Problems And Prospects Of Yam Production

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Engineering AE

Problems And Prospects Of Yam Production


Abstract


Nigeria is by far the world’s largest producer of yams, accounting for over 70–76 percent of the world production. According to the Food and Agricultural Organization report, in 1985, Nigeria produced 18.3 million tonnes of yam from 1.5 million hectares, representing 73.8 percent of total yam production in Africa. According to 2008 figures, yam production in Nigeria has nearly doubled since 1985, with Nigeria producing 35.017 million metric tonnes with value equivalent of US$5.654 billion. In perspective, the world’s second and third largest producers of yams, Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana, only produced 6.9 and 4.8 tonnes of yams in 2008 respectively. According to the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Nigeria accounted for about 70 percent of the world production amounting to 17 million tonnes from land area 2,837,000 hectares under yam cultivation.


Chapter One


Introduction

Background of the Study

Definition of yam problems (discoral supp) yams means many things to most people. To the farmers it is edible root tuber crop, which generate his income for the up-keep of his family and himself. It has helped raised the standard of living over the years. The oxford dictionary describe yam as a starch tuberous root largely replacing potato as a staple food in many tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. Yam belongs to the botanical genes discovered, but there are very many species of great importance in West Africa.

  • The white yam (Discoreal rotonlata)
  • The water yam (Discoreal alata)
  • The yellow yam (discoreal caganesis)
  • Lesser yam (D. bulbfery)
  • Trifoliate or three leave yam (D. dumetorum)

Statement of the Problem

The edible yams are root crop groom on a field scale for the tubers. They provide staple carbohydrate food in the yam zone of west Africa, where daily consumption is 0.5, 1.0kg yam need a great deal of labour for their cultivation and to prepare them for food and they are usually expensive to buy for normal human consumption, the field or peal, sometimes after partial boiling in west Africa, they are usually eaten as pounded yam which is prepared by pealing cut up yam and boil before pounding them in a wooden mortal to produce a glutinous dough (pounded yam).

The chemical composition of yam tuber is as follows:

  • Water 70%
  • Starch 25%
  • Sugar 1%
  • Protein 1.2%

Research Question

Yams have high starch content and low amount of protein yam has an important role the social religion life in the yam eating areas of West Africa. In Nigeria this was associated with religious count, which has a priest hold. Annual festival was helded at planting and harvesting and was later known, as the new yam festival was the most important celebration of the year. Discorea species are widely used in traditional medicine in Africa and Asia. The tuber of some wild Spp contain steroidal sapogenias related to the sex hormones and conticosteriod. These now provide a source of diosgenin, which is use to the manufacture of oral contraceptive bere hormones and conbsone.


Objective of the Study

Yam production in Edo State have hither to received security attention from research workers and students, the main reason for this is that people are ignorant at the importance of yam production in the state.

One of the present day problems of yam production in Edo state has not been encouraging, the people regard the production of yam in the state as fit for only poor and the illiterate. Illiteracy is regarded as a passport to shirt and tie job in town.


Significance of the Study

Yam is a notable for its importance in human life.

  1. To ensure it’s confined existence with better performance
  2. To ensure the awareness of people to the need for development of a positive attitude towards the production of yam in Oredo Local Government of Edo State.
  3. To improve the quantity and quality of yam production in our local government area of Edo State.
  4. To make people understand better effective and efficient modern methods of producing yam in the state.
  5. To find out why yam is not cultivated in lorry scale by the farmer in Edo State.
  6. To identify the different condition favourable for yam production in Edo State.

The existence of yam is threatened by cassava production if care is not taking the survival of yam doubtfully.


Scope of the Study

This product works is centered on the production of yam in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.

The problems associated with yam production in Edo State and ways of finding solution to the problem encountered by the farmers.


Definition of Terms

This research of work or project should be centered on definition on the problems and prospect of yam production in Edo State. However, due to the complex nature of the villages in Edo State, some selected villages in the state are Edogbo Oregbani and Asoro


Chapter Five


Summary, Major Findings, Discussion and Recommendation

Summary

The research was carried out to find the problem and prospect of yam production in area in Edo State.


Major Findings

The result got from the study includes the following findings.

  1. The farmers are illiterates
  2. They have been planting yam for a long period of time without enough knowledge of modern farming.
  3. They embarked on yam production as a source of income and for family consumption. Though they have been planting yam for a long time, they luck enough land and this has led to how productivity.
  4. The farmer practice mixed cropping due to insufficiency of land available to them.
  5. The farmers are small-scale farmers owning to the few across of land used for production.
  6. Yam is cultivated yearly by the farmers, since is one of the staple foods available to them.
  7. The farmers finance their farming production through individual efforts.
  8. The farmers do not used fertilizers because it is not readily available to them more so they can meet afford the price and also it not careful with it. It might destroy their yam and also feels it is waste of time. The findings show that the few that make use of fertilizer have a good yield of yam. The farmers in Edo state have a good prospect from yam production because they produce yam to food the masses. They also supply raw material to the industries in the area. The finding also price that some villages to have some extensive agents to inspect their farms though not on regular basis. It was also discovered that farmers encounter numerous problems like finding the farming projects.

Costly Labour

Insufficient land for production:

Transportation not easily available for the finished products. For the farmer to improve their yield they needed better varieties and to expose to modem technology in yam production the findings give in sight in to the types of diseases that usually attack easily.


Discussion on the Findings

Illiteracy on the part of the farmers it was first that most of the farmers who are predominantly the producers of yam are illiterate or send-illiterate. Radio and television broadest cannot be seen to be enough as most of them have no access to these electronic media and more so they can neither read nor write. Agricultural officials on fieldwork have not made contact with these farms. So that they can at least they can educate them on better farming mew methods as it affect yam production, these farmers have not be able to learn from their years of experiences, they have been repeating certain mistake for years with trying to known why certain expected bumper harvest have not been achieve. They have failed to realize that certain areas of farmland are not suitable for growing yam. They plant yam repeatedly on those farm land with out a good harvest and yet have not been able to look poor alternative parcels of form land, this is a direct result of illiteracy.


Conclusion

From the above discussion, it is evident that some areas in Edo State have numerous problems militating against yam production; namely illiteracy and ignorance, non availability of land, attack of crop diseases and pest, lack of capital expansion, labour and transportation with research studies, improved varieties of yam are now available at the Edo agricultural development programmes Oko village, Ogbe Road Benin City. Some not much will be achieved if all there problems are not properly solved for the benefit of the farmers and the consumers.


Recommendations

The farmers should be assisted by the government to produce enough food for consumption by educating them on the best approach to the production of yam. Attention should be paid to their problems when raised without delay instead of using only mass median to disseminate the information. Villages should be organized where farmers can disclose issues affecting their job and immediate attention be given.

The people bank situated in the urban area can also well be made available by establishing them in the rural area to the reach of the illiterate farmers. The government can give them loan at a subsidized interest rate to help them expand their farmland.

Enough farmland should also be provided for them so that they will expend the area for better output and also avoid planting different crops on the particular piece of land.


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