuals acquire knowledge, skills and change positively in behaviour to be able to be useful to themselves and make meaningful contributions to the development of the entire society within which they Iives.

v. Health Education:

An organized teaching procedure directed towards developing understandings, attitudes and practices relating to health factors.

VI. Secondary Schools:

The first, original, earliest. Secondary schools are educational institutions where pupils first acquire knowledge, skills etc as their foundation of learning.

Vll. Disease:

An abnormal condition of an individual or part, especially a consequence of infection, inherent weakness or environmental stress that Impairs normal physiological functioning.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

The result of the study seems to imply that teacher experience and qualification influence the level of assessment and utilization of resources material in teaching and learning of Health education Subjects in secondary schools in Ukum L.G.A, Benue State, based on the findings of the study. The study also revealed that most of the resources for teaching and learning health education subject are not available in secondary schools in Ukum Local Government Area of Benue State. This means that most of the resources identified for teaching of business subjects are not made available in the schools

5.2 Recommendations

Resources materials are important materials needed for the realization of instructional objectives and education goals, thus the level of use of these resources in teaching and learning should be improved upon in view of the conclusion drawn. However, it was recommended that;

  1. Curriculum planners and implementation and educational policy makers should sensitize the school and teachers on the need to put more emphasis on utilization and improvision of resources materials in teaching and learning of Health education subjects.
  2. The government as a matter of policy should recruit more qualified graduate teachers to teach at junior secondary school level most especially Health education.
  3. Adequate instructional materials should be provided for effective teaching and learning process.
  4. Criteria for instructional materials selection should be based on its suitability to function for the purpose it is designed for.
  5. Finally since the study encourage the use of resources materials for more practical teaching and learning process the graduate of Health education like. Other areas will be people who are well prepared for their job performance and this will ease the employers’ problem of on job training of workers thus enhancing production.

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