Problems Of Staff Training And Development On The Public Sector Organization (A Case Study Of Federal Ministry Of Education Umuahia, Abia State)

🔥HOT!! Get admission now directly into 200Level into the school of your choice without writing JAMB & Post UTME exam (Click Here)👈🏽 for details | Registration is On-going

📩Get good project / seminar topics with materials for approval

Click to Check

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


This project is dedicated to the all knowing God Almighty. The general superintendent of the whole universe, the source and sustainers of my life against all odds. And also to my beloved Mother, EZINNE ULOMA JOHN who brought me to this world.


This project is one of the realities made possible by the Almighty God. Whose special grace provided me with the health and knowledge to carry this project to completion I remain ever and ever indebted to him.

I am humbled to my supervisor DR. OBINNA ONWUBIKO, my (HOD) MR. ORUEBOR A.A, and MRS. LILAIN ESIAGU for their innumerable assistance particularly his counselor and intellectual contributions and corrections towards the successful completion of this work.

My special thanks goes to my father (In-law) ASP JULIUS CHUKWUEMEKA NWAEJIE and my sweet caring Elder Sister MRS. NKECHINYERE CHUKWUEMEKA P. for their immeasurable financial and moral support also to my wonderful friends, COMR OSIGWE COSMAS, ANYANWU OSONDU C., my JWELL KALU EVELYN A. and the host of others.

My deepest appreciation goes to all Nigerian students in federal polytechnic Nekede, for all their support and confidence in me at all times, SUG eletion, EPSA election, NAASS etc. and my colleagues especially from public Administration department 2012-2014 academic session federal polytechnic Nekede Owerri, I thank you all and may God see us all through in all our life endeavors. I also applaud my humble self Comr. NWACHUKWU BRIGHT C. (MON) for working very hard irrespective of other struggles attached to my studies.


This research study is an attempt to x-ray and give in depth analysis of the problem of staff training and development in the public sector organization. A case study of ministry of education Umuahia (Abia State). The need to determine the problem of staff training and development in an organization is very necessary as it hinders the growth and development of the organization.

In the course of this work, research employs survey design and makes use of questionnaires to gather information while secondary data were gathered from text books, journals in addition, the data collected were presented in tables and then interpreted and analyzed. The findings show that lack of training contributes to the poor performance of staff in the ministry.

Therefore, there is need for establishment of local equipped training and development programme for the attainment of the organizational goals.

Table Of Contents

  • Title page i
  • Approval page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of content vi

Chapter One:Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study 1
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem 9
  • 1.3 Objective of the study 12
  • 1.4 Research questions 13
  • 1.5 Statement of hypothesis 14
  • 1.6 Significance of the study 15
  • 1.7 Scope of the study 17
  • 1.8 Limitation of the study 17
  • 1.9 Definition of terms 19

Chapter Two

  • 2.1 Literature review 20
  • 2.2 Definition and meaning of training and development and its importance. 21
  • 2.3 The objective of training and development 25
  • 2.4 Types of training 27
  • 2.5 Approach to training and development 28
  • 2.6 Determination of personnel development 31
  • 2.7 Usefulness of staff training and development 37
  • 2.8 Method of staff training and development 13
  • 2.9 General problem facing staff training and development.

Chapter Three

  • 3.1 Research methodology 44
  • 3.2 Research design 44
  • 3.3 Sources/methods of data collection 45
  • 3.4 Population and sample size 47
  • 3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument. 50
  • 3.7 Method of analysis 51

Chapter Four

  • 4.1 Data presentation and analysis of data 52
  • 4.2 Presentation of data 52
  • 4.3 Analysis of data 59
  • 4.4 Test of hypothesis 59
  • 4.5 Interpretation of results 63

Chapter Five

  • 5.1 Summary, recommendation and conclusion 65
  • 5.2 Summary of finding 65
  • 5.4 Conclusion 67
  • 5.3 Recommendation 68
  • References 71
  • Appendix/questionnaire. 73

Chapter One


1.1 Background Of The Study

The problem of training and manpower development in an organization cannot be over emphasized. Before I go into full details of this topic, it is pertinent to take into concentration the meaning of training and development.
Training in its simplest definition means the process of learning or acquisition of the skills one needs to do a job.

