Problems And Prospect Of Rearing Poultry In Ikpoba Okha L. G. A. Edo State

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Engineering AE

Problems And Prospect Of Rearing Poultry In Ikpoba Okha L. G. A. Edo State


Abstract


Poultry production has in no small way helped to develop- the community and people of Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, mostly in Idogbo the local government headquarters. This study however, examined the prospects and equally analysed the problems and finally came to a conclusion that with the various findings which include the outbreak of various diseases, inadequate capital and finance, and the increasing nature of the cost of poultry feed jointly hinder the progress of poultry production in Idogbo the headquarters of Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area.

Also discovered was the attitude of youths towards farming in the area. However, in this project useful recommendations and solutions have been proffered from the result of the study.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Poultry generally is referred to all domestic birds raised by man for the production of eggs, meat and other benefits for human consumption. The domestic birds include fowl ducks, turkey, guinea fowl and geese., poultry products have been found to have the highest protein concentrate of about 20.5% relative to others success of protein (animals) and has the shortest production cycle of all animals.

Production cycle involves all the activities in the rearing of livestock from day old to maturity. For example, to achieve a ten-fold increase in the body weight in relation to weight at bird, Williamson and Payne (1978) outlined that it takes 25 days in broiler, 48 days in piglets, 250 days in caves and 170 days in sheep.

The rearing of pigs, cattle’s and goats however requires extensive kind more than poultry where more units of production can be achieved from a given space compared to the farmer. These advantages are perhaps the cause of a higher turnover in poultry production at reasonably short period of time in this work more emphasis shall be made specifically to the domestic fowl, which are the major birds for commercial and nutritional importance in Ikpoba Okha Local Government of Edo State. Poultry rearing have been in practice in Ikpoba Okha for a long time. The traditional motive varies from hobby to the use of fowl and eggs as food. Apart from the important roles that the fowl play in the traditional workshop of duties in many parts of the states, some communities use it as gift to their neighbours in appreciation of a good deed and as a mark of solidarity.

The traditional poultry keeping is generally subsistence in outlook without the use of modern scientific methods. Hence the birds under this system are poorly cared for and they are characterized by slow growth rate, poor feed utilization and low productivity. The birds are also exposed to high mortality rate as a result of diseases, pest and bad weather conditions.

However, inspite of the popularity of commercial poultry keeping, the subsistence and the small-scale units are still prevalent all over the place especially in the villages. Although the commercially oriented poultry units are abundant all over the state with varying modern scientific approach to production poultry output continues to be inadequate with prices above the reach of the common man.

This paper will therefore focus attention on the problems and prospect of poultry production in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo state.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria, the business of poultry farming is concentrated in the hands of few individual partly because of the complex problems such as finance and climatic condition while others are problem of poultry processing and storage facility.

In Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, there had been retrogression in poultry production due to illiteracy in the maintenance of records. Hence maintenance of record helps the farmer to determine the process of retrogressing nature of the farm. Besides, it helps in making future project, planning and programming in poultry industry. Most farmers either as a result of illiteracy, training or otherwise are unable to keep records. The result is that most extension officers are unable to help them out of their problems due to lack of information.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the problems encountered by poultry farmers in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area and suggest solutions to them.


1.4 Statement of Hypothesis

The ultimate goal of the government or individuals engaged in poultry production today is to achieve a high standard of production with a view of increasing animal products for the ever-increasing populace.

In an attempt to producer enough poultry products {meat and eggs} several problems and constrains have been identified. Some of these problems include finance, quality feeds, disease problems and poor housing condition.


1.5 Scope of the Study

This research work will focus attention to cover Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo state. The information obtained here will only strictly apply to Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area but may be generalized to other parts of the state with similar problems and prospects of rearing poultry. Also efforts would be made to cover as much of the local government area as possible.


1.6 Significance of the Study

It is hoped that the recommendation based on the findings of the study would be of tremendous benefit to the poultry producers, the consumers of poultry products alike and the student’s researchers.

It is anticipated that inexperienced poultry farmers can from this study identify as well as provide them with the basic information needed to raise and manage poultry successfully. Top the consumers, an increase in poultry products means meeting their eggs and poultry meat needs.

It is believed that the research findings would help students who intend to research in a similar topic to have ideas on what the topic is all about and also aid students in the area of further studies.


1.7 Definition of Terms

1. Poultry:

This is the term used for all domesticated birds such as chicks, ducks, turkey, guinea fowl etc.

2. Broiler:

These are chickens raised for meat production.

3. Layers:

layers refer to hens that are kept for egg production.

4. Battery cage system:

This is a system of poultry keeping where the birds are confined in a specially designed house.

5. Deep litter system:

This is a system where the birds are kept in a permanent house.

6. Free-range system:

This is where birds are allowed to move freely on the range and feed themselves.

7. Hatchery:

This is an aspect of poultry where day old chicks are produced mainly by artificial incubation.

8. Veterinary:

A surgeon concerned with diseases of animals and domestic animals.


Chapter Five


Discussion on Findings, Conclusion, Limitations of Study, Educational Implication of the Study, Recommendations and Suggestion for Further Research.

5.1 Discussion of Findings

From the data analysis in table I, II, III and IV, it was clear that lack of capital is one of the problem hindering the growth of poultry industry in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. From table I, 80% of the respondents agreed to this due to the fact that majority of the poultry farmers do not receive any assistance from the government as such, most of the poultry farmers depend on their own personal savings.

