Problems And Prospects Of Quality Control In Manufacturing Firms

Project and Seminar Material for Marketing

Problems And Prospects Of Quality Control In Manufacturing Firms


Abstract


This research work was undertaken to examine the problems of quality control in manufacturing firms, the various techniques of quality control used and to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of their applications. This study also set to find out what manufacturing firms seek to achieve through quality control practice. To achieve these objectives, a study of Nigeria Breweries Plc, Enugu, south east Nigeria was carried out. A review of related literature was also undertaken. Data were collected through distribution of questionnaires and the use of textbooks, newspapers, magazines, and journals. The method of statistical analysis used includes table and percentage while chi-square was used to test hypotheses formulated. From the study, it was discovered that quality control practice in manufacturing firms encountered problems as a result of the following; non-awareness of quality control techniques, inability to understand the need of customers, cost of application and management attitude. It was also discovered that manufacturing firm have some quality objectives they want to achieve through quality control practice. These include; creating a good corporate image, to meet consumer needs and create consumers satisfaction, to achieve lower cost in production etc. Based on the findings, it was recommended that training and seminars should be organized for the entire workers always, strict compliance to the established standard must be ensured and that job description should be properly done to help every staff know his or her role towards the achievement of the firm’s qualitygoals.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

According to Crosby (1979) “quality is conformance to requirement and those requirement must be defined in measurable and clearly stated terms.”

Quality is one of the goals or objectives organization seek to achieve. But often times this gal is not achieved due to some problems in the firms. The quality of any firms products or services, determines its position in the market.

Its success to a larger extent depends. This is quality of goods or services it produces and sells to consumers. “this is because consumers desire to get the best value for their money. The quality of product or service can only be defined by the customers.” (Deming, 1986.) This means that for a firm to be satisfied with the quality of its goods or services, it customers must first be satisfied with it.

Quality is a complex concept that has become one of the most appealing in al of management theory. This is to say that every business today wants to produce quality products or services that are acceptable to consumers, which are also affordable.

Quality control is a functional management discipline, which is responsible for defining quality purpose. The prerequisite for effective quality control are freedom from deficiency and minimum or reduced cost. Non – conformance is therefore not acceptable in reducing running costs. Some of these costs include, waste,re-work, replacement and inspection costs.

All these are manufacturing problems that should not only be detected and corrected at the earliest time but prevented if possible.

Quality control ,can therefore be achieve by establishing a standard for effective and efficient quality in the following areas:.

  1. In the factory building, machinery and equipment design and installation, manufacturing system and process as well as product identification system.
  2. In product design.
  3. In the market by way of intensive consumers response program which gives the needed feedback.

In addition to the established standards tolerance limits are set for every important quality. These tolerance limits are limits of variations beyond which the variations will not be accepted. The firms must determine what quality’s are needed by their customers and must try as much as possible to satisfy these needs.

Meeting these quality needs of consumers, should be a collective responsibility of everybody in an organization. The market research division will find out what these needs are, products development division will create a design to equate with the needs. Planning division will devise a process for executing the product desire and the production units will regulate the process to achieve the desired product quality.


1.2 Statement of Problems.

THE Nigerian business environment dynamic with ever changing work processes, practices and employees configuration. As a result of these changes, firms that are resistant to change or that cannot respond quickly and adequately to change are prone to having problems which will in the long-run affect their productivity level and profit margins adversely.

Although, the success of every manufacturing firm to a larger extent depends on the degree of its reputation for supplying quality products to consumers, yet the realization of quality standards has been a problems to many manufacturing firms to be successful, they must place great emphasis on the establishment and maintance of quality control policies of their firms. The personal responsible for effective quality control functions must be conversant with required activities in all quality control systems. It is required that quality procedures for each section be strictly followed in order to achieve good quality.

However, it is a common knowledge that the Nigerian market is being flooded with many sub-standard products. What immediately comes to the mind is the existence of problems in the quality control system or process of manufacturing firms. These problems have constituted hindrance to many firms towards the achievement of their goals and objectives like good corporate image and profit maximization.

In the looking into these problems, which this study seeks to find out, two important questions come to mind. What factors are responsible for these problems? What actions) must be taken in order to reduce or eliminate these problems and their effects on the firms?

In this study, we will be looking into the problems and prospect of quality control in manufacturing firms using Nigeria breweries plc Enugu as a case study.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

This study is being carried out in order to achieve the following objectives:

  1. To find out the problems facing quality control, their causes and possible solutions. To identity the different technique of quality control in the manufacturing firm.
  2. To determine if efficient quality control can increase profitability in manufacturing firms.