Training constitutes all investments towards developing human resources for effective and efficient performance.
Training in a broad view, is also the act of providing or receiving instruction in or for a particular skill, profession, occupation etc. staff training and development are the heart of employee’s utilization, productivity motivation and growth. Many employees have failed in organizations because their need to be trained was not identified and provided for an indispensable part important at this point to make distinction between training and development.
Training is an organizational obligation aimed at helping their employee to acquire basic skills required for efficient execution of the functions for which he was hired.

Development deals with the activities undertaking to expose an employee to perform additional duties and assume positions of importance in the organizational hierarchy (Nwachukwu 1992:121).

Therefore, the problems of staff training and development according to Ajida (1997:22, 28-29) are as follows:

  1. The exposition of economic activity which has given rise to excessive expansion of institution and creating of new ones both in government and private sector. The effect of this has spread management materials very thinly in circumstances where the stock can not be readily supplemented.
  2. There is the element of creeping ineffectiveness of management. This is exemplified by the growing level of indiscipline and authoritarian tendencies both in public and private sector/institutions.
  3. There is also the problem of reluctance to release staff, particularly good ones for any external period of training. The reason for this is that the bidden of the management is becoming so cumbersome that the organizations can no longer spare existing personnel for the purpose of training.
  4. The competitive demand for trained personnel where private sector attracts trained personnel from public sector; one organization includes the manpower of the other. In each of the situation, the tendency of the organization becoming unwilling to provide further training for their employee in future is there.
  5. The geo – political factor in management which tends to over burden the good ones due to lack of skills by others.
  6. The problems in the past have been the inadequate coordination. The need for additional resources has been recognized, but there were too many organization involved and this requires some effective co ordinations.
    Ifedi (1991:11) highlighted that a training policy is an expression of company’s attitude towards training for a given period. It is the company’s training strategy for a given company that will determine and assist in the coordination of the company’s efforts to make them consistent with the achievement of the company’s overall objectives. Without training policy, an organizations attitude to staff development will be ill defined, haphazard and uncoordinated with the aim that whatever training hardly achieves the desired objectives or make the necessary impact.

In summary, the researcher believes that its long overdue to highlight the crisis situation in management development in this country and more particularly the facts that exists both in government and private sectors.
The problem of staff training and development in an organization is a huge impediment and cannot be left out. There is need to explain the concept of training and development before venturing into the main idea.

Training according to Davis (1981) is the process of preparing people to do their jobs better. It is slightly different from development which has been defined as a holistic and futuristic process that seeks to transform a worker (manpower) in his entity from a relatively less matured less experienced and more dependent state to a relatively more matured, more experienced and less dependent state.

Thus, to develop a worker (manpower) is simply to enable him realize his potential in full, or to assist him attain maturity in terms of his general perception, performance or activities, as a means towards his self fulfillment (Oko, 1991).

A staff could be developed for a greater knowledge or expertise, greater confidence, and higher degree of performance through two broad forms of training. It could be formal or informal training as observed by many workers like Nwanko (1988.pg3) usually occur at pre – career stage that is pre – entry training takes place after the officer has begun his career at various levels and when needed.

To train and develop staff is to equip and prepare him for effective job performance and effective life, in the organization. Thus they constitute variable means by which the organization gets the best out of the staff (workers). However, an organization guarantees itself maximum utilization of its manpower not only through constant training and development, but also through appropriate work deployment and motivation. Investments on training and development are wise investments.

Therefore, the problem associated with the performance of staff training and development according to Ayida (1977) is as follows:

