Problems And Prospect For The Development Of Tourism
The main purpose of this study is to explore the problems and prospects for the development of the hospitality and tourism industry in Adamawa state state.The study adopted the survey descriptive research design and with the aid of convenience sampling method, the researcher conveniently selected eighty-five (75) participant for the study. Self- structure questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which 50 copies were retrieved and validated for the study. Data was analyzed using simple percentage, presented in frequencies and tables. Hypotheses test was conducted using Chi-Square statistical package for social science (SPSSv.23). Findings of this study reveal that the problems facing tourism development in Adamawa state includes poor attitude and culture related issues, insecurity issues and poor state image, infrastructure issues in tourist destinations, income level, inadequate public enlightenment, poor funding, limited investment and government regulations. The study therefore recommends that Government should provide all the enabling environment to support private sectors in tourism development.raining schools and institutions should be established, lodging facilities, sporting facilities, entertainments and halls for seminars or events or conferences should be provided within the resort. Finally, Tourism information should as a matter of significance be available on Internet for users and investors. There is the need to embark on aggressive manpower development required in the tourism industry, such as in hotels and catering, training schools and institutions should be established.
Tourism is defined as a composite of activities, services, and industries that delivers a travel experience to individuals and groups travelling fifty miles (about eighty kilometres) or more from their homes for purposes of pleasure. Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who “travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four (24) hours and not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.
In 1941, Hunziker and Krapf defined tourism as people who travel “the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity.” In 1976, the Tourism Society of England’s definition was: “Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes.” In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home. The terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel has a similar definition to tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. The terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited by tourists.
Tourism is one of the world‘s largest industries. For developing countries it is also one of the biggest income generators. But the huge infrastructural and resource demands of tourism (e.g. water consumption, waste generation and energy use) can have severe impacts upon local communities and the environment if it is not properly managed. Tourism is vital for many countries, such as Nigeria, France, Egypt, Greece, Israel, United States, Spain, Italy, and Thailand, and many island nations, such as The Bahamas, Fiji, Maldives, Philippines and the Seychelles, due to the large intake of money for businesses with their goods and services and the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. These service industries include transportation services, such as airlines, cruise ships and taxicabs, hospitality services, such as accommodations, including hotels and resorts, and entertainment venues, such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, music venues and theatres
Wealthy people have always travelled to distant parts of the world, to see great buildings, works of art, learn new languages, and experience new cultures and to taste different cuisines. Long ago, at the time of the Roman Republic, places such as Baiae were popular coastal resorts for the rich. The word tourism was used by 1811 and tourist by 1840. In 1936, the League of Nations defined foreign tourist as “someone travelling abroad for at least twenty-four hours”. Its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months.
There has been an upmarket trend in the tourism over the last few decades, especially in Africa, where international travel for short breaks is common. Tourists have high levels of disposable income, considerable leisure time, are well educated, and have sophisticated tastes. There is now a demand for better quality products, which has resulted in a fragmenting of the mass market for beach vacations; people want more specialised versions, quieter resorts, family-oriented holidays or niche market-targeted destination hotels.
The developments in technology and transport infrastructure, such as jumbo jets, low-cost airlines and more accessible airports have made many types of tourism more affordable. As of April 28, 2009 The Guardian article notes that, “the WHO estimates that up to 500,000 people are on planes at any time.” There have also been changes in lifestyle, such as retiree-age people who sustain year round tourism. This is facilitated by internet sales of tourism products. Some sites have now started to offer dynamic packaging, in which an inclusive price is quoted for a tailor-made package requested by the customer upon impulse.
Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. In 2010, there were over 940 million international tourist arrivals, with a growth of 6.6% as compared to 2009. International tourism receipts grew to US$919 billion (euro 693 billion) in 2010, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.7%. As a result of the late-2000s recession, international travel demand suffered a strong slowdown beginning in June 2008, with growth in international tourism arrivals worldwide falling to 2% during the boreal summer months. This negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists’ arrivals, and an estimated 6% decline in international tourism receipts.
We have witnessed an exponential growth in global tourism over the past half century. 25 million international visitors in 1950 grew to an estimated 650 million people by the year 2000. Several factors have contributed to this rise in consumer demand in recent decades. This includes an increase in the standard of living in the developed countries, greater allowances for holiday entitlements and declining costs of travel. Tourism is an important export for a large number of developing countries, and the principal export for about a third of these. The business sectors comprising the tourism industry include: transportation, accommodations, eating and drinking establishments, shops, entertainment venues, activity facilities, and a variety of hospitality.
1.1 Background of the Study:
The desire to develop the Nigerian tourism and hospitality sector to a regionally competitive level by the Federal and other similarly persuaded states, like Adamawa, has been a major policy towards which steps are being taken, with differing degrees of commitment and directional clarity. The passion towards the realisation of tourism advancement in this respect is premised upon the anticipated benefits of the sector to Nigeria; two of which are clearly evident. First, tourism promises to widen the utilitarian value as well as enhance the effective demand made on the abundant natural and cultural assets that are presently underutilised, given the expansion in the streams of tourists that would be attracted by them. Second, tourism being a labour-intensive sector offers a great potential to address much of Nigeria’s present and future employment challenges, given the size of her population and expected future growth.
