Problems Of Implementing Poverty Alleviation Programme In Ekwe Isu Local Government Area Of Imo State


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Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


Dedication


This project is unanimously dedicated to God the father, God the son and God the Holy Ghost who gave us this opportunity and the grace to strive to this glorious end. To Him be all the glory in Jesus Name. Amen.


Acknowledgement


My gratitude goes to the Almighty God for his mercy and protection through the period of my stay at the institution. I am also indebted to all those who in one way or the other helped to make the programme a success.

I am highly grateful and indebted to my parents Mr. and Mrs. John Grace Nwankwo, my uncle Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth Linda Ezekwem, Mr. Ifeanyi, Whalu, Mr. Hychez Eze, Mrs. Fidelia Ezekwem, Mr. and Mrs. Emmanuel Okeke, Mr. and Mrs. Obioma Nwankwo who supported me both morally and financial and made me what I am today. I will not forget the entire love shown to me by brothers and sisters in the course of the programme.

Of great respect is our supervisors Mrs. Amadi C. who painstakingly read through the manuscripts over and over making most excellent correction and offering useful advice in various areas.

To my colleagues and course mates who in one way of the other made the educational experience.

To my families Odira, Amarachukwu, Vitalis, Ifechukwu, Chidera, Ogechukwu, Udoka, Chinonso and Ijeoma who have sacrificed their comfort for us to achieve this goal. We say that God of grace and abundance will reward you a hjundred fold in Jesus Name. Amen.

Abstract


This study is on the problem of implementing poverty alleviation programme in Ekwe Isu Local Government Area of Imo State. The purpose of the study was to find out the problem of poverty alleviation programmes. The researcher used descriptive research methodology in carrying out the study.

As a result, simple random sampling technique was about 150,000. Equally, questionnaires were used to gather data from the respondent and the data gathered in the process were analyzed using percentages.

The finding of the study are:that poor government, corruption among government official, illiteracy among Nigeria, ability of commercial banks to grant loans to youths are the problem for implementing poverty alleviation programme in Ekwe Isu Local Government Area of Imo State.

Based on these findings, the researcher recommends that the local state and federal government should work concertedly in finding solution to the problem militating against the implementation of poverty alleviation programmes in Ekwe Isu local government area of Imo State.


Table Of Contents


  • Title page i
  • Approval page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of contents vi

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction 1
  • 1.1 Background of the study 1
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem 3
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study 5
  • 1.4 Research questions 6
  • 1.5 Significance of the study 7
  • 1.6 Scope of the study 9
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study 10
  • 1.8 Definition of the terms 10

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature review 12
  • 2.1 Introduction 12
  • 2.2 Theoretical rationale 12
  • 2.3 Empirical studies 13
  • 2.4 Nigeria government’s approach to the problem of poverty 17
  • 2.5 Assessing the effectiveness of poverty alleviation programme in Nigeria 22
  • 2.6 The economics of poverty alleviation 30
  • 2.7 Obstacles to poverty reduction 35
  • 2.8 Roles of SMEs in poverty alleviation 37
  • 2.9 Summary of review 38
  • References 40

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Research design and methodology 41
  • 3.1 Introduction 41
  • 3.2 Research design 41
  • 3.3 Sources/methods of data collection 42
  • 3.4 Population and simple size 42
  • 3.5 Sampling techniques 43
  • 3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument 43
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis 44

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Presentation and analysis of data 45
  • 4.1 Introduction 45
  • 4.2 Presentation of data 45
  • 4.3 Analysis of data 47
  • 4.4 Interpretation of result 50

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Summary, conclusion and recommendations 53
  • 5.1 Introduction 53
  • 5.2 Summary of findings 53
  • 5.3 Conclusion 57
  • 5.4 Recommendations 57
  • References 59
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaires

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Ugochukwu (2007) writes that profile of the developing states reveals certain common characteristics; these nations with few exceptions recently emerged from colonial rule into political independence. Generally, a large proportion of the population suffers from severe deprivation in terms of fulfilling human potential and achieving wellbeing.
The broad forms of deprivation are manifested as widespread poverty, illiteracy, hunger and diseases.

The more specific characteristics are numerous. Most of the population is engaged in subsistence agriculture using primitive agricultural methods involving hand labour and few tools. Foreign track is small, and exports are often primarily made up of a single commodity that is either an agricultural product or an unrefined mineral.

Labour of access to knowledge about and deices for birth control, religious and social barriers. The contraception and economic pressure and desires for large families contribute to population increase at an exponential rate.

