The Problem Of Solid Waste Management In Enugu Metropolis (A Case Study In Institute Of Management And Technology (I.M.T) Campus III)
This research work is aim at examining the practices and problems solid waste management with particular reference to IMT Campus III.
The research choose the random sampling Technique based on the population concentration from three (3) location within the study area.
The data obtained were analysed using percentage statistics method. From the analysis of data and discussion the practices in the use include open dumps and open burning which indicate poor management.
To ensure proper management the researcher recommended that government should device new and appropriate strategies in solid waste management that involves on the spot separation for possible recycling, through supervision of authorities involved in the waste management and grass roof campaign to ensure strict adherence to the rules guiding waste management. With the above recommendation waste and the health implication of improper management becomes a thing of the past.
Table Of Contents
- Title Page
- Table of Contents
- 1.1 Introduction
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Purpose of the Study
- 1.4 Research Question
- 1.5 Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 2.1 Literature Review
- 2.1.1 Concept of Solid Waste
- 2.1.2 Source and Types of Solid Waste
- 2.1.3 Waste Minimization and Treatment
- 2.4 Solid Waste Management Practices
- 2.5 Resources Recovery
- 2.6 Disposal Techniques
- Research Methodology
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research Design
- 3.3 Population Sample
- 3.4 Refused Site Selection
- 3.5 Sources of Data
- 3.6 Instrument for Data Collection
- 3.7 Validity and Reliability of Instrument
- 3.8 Method of Data Analysis
- 4.1 Analysis of Management and Fiscal Problems of Waste Management
- 4.2 Solutions to Above Problems
- 5.1 Discussion and Findings
- 5.2 Implications for Environmental Management
- 5.3 Recommendation
- 5.4 Conclusions
1.1 Background of the Study
Refuse generation started with the history of man and gained more attention when man began to live in communities. During the 1st century with industrial revolution rapid population growth in the develop world and the volume of waste produce was relatively small. Today in developing nations, like, Nigeria, solid waste accumulate in every city causing serious health and environmental hazard.
The practice of dumping waste on streets, roads, streets and unapproved sites lead to breeding to rats, flies and out break of plagues as well as ecological impacts, such as water and air pollution. This is because the capacity of nature to dilute, disperse or absorb or dispose of its unwanted residues in the atmosphere, water way and land is limited. It is against this background that the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) was established in 1988 manage and protect the environment. The decree establishing the agency also provided for the establishment of State Environment Protection Agencies (SEPA) in all the States of Federation.
However, the prevailing economic condition in the country coupled with negative attitude of the citizens made it difficult for proper solid waste management and environmental protection solid waste consists of biodegradable (that is substance that can be broken down by bacteria) and non biodegradable (that is substance that cannot be broken by bacteria) materials and these are usually deposited at refuse dumps and other unapproved sites. They pile up in heaps blocking road and drainage, road, network thereby consisting environmental hazards. The inhabitants of the neighborhood sometimes set the heaps of refuse ablaze in an attempt to reduce the size. This practice further deteriorate the environment since people are exposed to danger of air pollution.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Changes in Technology brings about changes in the consumption habit of the citizenry and therefore the composition of waste materials.
Thus a lot of non-biodegradable waste (that is substance that cannot be broken by bacteria) are generated and since non-biodegradable are not easily absorbed or diluted naturally such waste accumulate in heaps along major streets. The stinking odour and blackish liquid effluence emanating from such heaps especially during the rainy season constitute environmental hazards and degrade the aesthetic values of our environment.
They as well encourage breeding of mosquitoes and communicable diseases. Therefore the rate of generation of solid waste is not matched with the rate of evacuation as a result of problems ranging from lack of funds and professional experience staffs of bureaucracy and redtapism.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to
- To determine the composition of solid waste in campus III
- To examine the different management strategies being adopted in solid waste management by the institution as well as ENSEPA. Enugu State environmental Protection Agencies.
- To identify problem militating against solid waste management in campus III IMT Enugu Institute of Management and Technology.
- To suggest appropriate and effective measures that will ensure efficient solid waste management in campus III IMT Institute of Management and Technology Enugu.
1.4 Research Questions
In an attempt to identify the approaches and problems of solid waste management in campus III IMT with a view of finding appropriate management strategies, the following research questions were formulated:
- What are the major components of solid waste generated in campus III IMT.
- To what extent does the composition of waste influence the management practices?
- What are the reasons for the inadequate as well as inefficient collection and disposal of solid waste by (ENSEPA).
- What measure are likely to improve the existing situation constraints or management techniques.
- What is the level of public awareness of poor solid waste management.
In order to ascertain the opinion of the public on the major constraints of solid waste management in. campus III IMT the following hypothesis are formulated.