It is in this context, that the Nigerian government commissioned its Tourism Master Plan for the development of Tourism in Nigeria in 2006 (The Nigeria Tourism Master Plan (2006)). Among others, that Tourism Master Plan (TMP) observed a number of critical challenges facing tourism development that must be addressed with varying degrees of urgency. One of such problems was the poor level of domestic propensity for local destination patronage, as well as the marginal knowledge of the worth of the Nigerian tourism market internationally.
Since the publicity of this Master Plan, governments have taken a number of steps to address its recommendations. The nature of responses and the degree of their intensity have varied. Essentially, responses on infrastructure provision and overhaul, as well as on national image-rebranding and marketing overseas have received much attention. In spite of all the efforts so far, the need as well as the strategy to influence the population towards a tourism-oriented leisure consumption habit locally, is yet to be seriously addressed.
Specifically, government must encourage the culture of visits to tourist sites by the different identifiable socio-demographic groups into which its population may be sub-divided.
Ability to determine, at a later date, the degree of success achieved by governments in this regard, requires the acquisition of some essential data by relevant agencies of the government. A major component of such data would be statistics depicting the state of awareness as well as the existing pattern of visits to recreation and tourists sites by identifiable segments of its population prior to intervention.
Adamawa was created out of Gongola State on 27th August, 1991 as one of the nine new states created by the Federal Military Government. It is located in the North Eastern part of the country. Prior to its creation in 1991, it was part of the North Eastern StateS from 1967 to February 1976 and Gongola State 1976 – 1991.
The State shares border with Gombe State to the North, and Borno State to the North East, while to the West it is bordered with Taraba State as well as the Republic of Cameroon to the East.
There are over 80 ethnic groups found in Adamawa State. Some of the ethnic groups include: Fulani, Verre, Chamba, Lilba, Kwah, Waja, Tambo, Libo Mwama, Kilba, Viengo and others.
The people of Adamawa, are noted for its rich cultural heritage which reflects in its history, i.e. dances, dress patterns, craftsmanship, music, and her cordial relationships. The three main religions are Islam, Christianity and Traditionalism.
Adamawa is the millennium tourist destination in Nigeria. All major towns in the State are adequately connected to the National Grid and have standard health facilities spread all over the State. There are good catering services provided by both government and private hotels.
In categorizing the affected population into socio-economic or demographic groups, adequate attention must be paid to ensuring that the segmentation criteria accurately reflect existing differences in behavioural inclinations towards leisure. In this context, targeting the youth either as a distinct segment of a population, or as a group to be contrasted with another in that same population, offers a useful analytical framework for assessing future projections on tourism growth in that population. Indeed, given that youths generally differ from older age cohorts, either in their consumption habits or in their greater likelihood for future behavioural adjustments, underscores the appropriateness of any decision that focuses on them exclusively, or as contrasting groups in baseline studies on leisure behaviour. . It is against this background that the present study examines the problem and prospect for the tourism in Adamawa state case study of Yola north local government.
1.2 Statement of Problem:
Owing to the sudden but expected boom in the tourism and hospitality industry worldwide, every country is on the lookout on how to improve their tourism and hospitality industry so as to achieve their desired aim.
In Nigeria, over the years the tourism and hospitality industry have been experiencing a lot of setbacks which ranges from transportation problems to accommodation and security. This research work therefore seeks to explore the problems and prospects for the development of the hospitality and tourism industry in Adamawa state state.
1.3 Objectives of the Study:
The following forms the objectives of the study;
- To investigate the problems facing the tourism and hospitality industry in Lagos state.
- To investigate also the causes of these problems found in the sector
- To suggest a possible means of minimizing or stopping the challenges faced by this sector
- To examine the level of development of tourism in Yola North Adamawa state.
1.4 Research Questions:
To effectively carryout the research work, the researcher designed some questions in which an attempt to answer then correctly during the course of the research work will enhance understanding of the project topic. The research questions include the following;
- What is the current level of development of tourism in Yola North?
- What are the problems facing the development of tourism in Adamawa state?
- What are the causes of these problems?
- How many tourist destination centres are there in Yola North?
- To what extent has the government of the state aided the tourism sector in solving the problem facing them?
1.5 Research Hypothesis:
The following forms the research hypothesis for the study; HO: Internally generated problems retards the development of tourism in the state
- HI: Internally generated problems promotes the development of tourism in the state
HO: Government aids in the alleviation of these problems hindering development
- HI: Government does not aid in the alleviation of these problems hindering development of tourism in the state.
