Problems Of New Banks In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Topics with material for Banking and Finance

Problems Of New Banks In Nigeria


Abstract


The purpose of the study was to identify challenges facing New banks in Nigeria. A descriptive survey design was applied to a population of 48 banks operating in Nigeria. The target population composed of the management staff currently employed at the head offices of the various New banks in Nigeria. The population was composed of Senior, Middle and Junior or Entry level Management staff. The study concludes that the by various challenges like growth barrier, regulatory constraints, risk and finance management culture and additional capital challenges. In addition, the study concluded that New banks face challenges in deciding how best to implement a solution that will allow them to comply with Basel III, how to operate the systems and processes for improved operational effectiveness, and how to understand and ultimately reduce their capital requirements. The study recommends that Banks should manage their risks more closely and avoid a build-up of unintended risk, reducing the opportunities for regulatory capital arbitrage. This would go a long way in eliminating growth barriers, regulatory constraints, capital adequacy requirement, risk and finance management culture and additional capital challenges.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to Study

Government established bank money for development purposes and the vole of banking industry in an economic development cannot be over emphasized. Government owns some banks, for example, first Bank of Nigerian and so on. Both banks. However, banks in Nigerian and other countries of the worlds are established to carry out the following functions;

  1. Government of loans to customers
  2. Safeguarding of customers money and some valuable assets such as certificates and so on.
  3. Management of customers’ investment and advising on insurance matters.
  4. Providing facilities for the financing of international trade, example documentary credit.
  5. Creating money by the central bank of that country.
  6. Mobilization of saving and other deposit.
  7. Providing advisory services.
  8. Providing foreign exchange facilities for traders.
  9. Night safe facilities to customers.
  10. Agency services to customers who authorized their banks to pay and collect cheques on their behalf.

However, the above function and duties of banks is just to mention but a few because banking industry is dynamic in nature. It varies on public confidence and due to the influence on the nations economic life, it needs high quality management and organizational structure with which it can attain maximum operating efficiency and profitability .
Since the advert of structural adjustment programme [SAP] and its deregulation –policies , banking industry in Nigeria has been receiving a number of policy shocks and the new banks felt it most . Such policy or guideline include :- The central bank of Nigeria guidelines on reserve requirement and limited capital base for establishment of new banks.

Other direction are the withdrawal of government banks . The payment of interest on current account cancellation of foreign denominated loans . The liberalization of foreign exchange market and the introduction of the controversial national deposit insurance corporation .


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The major problems facing new banks in Nigeria has its origin from central bank [CBN] guideline or directive. These directives of two types; –

  1. Directive on the establishment of new banks.
  2. Measures introduced to reduce liquidity in the economy.

These measures which the government pursue in this regard lies with the withdrawal of deposits of Parastatals and other government agencies from financial intermediaries

Other includes the cancellation of foreign exchange markets.

These measure are enforced at the same period and at a time when liquidity ratio have already one high. These affected the new rules rustically because of their climate capital base. Secondly, the economic restructure programme gave rise to the devaluation of the naira as it sought for the actual value of naira in the international market. Such devaluation consequently led to high cost of materials and fixed asset, which affect the development of new banks.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

This work aims of investigating into the problems of new banks in Nigeria with a view to as certainly how for the new banks have been faring as regard these problems and to recommended appropriate remedies that will minimize the problems. This study is also an attempt to suggest ways in which these problems can be avoided in the future taking into consideration the adage that suggest a prevention better than cure’’


1.4 Significance of the Study

This study will be of great importance to the government who usually comes out with policies that affect the banks and the entire economy. It will help us to understand the effect of such policies whether they are negative or positive to the Nigeria economy and also will act as guideline for policies market on how best to market on how best to make such policy and encounter policies.

This work will also be of immeasurable worth to the banks, as it will show then how far they have coping apart from suggesting possible solutions to these problems facing them. Movement it will been useful to individual may wish to go into banking business in knowing before land that the do not make profit from a platter of gold. They face problems like any other industry.

