Problems Encountered By Married Female B.ED Part Time Students

Project and Seminar Material for Education

Project and Seminar Material for Education


Abstract


This paper investigated the challenges or constraints of women in continuing higher education programme with particular focus on the B.ed part-time programme of the Usman Danfodiyo University Sokoto. A simple survey research design was employed to explore the issue. A 4 item questionnaire supplemented with oral interview sessions provided the data used for the study. The study involved 133 selected women in B.ed part-time programme of the Usman Danfodiyo University. The data collected were analyzed using mean score, frequency count and simple percentages. The findings of the study showed that there is a significant relationship between marriage and academic challenges and The content of the programme meets with the academic aspirations or interest of women.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

‘There should be no barrier to educating women. Only when women have unhindered access to quality education can their potentials be fully developed and society made better by their contributions. ‘All religions, encourage women education’ (Hajjia Bintu Ibrahim Musa, 2005) the remarks made by Hajjia Bintu Ibrahim Musa (ibid.), former Minister of State for Education in Nigeria is a very good reference point here. From the remarks above, women education is said to be the most significant intervention for human and sustainable development. There is no doubt that education contributes to the growth of national incomes and individual earnings. The higher one’s educational status, the higher the earnings particularly in both the public and private sectors. This means therefore that university education is a critical factor to ones earnings and development and beyond this to efficiency. Without any doubt, universities play a critical role in generating new ideas, in accumulating and transmitting knowledge and also in generating incomes; this is because economic growth is deemed to depend on the capacity to produce knowledge based growth. Although, it is difficult to strictly identify which subsector of education contribute most to poverty reduction (IIEP Newsletter, Vol. SS5 No I. January-March, 2007).

In Nigeria, as in many developing economies, there is a gender gap in literacy with women at a disadvantage; this has led to government increase in literacy drive for girls in particular at the basic education level. Because of this, there is a tendency for government not to take cognizance of what goes on at the tertiary level particularly as it relates to female enrolment. Although, Nigeria educational reform as stated in National Economic Empowerment and Development strategy (NEEDs) document also shows considerable focus on girls higher education. But one can say that up till now, a lot of Nigerian girls and women unlike their male gender are still not enrolled at the tertiary level.

Achieving gender parity in education is one of the aims of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and it is also a primary objective of the 1990 World declaration on Education for All (EFA) as well as the Dakar framework of action (2000). But till date, gender equality still remains elusive. According to UNESCO report (2006) girls make up 60% of all out of school children and women represents two thirds of illiterate adults, the Founder (2007) indicates that girls usually perform worse than boys in schools and that in some countries one in every four girls drops out before fifth grade. Roughly, 85 per cent of boys complete primary school compared to 76 per cent of girls. For a long time, women constitute the majority of illiterates in Nigeria. At all levels of education (primary, secondary and tertiary) males represent higher proportions than females (FOS, 1995). In 1990, the proportion of literate men to women was 54:31 and the total female literacy rate was far below 15%, while that of men was above 40%. A more recent survey in 2005 shows that 33.7% of females had no form of education in the North Eastern States of Nigeria (Borno, Yola, Adamawa and Bauchi). In the North Western States (Kano, Kebbi, Sokoto and Jigawa etc) 87.8% of women had no formal education. The case in Southern States was slightly better. In the South-East (Abia, Akwa Ibom, Rivers, Imo, Cross River, Anambra) only 36.2% of women have no formal education. In the South-West (Ogun, Lagos, Oyo, Osun, Ondo, etc) at least 26.1 % of women had no formal education. The Middle Belt States (Plateau, Benue, Taraba, Kwara, Niger, Kogi) are in between the South and North in terms of average figures of illiteracy of women.

The enrolment of children in primary, secondary and tertiary institutions also demonstrates discrimination against females. There are remarkable disparities according to regions and states. However, gender disparities are common in all regions and states. In all the states and regions of Nigeria, women lag behind men in access to education. For instance, only 7.6% of women interviewed in the Northern part of Nigeria had some primary education, whereas, in the Southern part of Nigeria, at least 25.9% received some education. In the case of primary school enrolment, only 12% of female children of school age are registered in the primary schools. In the South, 44.4% of girls are in primary schools.

