Problems Of Policy Formulation And Implementation In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Structural Adjustment Programme Sap)
The researcher tries to examine how policies, programmes and issues are formulated and implemented in government especially during the regime of general Ibrahim Babangida as well as using the structural adjustment programme (SAP) as a special case study.
In chapter one of this research work, the researcher discussed the brief historical background with the case study which gave them information concerning this research work.
Chapter two covered on literature review on what people, authors and professors have written about the policy formulation and implementation in Nigeria.
Chapter three deals with research methodology. The researcher employed some tools like sample size, sources of data, questionnaires and sampling technique.
In chapter four, it deals with analysis of result in the research while chapter five deals with the summary, recommendation and conclusion. Under this chapter, five advices were given to formulators and implementations of the policies.
Table Of Contents
- Title Page
- Approval Page
- Table Of Contents
- 1.1 Background of The Study
- 1.2 Statement of the problem
- 1.3 Objective of the study
- 1.4 Scope and limitation of study
- 1.5 Significance of the study
- 1.6 Theoretical frame work
- 1.7 Statement of hypothesis
- 1.8 Definitions of terms
- 1.0 Literature Review
- 1.1 Introduction
- 3.1 Research Methodology
- 3.2 Methods of data collection
- 3.3 Sample size
- 3.4 Sample techniques
- 3.5 Data analysis techniques
- 4.0 Data presentation
- 4.1 Data analysis
- 4.2 Research findings
- 5.0 summary, recommendations and conclusion
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Recommendations
- 5.3 Conclusion
1.1 Background Of The Study
In 1982, the international financial marketers were already seized with the debt crises, following the public admission of Mexico and a number of debtor nations of their inability to continue to fulfill their external debt obligations (Presbisch 1963; 10). In Nigeria, the period between 1980 ad early 1985 was characterized by drastic fall in oil revenues and therefore in foreign exchange portfolio, accompanied by an unprecedented increase in import bills and deteriorating balances of payments. By 1986, Nigerians outstanding external indebtedness, including short- term trade arrears, had hit the N57 billion marks, while the debtor agencies grow from bad to worse. The situation also earned Nigeria a considerable deterioration of her image vis-a-vis her principal foreign creditors and trading partners (Okon 2005; 447).
The distinguished Argentina economist, Paul presbisch alluded to this in the 1950’s, when he said. In the face of huge balance of payment deficits, Nigeria was badly in need of external loan to enable her regain equilibrium.
According to World Bank report (1994), Nigerians creditors were reluctant to reschedule her external debt, grant fresh loans or open new lines of credit for the importation of industrial raw materials and other imports, especially following the country’s rejection of the IMF Loan. Nigeria was thus faced with an embarrassing cross-conditionality to produce a certificate of guarantee (a clean bill of economic health). IMF itself could not enclose such a certificate- a pre conditional which was a demonstrable commitment on the part of Nigeria to embark upon structural adjustment measures, including the devaluation of her over-valued naira.
Factors accounting for Nigerians mounting external debt included foreign exchange leakages through wide-spread over invoicing of exports, borrowing the fiancé non-tradable project, poor debts management , whereby short –term debts were centered and used for log –term development purposes, thus leading to poor maturity, profile or the bunching of repayment, currently over valuation, low income rates and uncontrolled external borrowings by state governments and other public agencies, sometimes without federal government knowledge, approval guarantee and documentation.
Between 1979 and 1983, state government in Nigeria were known to have indiscriminately contracted external loans for consumption of goods and materials for social infrastructural facilities without any consideration whatsoever for the means of repayments as when due. Such uncoordinated borrowing by state governments and other agencies were responsible for much of the problem of debt-bunching and subsequent researching.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
In the course of this research work, a lot of problems emerged. This work therefore sets out to address the following problems
- What is structural adjustment programme?
- Why did Nigeria adopt structural adjustment programme as an economic measure?
- Was structural adjustment programme policy for economic recovery?
- What was the objective sort to achieve by structural adjustment programme on the economy?
- What were the impacts of structural adjustment programme on the economy?
- Was structural adjustment programme a success or a failure?
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The objectives of the study are as follows:-
- To explain the importance of structural adjustment programme as a means or strategy for revamping Nigeria economy
- To show that Nigeria was badly in need of external loan to enable her regain equilibrium in the economic scheme of things
- To check if structural adjustment programme was a good economic recovery programme that was handled by unqualified personnel
- To restructure and diversify the productive base of the Nigerian economy in order to reduce dependence on the oil sector and on imports.
- To encourage local sourcing of raw materials
- To show that structural adjustment programme has made poor people still poorer, and that the neo-liberal paradigm needs to be applied with knowledge of and sensitivity to local circumstances.
1.4 Scope Of The Study
The limitation of this study is based on the constraints the researcher faced during carrying out this research and those constraints are;
- Lack of finance to carry out the research
- There was no enough time for the researcher to adequately carryout his research.