  1. Favoritism, tribalism coupled with other objective factors disqualifying a personnel to undergo training schemes. The background of perspective trainers and the extent to which they can benefit from courses are sometimes ignored to the detriment of the organizational goal attainment.
  2. Because of their financial implications, training schemes have been frequently subjected to too much control. This is very noticeable with training budgets which suffers sever buffeting at the annual estimate sessions. A personal observation from a member of training courses which the employees attended shows that there are still employers who approve staff training for the sale of it.
    Employees have been drafted to training schemes which are not geared towards the objectives of the company. Too often, employers are misled by managers of private mushroom organization which have lately been springing up with embarrassing irregularities. Sometimes, some employers of labour embrace the mushrooms institutions because they are scared away by the prohibitive cost of the reputable training organization in the country.
  3. Another point in view over the years is the age limit of personnel training. This issue has created considerable controversy among managers, and yet it is far from being resolved. An expert advice that employees over 45 years are Un – trainable and it has been a challenge on the grounds that there are personnel who reach their intellectual peak at middle age.
  4. The most acceptable view seems to be that much depends on whether the training is operative, supervisory of management and the level of individual performance irrespective of age
  5. Federal government had cause to complain recently about the inadequate training activities in both the public and private sector. It is apparently that despite the positive measures by the government to encourage national indigenous manpower development and utilization, the volume of informal training is not encouraging, considering the total volume of wage employment in the economy.

A contributing factor to this poor state of affairs is lack of consultations with the official training agencies like the industrial training fund (ITF), and centre for management development. All these are reason or why despite the pressure of manpower shortages in technical and professional areas are still there (very visible). It is still discovered that staff training and development is lacking behind in the increasing need for trained manpower all over the nation. The deficiency manifests itself not only in the public sector but also in the private sector

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Training is expected to be an investment in an organization which human resources often describe as the greatest asset of such organization. Furthermore, every training and programme is expected to be appraised in terms of relevance and timing by assessing the potential gains to the organization. When it is implementation from historical perspective many organization did not see the essence of training their workers (manpower) it was considered as an intangible service.

However, overtime, lack of adequate training exposure led to various problems, experienced varies from organization to organization. During the period of boom, organizations are buoyant and very liquid, they voted some fund for staff training and development but failed to monitor the effectiveness or impact they made (PAL 1998:19).

Lack of skilled personnel in an organization is identified as one of the major problems impending growth of economic development in Nigeria.

Ubeku (1975:270) points out the implications of lack of employee training as he noted that people who are not trained tend to stick to what they were told about the job. They are frightened of doing a new thing or doing a different thing on the job, because something might go wrong and that risk they cannot take.
In this view, such employees are redundant to the rapid change in technology. They tend to make an organization static and operate in an out date manner.

The following are some of the problems associated with management development in Nigeria as identified by organizations and employees.

  1. The objectives of the training programmes are not clearly stated to the participants. There is no mental preparedness.
  2. Some employees (staff) see some development programmes as a few days of work that are meant for relaxation.
  3. There is no positive intersegment after the training.
  4. The employee does not have opportunity to put the concepts and principles taught to him into practice.
  5. Inadequate support from the executives.
  6. There is a problem of transfer of learning, some of the concepts and principles taught are too academics and very difficult to apply in real life situation.
  7. The consultancy are not properly selected and do not adopt their lectures to suit specific organizational needs (Nwachukwu 1992:132)
  8. Many management development programmes are not properly planned as there are no sequences’ to the courses offered from year to year.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The objectives of the study are as follows:

  1. To find out the factors that militates against effective implementation or execution of staff training programme.
  2. To discover whether the staff are adequately trained and skillfully developed.
  3. To ascertain the level of participation of staff in the organizational programmes.
  4. To discover the methods used in the training and development of staff and its effects on the employees.
  5. To discover whether staff training and development influence productivity in Nigeria.
  6. To estimate the influence of the cost of staff training and development in the ministry of education.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. How does training and development influence productivity in the organization?
  2. Does cost of training and development programmes influence the organization expenditure?
  3. Does the ministry engage in any form of staff training?
  4. If yes why do they engage in training and which type?
  5. Why in your view does the ministry undertake such training programme?
  6. What are the methods used in the training and development of staff in the ministry?
  7. What are the factors that militate against effective implementation or execution of staff training program?
  8. Does the staff adequately trained and skillfully developed?

1.5 Statement Of Hypothesis:

In research, hypothesis is classified into two types namely:

  1. The null hypothesis
  2. The alternative hypothesis
Null Hypothesis:

the null hypothesis is an assertion that the population parameter or parameter estimate is not different from what it is supposed to be or what it has been in the past.
It represents an existing belief; we normally assume that null hypothesis is true until we have sufficient statistical evidence to the contrary. It is symbolized by HO

Alternate Hypothesis

Alternate hypothesis specifies a population parameter or parameter estimates that is different from status quo of what it used to be in the past. This is symbolized by HI.