HO: The problems facing tourism development in Yola north affects its profitability
- HI: The problems facing tourism development in Yola north does not affect its profitability
1.6 Significance of the Study:
It is the expectation of the researcher that this project work will be of great importance to the state government, the country and the students. The state government and the country is expected to benefit from this study since the study will throw light on the problems facing the tourism industry and the possible ways of alleviating the problems for the benefit of developing the sector. It will be of immense benefit to student of tourism and hospitality department since it will broaden their perception of tourism its challenges and the possible ways of tackling such challenges.
1.7 Scope of the Study:
The project work is sectioned in such a way that chapter one examines the introductory rudiments of the research, chapter two introduces the literature review of the study, chapter three projects the methodology utilized by the researcher in conducting the research work and all other necessary facts needed. Chapter four presents the result of the methodology used and evaluation of the research hypothesis. Chapter five gives the summary, conclusion and recommendation of the research work.
1.8 Limitation of the Study:
During the course of this project work, the researcher encountered several research challenges which include the following;
- Financial constraints
- Limited material for the research work
- Time factor
- Problem convincing people to answer questionnaires correctly.
Nevertheless, the researcher was able to surmount the challenges and conclude the research work successfully.
1.9 Definition of Terms:
To fully comprehend the topic under discussion, the researcher believes that definition of the following terms will be of a great help;
The commercial organization and operation of holidays and visits to places of interest.
The situation of being faced with something that needs great mental or physical effort in order to be done successfully and therefore tests a person’s ability
Grow or cause to grow and become more mature, advanced, or elaborate.
The action of one object coming forcibly into contact with another.
The friendly and generous reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers
A matter or situation regarded as unwelcome or harmful and needing to be dealt with and overcome.
The possibility or likelihood of some future event occurring.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
The main purpose of this study is to explore the problems and prospects for the development of the hospitality and tourism industry in Adamawa state state.The study further investigate the problems facing the tourism and hospitality industry in, examine the causes of these problems found in the sector, examined the level of development of tourism in Yola North Adamawa state.
The study adopted the survey descriptive research design and with the aid of convenience sampling method, the researcher conveniently selected eighty-five (75) participant for the study. Self- structure questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which 50 copies were retrieved and validated for the study. Data was analyzed using simple percentage, presented in frequencies and tables. Hypotheses test was conducted using Chi-Square statistical package for social science (SPSSv.23)
Tourism is believed to be the fastest growing industries across the world. Thus, this development and indeed the mono-cultural nature of Nigerian economy leave no one in doubt as to the need to develop and sustain our tourism industry. Nigeria is a vast and fascinating country with varying geographical regions and ecological zones. It has diverse and amiable climatic variables rich in biological diversity. Cascading water systems, rolling links, pleasant and distinctive sceneries. Accordingly the Nigeria government has to diversify the economy to incorporate the tourism sector with the launching of Nigeria Tourist Association. However in a situation where where roads are in bad shape, inadequate and in some cases absence of portable water, erratic power supply, poor communication networks and other aspects of social amenities required to support tourism are not in existence , it will not augur well for tourism industry.
Findings of this study reveal that the problems facing tourism development in Adamawa state includes poor attitude and culture related issues, insecurity issues and poor state image, infrastructure issues in tourist destinations, income level, inadequate public enlightenment, poor funding, limited investment and government regulations.
Findings of the study also revealed that these problems are capable of inhibiting the profitability of tourism industry in Nigeria and lead to other effect such as cancellation of reservations and bookings, obsolete tourist infrastructure and weariness of investors on committing scarce resources in a sector that may not deliver the much anticipated returns.
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
- There is the need to develop an encompassing tourism policy if it has to be sustainable, equitable and responsive so as to contribute to Nigeria’s economic development and in effect raise the quantity of life of all her people.
- Government should intensify vigorously the marketing and promotion of Nigeria cultural, historical and archaeological treasures. Funding of tourism should be tackled.
- Government should provide all the enabling environment to support private sectors in tourism development. Much attention should be given to environmental aspects of tourism i.e. Ecotourism which consists of wildlife tourism and natural parks. Thus, the federal Ministry of commerce and Tourism as well as Tourism Corporation be strengthened.
- Tourism information should as a matter of significance be available on Internet for users and investors. There is the need to embark on aggressive manpower development required in the tourism industry, such as in hotels and catering, training schools and institutions should be established
- Public Private Partnership should be encouraged to enhance effective operation and participation.
- Lodging facilities, sporting facilities, entertainments and halls for seminars or events or conferences should be provided within the resort.
- The government of Nigeria should endeavor to put measures in place to sustain the tourism industry since its a driving tool to cultural heritage site development in the country.
- The government of Nigeria should work on the challenges militating against sustainable tourism in Nigeria so as to keep the industry alive because the tourism attractions in Nigeria when developed, properly packaged and promoted can satisfy the curiosity of almost every kind of tourists; and this will bring about increased benefits such as massive employment, increased revenue generation, local empowerment, foreign exchange earnings, creation of market for local product and development of infrastructures.
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