Problems Associated To Learning Second Language; A Comparative Analysis

Project and Seminar Material for English Language

Problems Associated To Learning Second Language; A Comparative Analysis


Chapter One


1.1 Introduction

This research work aims at the investigating aspects of language that causes problems in learning second language. Many teachers have conducted researches and discovered some aspects that cause problems in learning second language. Those aspects of second language learning include difficulties with linguistic codes (such as phonetics, phonology, semantics and syntax), mother tongues interference, and student academic history, dyslexia, anxiety, lack of effort and motivation and diverting much time and afford to other courses, are factors believe to be affecting proper learning of second language. We are going to look into the presentation of those aspect believe to be the causes of failure during the process of learning a second language, analyze them and provide some experiments and conduct questionnaires to examine critical thinking about those aspects that affect second language learning.


1.2 Significance of the Study

To became competitive on global scale, the world need individuals who can work in a culturally diverse environment and who have strong skill in languages. Due to the fact that many countries of the world have added foreign languages to their curricula either as a lingua franca or a language policy. The study of second language learning difficulties background information is to get understanding of aspects that causes problems in learning second languages to enhance academic skills, raises scores, and prefers students for a career.


1.3 Research Question

This paper aims at discovering why some students are unsuccessful in learning second language. To achieve this, second language learning must be examined. Research behind second language difficulties is vast and varied, I hope to be able to review and summarize the root causes of differences inability to learn second language, so that I can identify the reason why students are struggling in their language classes.


1.4 Statement of Problems

I encountered some problem during the process of data collection as well as typing. In data collection I started my researching under the topic “problems associated in learning foreign language”, which has been change during the process to “problems associated to learning second language”. Secondly during the typing, the business center where I start typing the project, after I have typed two chapters submitted to my supervisor, weeks later I went there with chapter three, they told me that they have corrupt with virus and they format it. I left to another business center where I meet a lot of people doing project, assignments and so on, which delay the completion of my project.


Chapter Five


Summary Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

This chapter is going to summaries the research, provide theoretical conclusion and recommend some methods that has been found effective in teaching students facing difficulties in learning second languages.


5.2 Summary

The topic of this research work is “the problems associated to second language learning”. In the first chapter of this research I introduced some of the areas that are going to be discussing in the project. All of the areas and the concepts discussed previously are in one way or the other related to language or language learning and acquisition.
The aspects that have been discussed that affect second language learning “as numerous explanations that have been proposed and devoted concerning some students who do well in other classes and failed second language class” proposes. According to Garschow a sparks; (linguistic coding deficit hypothesis); theorized that second language difficulties system from one or more linguistic codes in student native language system. Later in 1980s researches identified auditory, visual and kinetic as the most important sensory channel for education. Other studies proposed that students’ problems in native language classes were due to lack of motivation, efforts or anxiety and a learning disability similar to dyslexia.

Linguistic codes where presented including chart of international phonetics and alphabets help in gaining understanding of sound system of English language. Vowels and consonant sounds where explained, how there are produced and the complex position of describing them. The description of system and patterning of language come under the topic of phonology.

I presented some methods used by Ganschow and his colleagues in testing measures of native language skill and second language aptitude differences. An investigation of native language transfer in psychology which investigated forgetting of idea because of the recall of a certain items has also been presented. I also presented the questionnaire I use to back up my findings. While In chapter four I pretended the linguistic analysis of phonological problem which looked at the restriction to the sequence of phonemes, the syllable clusters and some examples language transfer. And the factor analyses provide the analysis of the findings.

In chapter five summaries the work concludes, and recommend some of the ways to teach a second language learner the second language


5.3 Conclusion

Second languages study is an increasingly prominent part of education everywhere. Not only high school nearly always required studying a second language but many lower middle schools have added second language to their curricula, whether as enrichment or a requirement. Although it is more common, that not only colleges and universities required second language study for graduation. Most of the people of the world are also learning second language for a number of purposes. For learners unencumbered by learning difficulties, second language study is indeed an enriching and rewarding experience. For learning disable learners, however, it can be unbelievably stressful and humiliating experience the opposite of what is intended.