Null Hypothesis
  • H0: lack of training does not contribute to poor performance of staff in the ministry.
  • H1: lack of training contributes to the poor performance of staff in the ministry.

1.6 Significance Of The Study

Qualified personnel’s should occupy all the sensitive positions in any organization for effective productivity and growth in such organization. In developing countries, such as Nigeria, the role of well trained and consequently competent personnels assumes a great significance.

The quality of decisions or management in all sectors of the economy, therefore becomes a key factor in the well being of the entire economy. In Nigeria this factor is either lacking or inadequate in organization.

Its however, in the realization of the significance of staff training and development that the federal government on its part promulgated industrial training fund (ITF) to promote and encourage the skill acquisition in the industry of commerce with the view of generating a pool of indigenous trained manpower sufficient to meet the needs of Nigeria economy (Ubeku 1975:271)

More so, the area on employee’s activities and response to training programmes will be useful to the management in the formulation and implementation of training needs, policies and programmes in subsequent times.

Specifically, some findings and recommendations at the end of the study if properly done will be useful to the management and staff of federal ministry of education Umuahia, Abia state. students in public administration, personnel management and also to open up areas of further research which might result in constructive suggestions, improvements, change and new method to solve problem of staff training.

1.7 Scope Of Study

Based on the topic of this study, the research was conducted at the federal ministry of education umuahia, abia state. This is to enable the researcher do thorough study on the problems of staff training and development, the researcher however, believes that the findings will be encouraged by federal and every state establishment in training and developing of their staff as if effects efficient performance in their organization respectively.

1.8 Limitation Of The Study

In carrying out this research the researcher encountered numerous problems. But it is the intention of the researcher to mention just few problems that affected this research work.


Finance was the greatest problem the researcher had in the course of this research. Therefore, it became imperative for the researcher to limit his spending in the project to size and manage his purse.


Time was another problem that affected this research work, this is so because lecture period as affected the course of gathering data. Yet it is not exaggeration to say that more of the time available to the researcher was same into the work.

The researcher missed classes and abstained from other political and social functions in order to keep appointments connected with the research.


The issue of total co – operation from the respondents always poses great problems to the researcher. Sometimes, inability of respondents to open up and give useful information to the researcher poses another problem.

However, the researcher tried as much as possible to establish cordial relationship with the public relation officer (PRO) in order to get concrete information from them. In spite of all these constraints, the researcher can still say the quality of this work is undiluted and viable.

1.9 Definition Of Terms

For a better understanding and clarity, some important concepts used in this study are clarified.


Is used to refer to a group of assistant working together in an establishment.


Is a systematic process of altering the behavior or attitude of employees in a direction to release organizational goal attainment.


An organization refers to a social unit (or human grouping) that is knitted together to achieve specific goals.


Development is an upward movement or growth towards positive line and also a change in the organization age.

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic

📩How to get the complete material

👌🏼Simple and straight to the point

The price is (₦5,000) ₦3,000 ✔

🔐Your payment is secured

Samphina Academy is registered with the CAC (Corporate Affairs Commission) under the federal law with RC:- 2887147 been one of the top Academic Media in Nigeria.

Click here For easy online payment using your credit card otherwise follow the instructions below to get the complete material

You are to make payment to:

Account No: 0811003731,
Bank Name: Access Bank,
Acct Name: Samphina Academy.

The mode of payment is through USSD Transfer (Phone), ATM Transfer, Bank Deposit or POS (any which will be convenient for you)

After Payment

Send the following information listed below to our email address “”. The subject should be “Request for Material”

  • 📍Payment Details; (For Transfer; send the account name you transferred money from or time of payment | For Deposit; snap and attach the deposit receipt from the bank to email)
  • 📍Project / Seminar Material you need (This project topic to be precise)
  • 📍An Active Email Address (The Material will be sent to this email address)

Other ways in which you can send us the above information are:

After Sending your information and making payment, the material will be forwarded to your email address as soon as possible

For enquiry, call us at 08143831497

Follow us on Facebook

How to nail it on the head during your project / seminar defence

You are through with writing that project / seminar. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic

Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.