By the time girls reach secondary school age, only about 4.2% of them in Northern Nigeria and 37% in Southern Nigeria are allowed to continue. This shows a sharp discrimination against women at all levels (FOS, 1995). The situation in the rural areas is even worse than that in urban areas. As UNICEF (1990) states, three- quarters of rural women aged 15-24 years are illiterates in Africa, and only half in urban areas are illiterates.

Generally, the illiteracy rate in Nigeria is gradually on the decline. Between 1985 and 1990, the percentage of girls enrolled in schools rose from 7.2% to 42%. The enrolment of females in technical schools rose from 4.5% in 1984 to 15% in 1990 and 20% of the present enrolment in Nigerian Polytechnics is made up of females. In Universities, there is a rise of 22% in 1980 to 24% in 1990. All these notwithstanding, there is a glaring case of serious discrimination against females in education in Nigeria. This has created many gender gaps in school enrolment as well as teachers and lecturers (UNICEF, 1990)

The Blueprint on Women Education was concerned about various issues that inhibit women education such as poverty, child labour among others and made appropriate recommendations to correct these. Also, the promotion of science and technology, female hostels, and in-service training for females was recommended and gender stereo-typing in textbook was discouraged. Many States in Nigeria have affected some educational reforms backed by legislation to provide increased access to female education. Schools for nomads have also been established and funding of women education is made a joint effort of all tiers of government (Nigeria, 1986 Blueprint). This scenario is important because under representation of women in higher education took its root from the basic education through secondary education levels.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Women’s involvement in continuing education or their interest in pursuing further education is not without its challenges. In spite of the fact that there has been a remarkable increase in the participation of young girls and married women in educational pursuit and had continued to exhibit their desire or yearning for higher education, their efforts have continued to be limited by social norms and dictates (Marim and Greenberger cited in Kazeem 1998; Osunde and Omoruyi 2003). Studies according to the authors have also shown that the poor socioeconomic status of women has a relatively greater effect on the educational aspiration or desire to seek further education. Therefore, women who enlist in educational programme are daily confronted with challenges that tend to undermine their efforts. The increasing interest in women education and its importance to nation building and development of individual woman demand that the challenges they face be exploited and identified with a view to helping to evolve measures that would enable women deal with them. It also seeks to tease out the implications it has for evolving an adequate counselling programme for women that would assist them deal with the challenges and for ensuring proper education of the women.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

This study seek to enumerate the challenges faced by married women in their studies in higher institutions and to make known the need for adequate support for such women from the government, organizations, lecturers and their Husband as this will help to increase the number of married women who desire to further their studies.

  1. This project seeks to determine the challenges which confront women in continuing higher education.
  2. It also seeks to find out the relationship between marriage and academic challenges.
  3. It also seeks to determine if the content of the programme meets with the academic aspirations or interest of women.

1.4 Study Hypothesis

In order to achieve the purpose of the study, the following Hypothesis were generated:-

Hypothesis One
  • Hi: There is a significant relationship between marriage and academic challenges.
  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between marriage and academic challenges
Hypothesis Two
  • Hi: The content of the programme meets with the academic aspirations or interest of women.
  • Ho: The content of the programme does not meets with the academic aspirations or interest of women

1.5 Significance of the Study

It will help unravel the major challenges confronting women in continuing education programme. The challenges enumerated will therefore, assist in evolving appropriate measures and alternative policy option that will enable programme providers combat these problems and make learning and teaching more effective and fruitful.
In addition, the challenges enumerated will also help to expand the frontiers of knowledge or add to existing literature in the area.

It is also hoped that the findings will serve as feedback to managers in higher education on the challenges their women participants face and help them develop appropriate strategies and possibilities for improved performance and enhanced participation of more women in the programme.