Finally , this reseach work will serve as an additionally to the existing literature in the area of banking, finance and policy programme to enhance economic development of the country and the world at large beside serving as effluence for further researchers on the field.


1.5 Statement of Hypothesis

In other to employ a scientific approach to the realization of the objectives of this reseach work the following hypothesis were analyzed.

  • Ho: the central bank policies are favorable to new banks
  • Hi: the central banks policies are unfavorable to new banks

1.5 Scope of the Study

This research work concentrate on problems of the new banks in Nigeria. It will also serve as an addition to the existing literature in the area of banking, finance and policies programme to enhance economic development of the country and the world at large.


1.6 Limitation of the Study

In the process of carrying Out this researcher were entered which limited the scope of the research work. The abstract include:

a. Lack of Data Collection:

The problem of easily getting an appropriate data due to redaction and bureaucury, which lenders the information, flow in the country.

b. Lack of Co-operation:

The researcher was also limited by the unwilling of certain managers cum officers to disclose important information for the project.

c. Lack of Finance:

Due to inability to get enough finance while writing the project has limited the area of coverage of the reseach work.

d. Time Constraint:

Because of time, only libraries and organization enugu like IMT library, ESUT library National Libraryandalso National Achieves Enugu


1.7 Definition of Terms:

CBN:

The central bank of Nigeria stands as the apex of the banking system in the economy. They are the representatives of the government in the banking sector and mainly acts as banker to the government. They also advice the government on monetary policy and implementation the policy on behalf of the government

NDK:

National Deposits Insurance Corporation. This is a co-operate that was establishment by the federal government in Nigeria requiring all the banks to insure each deposit account up to fifty thousand naira. It was established to protect depositors fund against bank failures.

Monetary Policy:

Is policies that deal with the discretion and control of monetary authorities in other to achieve stated on desired economic goals.

Corporate Strategy:

The general nature of a firm’s relationship with its environment especially its customers and competitors.

A firms corporate strategy may be described in terms of product it offer the market sharp market of growth and the way in which it’s since resources are allocated to its various activities


Chapter Five


Discussion Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Discussion

The study found out that New banks experienced growth barrier and regulatory constraints to great extents, while in the implementation of capital adequacy requirement, New banks experiencerisk and finance management culture and additional capital challenges to moderate extents. Further, the respondents said that other challenges for New banks and financial institutions is deciding how best to implement a solution that will allow them to comply with Basel III include; how to operate the systems and processes for improved operational effectiveness, and how to understand and ultimately reduce their capital requirements. The weaknesses in applying consistent, robust risk asset definitions globally have led to distortions of true capital adequacy positions.

These findings agree with those of (Agoraki et al, 2011) who argued that New banks are faced by several challenges in the implementation of capital adequacy requirement. The key challenge for Nigerian banks and financial institutions are regulatory constraints and limitations as CBN does not have enough staff and systems to adequately supervise the implementation of the new regulations.


5.2 Conclusions

The study concludes that the implementation of Basel III requirement has been faced by various challenges like growth barrier, regulatory constraints, risk and finance management culture and additional capital challenges. In addition, the study concluded that New banks face challenges in deciding how best to implement a solution that will allow them to comply with Basel III, how to operate the systems and processes for improved operational effectiveness, and how to understand and ultimately reduce their capital requirements.


5.3 Recommendations

The implementation of Basel II has been a key driver for the refinement and maturation of risk management frameworks in financial institutions worldwide. However, the arrival of Basel III signals an unprecedented rising of the bar for risk management practices to support the comprehensive nature of the new requirements. The critical risk management challenges posed by the need to implement Basel III require the support and engagement of multiple competencies across the organization to address impacts on people, process and technology. The study therefore recommends that Banks should manage their risks more closely and avoid a build-up of unintended risk, reducing the opportunities for regulatory capital arbitrage. This would go a long way in eliminating growth barriers, regulatory constraints, capital adequacy requirement, risk and finance management culture and additional capital challenges.


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