Structure of a Seminar Paper

I feel like there is a lot of stress out there among grad students about writing seminar papers, especially when we’re told that our goal should be to make an original contribution to the field. That idea can be quite intimidating when we’re just starting out. It feels like you’ve asked us to jump off the deep end of the pool and we don’t know how to swim.

I think part of the problem is that we’re still working out how to structure seminar papers.** Each paper we write is another step closer to a successful, effective, and effective paper; however, we’re still flailing our arms (and other miscellaneous body parts) around because we’re uncertain of exactly how to go about it. I realize, of course, that there is no one right answer. However, below is my suggestion at sticking your toes in the water.

Section #1 — Introduction

Provide a little bit (or a lot) of motivation for the reader to read your entire paper. Failing that, your reader should know what the paper is going to be about by reading your introduction.

Paragraph #1 — Get some attention.

  1. Provide a context by citing a recent text in the field — the point that is cited may or may not be the main point of the text — it is what jumped out at you.
  2. Set-up broader context of what you’re going to do

Paragraph #2-?? — Define issue and the gap.

  1. Define issue and any key terms
  2. Limit scope as necessary
  3. Establish significance of issue
  4. State problem by defining the gap
  5. Explain how present research attempts to fill the gap
  6. Outline contributions (readers will see lit review for more detail.)
  7. End with thesis and preview organization of the rest of the paper

Section #2 — Literature Review

Give some credit where credit is due.

  1. Indicate the current state of the issue/problem/topic
  2. Define or qualify terms
  3. Engage sources in conversation with each other (don’t just copy in annotated bib)

Section #3 — Argument / Discussion

As stated in the Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing:wallow in those complexities!!

  1. Examine issue
  2. Argue how issue can be mitigated, mediated, or mashed
  3. Provide evidence and support
  4. Make some lively commentary along the way

Section #4 — Conclusion

We’re almost done. Don’t quit now.

  1. Summarize research question
  2. Qualify argument/discussion if you need to
  3. Explain where we go now
  4. End well

Section #5 — Works Cited

Double check

Is everything listed on the works cited?

Tips: it’s ok to use sub-headings to keep yourself organized.

Tips On How To Know What Your Supervisor Is Looking Out For In Your Project

Apparently all schools/colleges ask their undergraduates especially the final students to write their final year project before they are certified to be graduates. These projects are mostly discovery activities geared towards problems solving or basically to make new discoveries or better still have a better understanding of a problem with the aim of proffering better solutions.

With this assigned task an undergraduate will need an advisor, a counselor or a supervisor to guide and direct this activity for a desired result and a successful ending and of course, in return the supervisor have factors to look out for in a student project, so that the aim of the project writing will not be defeated.

As a final year student planning to write your final year project, there are some factors you need to consider when trying to have a good working relationship with your supervisor and you must have the below tips at your fingertips to know what your supervisor look at for in your project.

Selecting the right topic or title:

The supervisor would want to know how knowledgeable one is, in a chosen topic and how far one can go with the topic by asking one diverse questions which could be simple or a bit tough. So one thing is to choose a right topic and another thing is to be knowledgeable about the said topic.

The relevancy of the project topic to the degree course:

This is one of the important things a supervisor looks out for in a project. A final year project must have a purpose and objectives and most importantly be problem solving and must be related to the course of study. So a project topic should be relevant and interesting.

The realistic plan for the project:

A project supervisor will always look at how realistic a project topic is. Will the project aims be achieved and at the specified time. If it will outlived the specified time such topic might be dropped and a new topic adopted to run the set time and fulfill its purpose.

Quality of research materials available:

Another factor a supervisor will consider in project writing by a student is the quality of the materials available for research on the chosen project topic, can materials and information be readily available and are those materials of high standard and convincing not just bogus and fictitious analysis but materials that research has be carried out by scholars related to course of study. So a source of materials used for a project is very important and most supervisors look out for this.

The funding channels:

Almost all project writing needs a good amount of funding to achieved the desired aim, A supervisor would always want to find out how the project will be funded, so as not to have hitches when the project is on. So to have a smooth working relationship with ones project supervisor, the funding of the project must be considered and revisited from time to time. Because a supervisor will look out for this aspect too.

You may also like...