1.4 Research Question

In order to achieve the objective mentioned above, the researchers drafted the following research questions:

  1. What are the problems facing quality control their causes and possible solution?
  2. What are the different techniques of quality control in the manufacturing firms?
  3. Can efficient quality control increase profitability in manufacturing firms?

1.5 Hypotheses

The following are the research hypotheses of this study in alternative format.

  • Ha: There are problems facing quality control in the manufacturing firms.
  • Ha: There are techniques of quality control in the manufacturing firms.
  • Ha: There is relationship between quality control and increase in profitability of manufacturing firms.

1.6 Significance

This study is significant because it will or reveals the problems of quality control and how to solve or manage the problems.

The beneficiaries of the study include:

  1. Students of marketing, production management, management and other related fields of study.
  2. Practicing managers at all levels of management especially quality control managers.
  3. Owners of business (manufacturing) firms.

1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is focused on the problems and prospects of quality control in manufacturing firms. Due to certain limitations, the study will be narrowed down to Nigerian plc Enugu.


1.8 Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined in relation to the above topic

  1. Management
  2. Quality
  3. Control
  4. Planning
1. Management

is the process of during things using the effort of others to achieve an objective.

2. Quality

means those features of products or services which meet customers need and thereby provide customer satisfaction. Quality in this sense is oriented to income .the purpose of such higher quality is to provide greater customer satisfaction and to increase income.

3. Control

this is the act of checking current performance, over the determined targets contains in the plans with the view to ensuring adequate process and satisfactory performance whether physical or financial.

4. Planning

This is the act of determining out the operations ,preparing the appropriate methods of effective action and determining the targets or expected performance cost and output (profitability).


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommdendation

5.1 Summary of Findings

Based on the results, we summarize the findings as follows:

The most important factor a firm considers before production is customers‟ satisfaction or customers ‟taste Nigerian Breweries Plc applies quality control techniques ranging from acceptance sampling, control chart, quality circle and statistical process of quality control techniques.

Quality control establishment is mainly the responsibility of top managers as well as quality control manages while the responsibility to ensure conformance lies with everybody in the firm, especially the quality control managers.
Efficient quality control increase profitability of manufacturing firms.

Training and development of employees based on quality control practice affect their commitment of quality control in the manufacturing firms.

Despite, the quality control techniques applied by the manufacturing firms, they still encounter some problems in the quality control practice.


5.2 Conclusion

From the results of this research work, it has been revealed to readers that quality control techniques are indispensable tools for a successful business since the application of quality control techniques can help to ensure the production of high-quality products to consumer satisfaction which in turn result to a successful business. Like every other things, the benefit of quality control and its techniques can only be assured by theeffective and efficient application of these techniques. Above all, manufacturing firms encounter a lot of problems while applying quality control practice as a result of the following;

  1. Non –awareness of quality control techniques.
  2. Inability to understand the need of customers Cost of applying quality control techniques Non-availability of equipment to be used.
  3. Negative attitude of employees more especially top management in the firm.

5.3 Recommendations

From the research findings, numerous recommendations can be made in order to provide possible solution to the problems encountered by Nigerian Breweries on its control process.

The recommendations are:

  1. Training and seminars should be organized once in a while for everybody in the firm. That is from the top management down to operative workers. Effort should be made during these training program and seminar to let them understand the objectives of the firm and the need for effectivequalitycontrol.
  2. The establishment of quality standard as well as ensuring that product quality conforms to the firm‟s specification should not only be the responsibility of the top management and quality control managers but also everybody in the firm. This will give everybody a sense of responsibility in achieving the organization quality goals.
  3. Quality is not inspected into products but is designed into them. Therefore, the company should identify errors if any and correct them at the source where the product isproduced.
  4. The firm should enforce the employees to strictly comply with the standard established in order to avoid mistake and correct employees‟ negative attitude toward quality controlpractice.
  5. There is also need to move with the trend in the area of technology and equipment. This will help in curbing the problem of poor technology or equipment.
  6. Job description is also important. It must be clearly defined to every individual based on his role in the quality control of the firm and ensure that he complies with it.
  7. The company should not undermine the important of quality circles. The technique has to be used moreoften other techniques because it involves people who carryout research in order to known the current quality trend and the problems of quality control. They also carryout research to find out ways these problem could be solved.

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