Finally, it is hoped that the outcome of the study will aid in the formulation of appropriate counselling strategy or programme that would help women cope with challenges confronting them so as to successfully complete their education.


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study shall focus majorly on the importance of Educating Women in Nigeria especially in the northern states of the country. Benefits or challenges in other areas such as early marriage shall not be discussed.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to reiterate that the objective of this study was the problems encountered by married female B.ed part time students in Usman Danfodiyo University Sokoto.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in evaluating examine the effect of problems encountered by married female B.ed part time students in Usman Danfodiyo University Sokoto.


5.2 Summary

This study aimed at having a critical analysis of the problems encountered by married female B.ed part time students in Usman Danfodiyo University Sokoto. The study opened with chapter one where the statement of the problem was clearly defined. The study objectives and research hypotheses were defined and formulated respectively. The study reviewed related and relevant literatures. The chapter two gave the conceptual framework, empirical and theoretical studies. The third chapter described the methodology employed by the researcher in collecting both the primary and the secondary data. The research method employed here is the descriptive survey method. The study analyzed and presented the data collected in tables and the hypotheses were tested using the Chi square while the fifth chapter gives the study summary and conclusion.


5.3 Conclusion and Recommendations

This research has shown that there is a significant relationship between marriage and academic challenges and The content of the programme meets with the academic aspirations or interest of women.

The results of this discussion have helped to enumerate on the challenges of women in continuing higher education. In this regard, we wish to offer the following suggestions; the procedure must be modified to suit the peculiarities of women. They must be seen as adults and treated as such. Procedure should be built on the principle of Andragogy which gives due recognition to adult learners as self-directed learners. This demand for a modification of the relationship with them in a way that promotes their positive image as adult learners and helps them to surmount their personal/individual challenges that can undermine their efforts in seeking to acquire higher education. In addition, investigation should be carried out on how best to help women manage the house affairs with learning activities. The women should also be tutored on time management strategies. This can be incorporated into their programme as a means of helping them manage effectively the time available to them. There is also the need to encourage and instigate these women through whatever means of assisting them to cope effectively with their learning challenges.

Recommendations

The challenges women face demand for a kind of intervention that would enable them maximize their participation and achieve the desired goal or objectives. From this understanding, it will not be difficult for adult education facilitators and counsellors to make smooth achievement in terms of helping their clients (i.e. the women) achieve their objectives of participating in continuing higher education programme.

The counsellors and teachers are expected to understand the challenges of women and the prevailing situations which may, influence the attitude of the women towards learning and level of achievement. This is very important because if there is variance between the real challenges and the perceived challenges by the teachers and adults counsellor, certainly it will be difficult to design an appropriate counselling intervention programme.

In fact, adult counsellors must appreciate the position of these challenges in the learning cycle of the adult women before they can achieve their counselling goals and objectives.

The place of relevance of content as a factor in attitude formation is quite significant in adult education programme (continuing higher education inclusive) as well as their counselling needs. Relevance of content of learned materials is very crucial in promoting adult learning as shown in this study. It should be noted that positive attitude among adult learners and between adult learners towards adult educators or facilitators constitute major influence in helping adult learners to realize their educational goals and objectives. It is therefore, necessary for counsellors of adult learners to exploit and help to improve on their attitude towards learning and their facilitators. To facilitate the attainment of this counselling goal, the counsellors must organize their activities in the language that is common to their adult women learners.

Learning and training effects are fundamental in the development of positive attitude towards learning among individuals. If proper learning and training have been acquired counsellors of adults should engage in promoting their interests and inclinations along positive dimensions. In all, there is the need for the counsellors to endeavour to help the women stimulate and sustain positive attitude towards their learning. In this way it will be very easy to organize programmes that would be used of systematically modify the behaviour or attitude they have developed towards their learning and education. It will also help the counsellor select appropriate counselling theories such as Behaviour Modification Theory, Rationale Emotional Therapy etc for helping the women handle their cases or problems.


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