Problems Militating Against Teaching And Learning Of Art In Private Junior Secondary Schools
This is a comparative study of problems militating against teaching and learning of art in private junior secondary schools in Enugu urban. Sample – 120 students and 42 teachers were randomly selected, questionnaires and oral interview was used to obtain data. Problem encountered were unqualified teachers, non availability of art materials and tools and belief system. Likert Theory was used to find the mean. Recommendation was made on how to solve the problems militating against teaching and learning of art in private schools junior secondary school.
1.1 Background of Study
All school subjects have their intrinsic value (intellectual and utilitarian) and art is one of those whose utilitarian and aesthetic value are of the most precious significance to human life and happy living (Majasca 1995).
It has been observed that art education has not been given adequate recognition, attention and support in Nigeria. The society believes that it is all about drawing and painting but art is more than that.
Art is virtually an everyday activity, it is embedded in every subject that we can think or do, art is all around us, the cloth we wear, flowers planted in our homes, offices and schools are all art works. (Uzoagba 2000).
The government knows the importance of art and consequently it has been made an integral part of the curriculum especially at the junior secondary level (part of the formative level of education). It seems that government finds it hard to sponsor art as the sciences. It could be that art materials are highly expensive and mostly imported.
Teachers are very essential, they are hub of any educational system in curriculum implementation. What goes on in the classroom depends in no small measure on the quality of the teacher, their number and devotion to the success of any educational system. If the students are to master this important subject very well they must be guided by a good art teacher.
The skilled for good art teacher should be able to motivate their students in a manner that will arouse the interest of the student to art learning. This knowledge will encourage the students to personal fulfillment through art experience, transmit an appreciation of the artistic heritage and develops an awareness of role of art in the society (Chapman 1978).
Assumption of above role may be affected by belief system as some secondary school are owned by mission which holds a believe that our art works are idols and arts studios shrines. A lot of art works were destroyed by missionaries in the name of Christianity, during those days, subject like English language which was very vital for easy communication were rising while art was reduced to its lowest level even till date in some private secondary schools.
Converts of this religion also may have contributed a lot of psychological damage to their children. Some of which vowed that they will not welcome idol worship to their families in the name of art. It appears that peers also contribute to this effect as they believe that knowledge of art should be for apprenticeship and shouldn’t be learnt or studied in secondary schools (Chapman 1978).
Even when the subject was taught, it seems that little or not time is allotted to art teaching and learning in schools.
This study is therefore an attempt to investigate the extent to which such problems militating against effective teaching of art in private junior secondary schools in Enugu urban and possible solutions to them.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It has been observed that art in private secondary schools have not been placed in a proper position it should be like in other subjects. This has been seen as problem, some of the problems are as follows:
- Lack of professional art teachers
- Non-availability of art material, tools and studio
- Psychological damage done by the society
- High negative influence of belief system
- Short time allotted to art in schools
1.3 Purpose of the Study
This study is to investigate an extent to which these problems militate against teaching and learning of art in private junior secondary schools.
- Unprofessional teachers
- Non –availability of art studio materials and tools
- Short time allotted to art in private secondary school
- High negative influence of belief system.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study when accomplished will:
- Help the private secondary schools to become art oriented school, this will also help students to bring out their potential which leads to technology education. This will increase the student productivity, hereby contributing to economic growth of the nation.
- The knowledge of art will encourage personal fulfillment by helping students respond to their immediate world. And transmit an appreciation of the artistic heritage and develops an awareness of role of art in society.
- It will enable the private school authority to make provision for art both financing providing equipment and materials for art.
- The nation will also benefit as greater percentage of our students are from private schools this will increase productivity and reduces unemployment for our youths.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study was limited within private junior secondary schools in Enugu urban which comprises of Enugu north, south and east.
Based on my findings from ministry of education Enugu, it has about 56 approved private secondary schools as at July 2009.
1.6 Research Questions
- What are the problems that are jeopardizing the teaching and learning of art in private junior secondary schools.
- To what extent does lack of material and tools affect the study of art in private junior secondary schools
- To what extent does the quality of the teacher affect the proper teaching and learning of art.
- To what level does the belief system affect the learning and teaching of art in private junior secondary schools.
1.7 Definition of Terms
An inspired creative process
Ability to apply a concept in such a manner that will enhance the achievement of desired objectives
Rooms for displaying art works
Workshop for artist
Ability to bring into being or give rise to new ideas, techniques
Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Conclusion Based on Findings
The following conclusions were made by the researcher which were based on the findings of the study.
- Private secondary schools in Enugu urban lack contemporary instructional materials. This can negatively affect the teaching and learning of Fine and Applied Arts courses.
- There was no adequacy and use of instructional materials by both the Fine and Applied Arts teachers and students.
- Teachers’ competence on the use of contemporary instructional materials was far above their students’ level of competence. This might largely be due to teachers’ level of exposure to these materials and experience in using them.
- There were several problems art teachers and students face with regards to the use of contemporary instructional materials such problems include: lack of contemporary instructional materials, lack of skills and competence, inadequate supply of electricity, lack of internet connection, lack of maintenance of instructional materials, large class size compared to the few available instructional materials, etc.
5.1 Recommendations Based on Findings
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the flowing recommendations.
- There is the need for all stake holders in the educational sector in this country to provide adequate modern instructional materials to all school. This will make Nigeria move alongside with other nations of the world that are technologically developed. This will also greatly promote teaching and learning of art in School.
- School and Ministry of Education should always organize seminars, workshops to train teachers on the use of contemporary materials so that when such materials are supplied in schools they will not be difficult for the teachers to use and teach their students also.
- Teachers should put in more effort to teacher their students how to use these contemporary instructional materials even if it means them bringing their personal ones or borrowing from other schools or places that have such materials.
- The school should as a mater of urgency come to the aid of the fine and Applied Arts by providing some solutions to some of the problems being faced by both art teachers and students.
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