- The researcher also has this problem of traveling long distance to get information also with high cost of transportation.
1.5 Significance Of Study
This work is so essential because it will prove itself as a handwork to policy makers, statesmen, politicians and even bureaucrats alike which is also reliable and as a vent able guide for future policy formulation and implementation.
It will also provide the platform for more indebt research into the art and science of policy formulation and implementation in Nigeria especially within he period when administration of development is much harped on by different regimes for much cherished development and economic growth in Nigeria.
This work will expose the flaws inherent with structural adjustment programme as it concerned the objectives and goals of second tier foreign exchange market which created more problems than it was created to solve. The reason for failure of structural adjustment programme is vividly exposed.
Furthermore, the efficiency and effectiveness of the leadership are so enhanced with the skill and technique for policy formulation and implementation for effective result especially during the structural adjustment programme period, decision, it is expected that the study would expose the actuation factors that influences and shape the nations public making process.
1.6 Theoretical Frame Work
For the interest of this project work, the theoretical framework of this study will lay emphasis on how to analyze public policy. It indicates the need for framework that analyze organize his understanding of what happens or does not happen in the policy making process.
Before articulating our framework for analysis, it will be imperative to point out the existence of some ideal-type model that have been put forward by some scholars and authors, what this analysis should look for is the analysis of public policy models such increment approach of cinbcom.
The framework use of this work was views policy formulation and implementation as that which arises form the political process.
This theoretical framework lays emphasis on how analysis of policy must be done. In such things like the number of stages that an issue may have to go through. This framework is essential that the appropriate model of analysis should in all cases be considered and selected accordingly at the early stages of the policy process and preferably on the basis of explicit criteria.
1.7 Statement Of Hypothesis
For the purpose of this work, the following hypothesis have been formulated
- Ho: structural adjustment programme (SAP) reduces western dependency on the Nigerian economy.
Hi: Structural adjustment programme (SAP) does not reduce western dependency on the Nigerian economy
- Ho; Structural adjustment programme (SAP) yielded the much needed economy recovery in Nigeria.
Hi: Structural adjustment programme (SAP) has not yielded the much needed economy recovery in Nigeria.
1.8 Definitions Of Terms
From the advanced oxford learner’s dictionary, problem is used to be something that is difficult to deal with or understand. So problems can also be called difficulties.
Structure is a component part that helps in making a whole and institution that help in executing the formation of the government.
Policy formulation is affirmative decision which entails the approval of a preferred policy alternative, some body or policy actors
Policy implementation is giving help and effect to policy so that objective of the policy can be achieved
The Policy Of Sap refers to a programme that is aimed at alleviating poverty form Nigeria and other third world country that faced serious economy postern and need recovery to increase the standard of living of the people
Adjustment is an organ or faculty that determine behavior in
Response to stimulus
A programme is a plan of things that will be done or included in the development of anything.
A politics is all human activities that are involved is getting and using power in public life and bring also a decision that influence others in any place.
A public policy in this connection refers to those definite actions of government that is towards the fulfillment of the obligation of the state.
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
The purpose of this research is to present critical analysis on how various governments both civilians and military administration and other institutions that are involved in the formulation of policies, more especially during the Ibrahim Babangida’s regime should be formulated and implemented in Nigeria.
The thesis project commence with problem definition, four research questions were developed to guide the major activities of this project in other to identify existing theories in this field and bring them into focus to the problem at hand
A detailed literature review was conducted and presented in chapter two. While chapter three discussed the major research design and methodological issues of the project. The data for the analysis of study were obtained form the investigation and interview, questionnaire which is being distributed to the staff and some ministries. Chapter four was used to present data and analysis. Chapter five discuses the major findings. The implementers of this policy are poor because of incompetent and corruption among them which the federal, state and local government should correct.
On the basis of the empirical analysis and findings concerning policy formulation and implementation in Nigeria under general Babangida’s administration which structural adjustment programme (SAP) is the case study,, the following recommendation are give.
- It is very important that policies that will improve individual’s life be formulated in the country.
- Questionable characters should play in the midst of policy formulators and implementers because when a leader of good character is ruling and have individuals that are good in character which stands for policy implementation. They would be influencing the individuals positively.
- I recommend that expertise are being given chance to make policies so that the masses will be given what they want because if a wise policy maker makes out a policy it must have positive impact on the life of the people
Conclusively, there is no gain saying the fact that the functions of government is that it should live up of its obligation to the populace e.g. the protection of lives and properties including the resolutions of conflicts among all the groups within the country.
Also, the federal government should make a way of initiating sound policies not selfish policies that will benefit them alone. Good policies that will put more value into individuals and citizens of Nigeria. And they should also map out agencies that will make sure that policies formulated by government are being carried out in terms of implementation with this, policy in Nigeria without be of oneness desire but in interest of the masses.
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