The field of second language acquisition have blamed language learning failure on a number of factors anxiety in second language classroom (anxiety about making mistakes in grammar and pronunciation, about understanding the teacher, about remembering the vocabulary) has been prominent as a purported cause of failure. Among other causes cited and presented in previous chapters has been lack of effort, lack of motivation, poor learning habits and low ability in language learning. In the late 1960s, Dr. Kenneth Dinklage of Harvard University was compelled to find out why some Harvard’s brightest and best were not passing their language classes. He quickly dismiss lack of effort, seeing that most of these students were putting other courses and their degrees at major risk by devoting usual amount of time and effort to their language classes. Similarly lack of motivation was not a cause, as these students could not graduate without completion of their language requirement. As for anxiety, he realized the students were coming to see him because they were suffering from extremely to pass language classes. Since most of these students had never failed a class before, he felt that anxiety had not originally played a part in their failure. When he interview these students, he found that a number of failing language students had been diagnosed and had overcome their disabilities through good tutoring and very heard word. After testing, Dinklage had previously diagnosed learning disabilities, again the problem not shown up until second language classes were attempted. He uses methods of instruction known to be helpful to those with learning disabilities. The student’s taught in the way were mostly able to pass the exams necessary to complete their second requirement.

In research about second language difficulties, a theory has been formulated which explained the problems and aviations in second language acquisition. In which language is described as having component parts or linguistic code (phonological, semantic and syntax) linguistic coding deficit hypothesis which states that difficulty with second language acquisition stem from deficiencies in one or more of these linguistic codes in the students native language system. These deficiencies result in mild to extreme problems with specific oral and written aspects of language. Those experiencing difficulty with second language learning have problems with basic sound units of the language phonemes and do not recognize otherwise manipulate these basic units of sound efficiently. As a result, the student may have difficulty with actual perception and the production of language necessary for basic comprehension, speaking, spelling or with language comprehension, which may affect understanding on and or production.

While it is the good news that the underlying cause of problems difficulties and disabilities in learning second language has be tentatively identified and that ways have been found to teach students learning second language.


5.4 Recommendation

Once they had pointed what they felt was the root of the second language problem linguist began the way that learning disabled student could be help to learn a second language. At least two approaches to second language instruction different from normal or traditional language instruction have emerged as being effective.
The first and most research approach is a response by Gangchow and spearks: theorized further that to help those students, the sound system of the target language must be very explicitly taught. In other to test this theory they collaborate and teach using orton-gillgham method of teaching phonology, reading and spelling to very significantly learning disabled students. In this method sound are presented in highly structured fashion with a great deal of visual, kinesthetic and tactile practice and impute. The Spanish teacher has tested the effectiveness of teaching Spanish. The research on other students has shown quite conclusively that learning disabled students taught Spanish has been able to learn and retain it. Another collaborator, Elkeschneider has had a similar result teaching German to learning disabled students.

In this study on Karen Millers students, it was found that by being taught phonological skills in one language, the student improve their phonological awareness in English. This finding has led to a variation on a method of teaching phonology in target language: teach the fundamentals of phonology in students native language before second language instruction begins. That is students are taught to recognize phonemes, to decode, or read words, efficiently and to encode, or apply the sounds to the written language is and how its sounds and parts function.

The second approach to language instruction which has been affective has been to adapt the second language courses according to be effective for learning disabled students. This means making such change as reducing syllabus to the essential elements showing the pace of instruction demand, and providing review and incorporating as much visual/tactile/kinesthetic (i.e. multiple sensory) stimulation and support as possible.

Other recommendations school should devote an entire second language section or class to learning disabled students. And find teachers trained to teach second language to learning disabled students.


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Frequently Asked Questions


Why do adults struggle to learn a second language?

Learning a second language, after the critical period for language learning has ended, is more difficult because, as we age, the longer we use our native language, the further it comes to dominating our linguistic map space. Because plasticity is competitive, it is so hard to learn a new language and end the tyranny of the mother tongue.

Why should students learn a second language?

Teachers can also celebrate that students speak another language, asking them to share how to say a word in their home language, or just discussing how wonderful it is to be bilingual. “Dual language learners should be proud of being bilingual. 

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