HO The opinion of ENSEPA staff and the general public indicate and lack of management personnel that militate against proper solid waste management in campus III IMT.
Hi The opinion of (ENSEPA) staff and the general public indicate that it is the problem of equipment, fund and lack of management personnel that militate against proper solid waste management in campus III IMT.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The finding of this study will be of great significance to both the students and staff and indeed, every body that has a stake in the affairs and proceedings in IMT campus III.
This is because the recommendation of this study will prefer sustainable solid waste management strategies. Moreover, the study will go along ways in revealing to industrialists, the practical ways to minimize waste recycling.
Finally, the out come of this research will be an asset to environmental researcher and planners for effective planning and management of solid waste.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The consequences and various types of waste are of global significance but the research decided to limit the study to.
- The nature of solid waste generation and problems in campus III IMT Enugu.
- Testing the level of awareness and review of the activities of the (ENSEPA) in solving the problem of solid waste in campus III.
- The possible measures to improve the management techniques in the area.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
This study is constrained by limited time and financial resources. Other limitation includes lack of immediate reply to, the research questionnaire, but all these were soon overcome with perseverance.
Discussion of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Discussion of Findings
The finding from the investigation on the solid waste management practices and problems in campus III IMT were discussed below, the discussion is on the nature of waste, the management practice, the problems and solution that would enhance proper management practices. The discussion is based on the analysis of data obtained from the respondents and the researchers observation of the subject matter in the filed.
On the nature of solid waste management, the researcher observed that both biodegradable and non –biodegradable waste are generated. Such biodegradable materials include scraps of paper, leaves, kitchen rubbish non-biodegradable wastes, includes empty bottles broken metallic and plastic container polythens, bags broken glasses etc. The above categories of waste are mixed up in the dumps, this constituting management problem. The problems of none classification of the solid waste generated emanate from the source – home, offices and stores.
They are mixed up in the container with which they are disposed. Most of the dumps were in discriminatory located by the waste generators. An investigation reveled that out of all the refuse dumps in the duty area only few were officially built up dumps. In this regard the ENSEPA, staff emphasized that they have only one tipper one pay leader that have grounded since past two year. They also complained of lack of tools for this purpose. The administration manager remarked that the spirit with which vehicles were donated by the public during the sanitation day for this purpose has declined consequently they find it difficult to remove the waste as and when due.
5.2 Implication for Environmental Management
The finding of this research have implication for curriculum planners, environmental manager individual occupants in the Enugu Metropolis, Local State and federal government, and student researchers in the related topic and general public.
To curriculum planner the findings will help them integrate solid waste management, with emphasis one recycling in the school curriculum. This will help instill in the youths, the knowledge and skills that enable them minimize waste generation there by reducing the environmental degradation of our cities.
The research findings will help the environmental manager athiculate proper strategies necessary for proper solid waste management in various location. The public will enjoy healthy environment when the source of pollution and aesthetic degradation are the knowledge of recycling of the waste for future use is an asset because waste becomes wealth to them. Various state and local governments are reminded of their duties towards proper waste disposal.
They benefit also, because the beauty of a state or the community is a glory to the government. To student researchers, it serves as a stepping stone upon which further research can be carried out on a related topic within or without study area. To the general public environmental degradation is a source of communication disease and a healthy environment is a wealthy environment because health they say in wealth.
Having surveyed the practices and problems of solid waste management in campus III IMT Enugu. The research identified some solution to the problems. In this regard, the following recommendation have been made by the researcher.
- The urban dwellers should try to recycle the waste they generate as a means of reducing wattages and urban pollutions.
- That waste generated should be stored out before disposal for possible reuse by those who need them.
- The farmers should be encouraged to use biodegradable instead of Artificial Fertilizer to minimize costs.
- The sanitation authorities ENSEPA should be well equipped with facilities to enable them discharged their duties.
- The field staff of this authority should be thoroughly supervised and their salaries paid as and when due to ensure their effectiveness.
- A field staff should be posted to waste dumps to supervise the disposal operation such field officer will ensure that refuse are disposed at proper units.
- That Federal Government should assist state in setting up solid structures, where the solid wastes are deposited to reduce pollution emanating from dumps.
- That broadcasting method of biodegradable materials should be adopted instead of concentrating such in a place. Such mechanism will indirectly improve the soil for Agricultural and as well minimize pollution.
- Awareness campaign one proper waste management should be carried at the grass root level.
A study on solid waste management practice and problems should be carried out in other location outside this study area for a wider generalization.
However, this study revealed various management strategies constraints and suggestion include the on – the spot separation, recycling and reuse. The above generated for final disposal. When the quantity is minimized the level of pollution is indirectly reduce too and the aesthetic quality of our environment will be improved.
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