Another problems faced by the poultry industry is the problem of disease and parasites. This could be seen from the result of the analysis done in table II, which shows that 40% of the poultry farmers had coccidiosis disease 10% had lice and mite and 20% had fowl pox typhoid while 10% had egg-picking disease in their farms. These farmers believe that if government can increase the number of extension staff who could be visiting and disseminating information to them as well as educating them on poultry issues. Increase the number of veterinary officers in the areas as well as providing more drugs; the incidence of disease and parasitic problems is drastically reduced in the area.

Analysis in table II revealed that 20% of the farmers had disease outbreak once, 14% seasonally and 66% the poultry farmers do experience disease outbreak frequently, hence disease and parasites are among problems facing poultry farming in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area. Another problems faced by the poultry farmers is the problems of inadequate extension staff and veterinary officers. Analysis in table IV shows that 80% of the extension and veterinary staffs are inadequate. As a result, many of t he poultry farmers in the local government area do not see the need of inviting extension workers to their farms because they are inadequate.

High cost of feed and lack of feeds are problems facing poultry farming insufficient and inbalanced feeds affect the growth and laying capacity of poultry. From the analysis in table V 12% of the respondents agreed that they encounter shortage of water, 60% agreed that they encounter both high cost of feed and shortage of feeds. These farmers believe that the government can help reduce high cost of feed and shortage of feed by providing raw materials and granting of licence in the important of feeds to make it to be in abundance and these problems of high cost, shortage of feeds will be reduced.

Another problems faced by the poultry farmers is the conditions attached to the grant of loans by federal and state government banks. The conditions make it difficult for farmers to apply for these loans. Analysis in table VI revealed that 80% of the poultry farmers financed their poultry project by themselves, 12 get loan from commercial banks, 6% got loan from agricultural bank and 10% got government grant/subsidies. The farmers suggested that the actual poultry farmers should be meant to show their livestock project before loans can be made available to the farmers.


5.2 Limitation of Study

This study was designed to investigate the problems of rearing poultry in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. In conducting the research, the researcher encountered some problems, some of the problems include; some poultry farmers were reluctant to fill the questionnaires, some farmers were not used to some of the terms poultry terminologies used by the researcher also encountered serious financial problems in transporting himself to and from various libraries and around the local government area for collection of relevant data and other essential materials used in this study.


5.3 Educational Implication of the Study

This study will help farmers in the area of study to solve the problems of rearing poultry in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area. This study will be of great help to the poultry farmers to develop more interest in poultry farming. This study will also help in increasing the number of poultry farmers in the area, thereby helping to increasing the protein intakes of the individual per meal per day.


5.4 Recommendations

The researcher discovered so many problems in the findings of this research. The writer therefore makes the following recommendations:

  1. Government should make effort to provide loans for the poultry farmers in Ikpoba Okha to solve their problem of capital, farmers should be meant to show their poultry farms before these loans can be given to them in order that non-poultry farmers in disguise wont be able to work their ways through for the granting of these loans.
  2. Extension officers should be provided in these areas to monitor the effective use of these loans. The government should recruit and train more of the workers; preferably these new workers could be resulted from the graduate of colleges of Agriculture.
  3. Feed, drugs and other necessary equipment like feeders should be provided for farmers at subsidies rate.
  4. Veterinary officers should be encouraged to work in the local government area. Good sanitary condition should be practiced in order to check the outbreak of disease and parasite.
  5. Roads and other infrastructure should be provided, as this will encourage both the extension workers and the veterinary officers.
  6. The solution to the problems of poultry farming is to encourage peasant farmers to form visible cooperative society so as to have the benefit of number economics and technical facilities as this will not only improve their income but also ensure a better future.
  7. There is an urgent need to establish poultry breeding centres probably located through out the state. These breeding centres should set up the machinery for gathering, analyzing and interpreting data on the performance of local or uneducated poultry farmers should be educated on proper house management and adequate use of veterinary services.
  8. The government should carryout anti-illiteracy campaigns in many parts of the state through ministry of agriculture and national orientation agency. The poultry farmers should not only be taught how to read and write but also to create demand for the farm product.
  9. The government should carryout poultry exhibitions and ministry of trade, industries and cooperative and invite poultry farmers to participate.

5.5 Conclusion

From the data collected and the analysis, the following conclusion can be made.

  1. That poultry farmer often experience outbreak of disease and parasite in their farms.
  2. That poultry farmers lack adequate capital for expansions and maintenance.,
  3. That extension workers and veterinary officers are inadequate.
  4. That there is high cost of feeds and lack of feeds. Drugs and equipment are too expensive for the farmers.
  5. That farmers find it difficult to get grant inform of loans from federal and state banks.

The above-mentioned problems notwithstanding poultry farming in the local government area have had a remarkable progress. This is as a result of the poultry farmer’s ability to put in efficient management and capital couple with the introduction of exotic breeds. Although some poultry farmers in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area have folded up due to the economic predicament in the country today, while the remaining self-trained poultry farmers have threatened to wind up if high cost of feeds, drugs and other chemical do not go down to the reach of poor poultry farmer and ban of important of raw materials for feeds skills to operate and importation of day old chicks.


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