In Nigeria, in spite of efforts to educate the people and to reduce poverty, a lack of funds, facilities and trained personnel results in slow progress toward the elimination of illiteracy and poverty. Training above the level of basic literacy is even more scare so that the development of skills and the provision of secondary and higher education are available to an extremely limited portion of the population.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Poverty is prevalent in Nigeria. According to National population census (2006) more than 80 percent Nigerians live below poverty line. Efforts made by different government agencies to checkmate poverty in the country have not yielded much positive results.

Ignorance seems to be major problem of implementing poverty alleviation programme in Ekwe Isu Local Government Area of Imo State. The people are generally unaware of such programme meant to alleviate their poverty. This is because, the government and non-governmental agencies have not adequately used the mass media informing and educating Nigerians on the existence and function of poverty alleviation agents.

Moreover, lack of skilled labour appears to be another problem of implementing poverty alleviation programmes. Most youths in Ekwe Isu local government area are illiterates and they do not possess any use skill to enable them benefit from poverty alleviation programmes so as to improve on their lives.

Also, the inability of commercial and micro-finance banks to agent soft loans to youths is a problem of implementing poverty alleviation programme in Ekwe Isu local government area of Imo States. These poor youths are skied as collateral to show their lands and landed property. In most cases, these poor youths do not have the means to satisfy these demands; hence, they find it extremely difficult to obtain loans to finance their business.
Still, poor funding of poverty alleviation programmes by the state and federal government poverty alleviation programme in the country.

This is partly due to the economic meltdown which has adversely affected the ability of the government in funding its obligations to the public. This is a major problem of implementing poverty alleviation programmes in Ekwe Isu local government area.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

This research work is structures to achieve the following objectives, which are:

  1. To examine the level of deprivation that are manifested as widespread of poverty, illiteracy, hunger and diseases.
  2. To show that Ekwe Isu has embarked on the development of mass media informing and educating Nigerians on the existence and functions of poverty alleviation agents.
  3. To determine the complementary roles of commercial and micro-finance bank to grant soft loan to youths as the problem of implementing poverty alleviation programme in Ekwe Isu local government area in Imo State.
  4. To contraception and economic pressure and cession for large families contribute to population increase at an exponential rate.

1.4 Research Questions

The research put together the following research questions:

  1. To what extent is poor government funding a problem of implementing poverty alleviation programmes in Ekwe Isu local government of Imo State?
  2. To what extent is illiteracy among Nigeria a problem of implementing poverty alleviation?
  3. To what extent is corruption among officials of NAPEP a problem of poverty alleviation programme in Ekwe Isus local government area in Imo State?
  4. To what extent is the inability of commercial banks to grant loans to poor youths a problem of implementing poverty alleviation programmes in Ekwe Isu government in Imo State?

1.5 Significance Of The Problem

The significance of the study will go along way to help a lot of people to appreciate the role of government in community development. With this, our youths, governmental, non-government, the general public and spiritual individual to assist these governmental bodies because of their unqualified important in the community and national development, this work can also serve in other areas to come together and embark on self help to improve the status of individuals in the society.

This work can as well provide the general work for other researchers who may wish to make some inquiry into the role of individual in national development and how these roles may be improved.

  1. Poverty is prevalent in Nigeria. Therefore, this study is on real socio-economic problem of Nigerians.
  2. The findings of the study will be of great assistance to future researchers in this area of study.

This study can be assistance to research institutions who may wish to carry out findings on activities and contribution of individual groups to the society


1.6 Scope Of The Study

The study will only be concerned with the role of individual in the development of Ekwe Isu. As a matter of fact, it will be based on finding in some communities that make up Ekwe Isu council Imo State. I indend to find out the different individual association that exists in these communities and their impacts to development over the year.


1.7 Delimitation Of The Study

The study is concentrated on the problems militating against poverty alleviation programmes in Ekwe Isu Local government area of Imo State.


1.8 Definition Of Terms

It is paramount important to define some of the terms used in this research study since these terms could have different meaning to avoid semantic difficulties. The following terms are operationally defined in this study as follows:

Individual participation:

In community development group, participation entails about the individual group participation in the development of the community ensuring with development of communities.

Poverty:

People unaware of such programme meant to alleviate their poverty, because government and non-government agencies have not adequately used the mass media in informing and educating them.

Illiteracy:

Is responsible for the inability of the mass of Nigeria to benefit from poverty alleviation programmes in the country.


I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic


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How to nail it on the head during your project defence


You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.


Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.


Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.


Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.


Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.


Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.


Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.


Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.


These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.


The structure of a good project work


Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are


1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.


4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.


5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


References:

This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.


Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic


Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy (samphina.com.ng) a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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