Principals’ Managerial Competencies And Teachers’ Job Performance In Secondary Schools
The study sought to examine principals’ managerial competencies and teachers’ job performance in secondary schools in Rivers State, Nigeria. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted a correlational survey design. The population of the study comprised all vice principals in the public junior and senior secondary schools in Rivers State. The sample size for the study was 510 vice principals using the stratified random sampling technique. Two self-constructed instruments titled: “Principals’ Managerial Skills Scale” (PMSS) and “Teachers’ Job Performance Scale” (TJPS) were used to collect data. Face and content validities of the instruments were ensured. The Cronbach alpha reliability estimates of PMSS and TJP were given as 0.78 and 0.89 respectively which guaranteed the use of the instruments for the study. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC) was used to answer the research questions while z-ratio was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. The findings revealed that there is a high positive significant relationship between principals’ managerial skills namely; conceptual, human and technical and teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State, Nigeria. The recommendations made were that; principals should evolve the leadership of delegating functions to teachers according to their area of expertise as this would result in increased participation for the actualization of school goals and objectives. Principals should introduce a participatory leadership approach where teachers would be involved in the planning, organizing, decision-making and the day-to-day running of the school as this would make them fully committed and enthusiastic in implementing school’s plans and policies for the overall success of the school. Finally, principals should create conducive and enabling environment for teachers through constant supervision as this would enhanced their competence and proficiency. It would also breed cordial and interpersonal relationship, team work and motivation in the system for the achievement of increase in teachers’ job performance.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
Job performance is critical to the success or failure of any organization. Organizational heads are most concerned about the job performance level of their staff as only then can the set objectives of the organization attained. Job performance is an act of accomplishing or executing a given task within a time period. It can also be described as the ability to skillfully use the right behavioural attitude to achieve organizational goals and objectives. To this end, Peretomode in Adeyemi (2010) argued that job performance can be determined by workers’ level of participation in the day to day running of the organization (school). It is obvious, that employees behave differently under different situations and leadership. Organizational heads or executives (principals) need to constantly encourage their staff (teachers) for effective job performance by identifying their needs and trying to satisfy them for optimum result.
In this wise, Owoeye in Adeyemi (2010) identified variables of job performance, to include; effective teaching, lesson note preparation, effective use of scheme of work, effective supervision, monitoring of students’ work, and disciplinary ability as virtues which teachers should uphold effectively in the school. On this note therefore, teachers’ job performance can be measured through; annual report in terms of performance in teaching, lesson note preparation, lesson presentation, mastery of subject content, instructional proficiency, dedication to duty, commitment to assigned job and extra-curricular activities. Other areas include effective leadership, effective supervision, effective monitoring of students’ work, motivation, students’ discipline, class control and management. This no doubt, however, places the teacher as an important resource input in the educational system, because only the teachers shape the direction and influences to a great extent the attainment of school goals and objectives since they are the ones that interpret and also implement educational policies.
Administration in schools is very essential, and as a consequence, only those teachers who have been taught, qualified, experienced, and who have shown high levels of professional integrity are promoted to the position of principle. The instructional supervision actions of the principal assist each kid in achieving his or her own level of academic achievement in school. The goal of instructional supervision is to increase the quality of teaching by enhancing the abilities of instructors, which in turn will improve the academic performance of students in the classroom. Principals have been tasked with overseeing instructional activities on behalf of the Quality Assurance Standards Officers (QASOs) in their respective districts. The tasks include enhancing teaching and learning; designing supervisory tactics; implementing improvement strategies; maintaining the school system; improving curriculum and library resources; assessing students’ progress and timetabling; and reviewing students’ progress and scheduling (Okumbe, 2003).
In addition to inspecting teachers’ classroom work and analyzing their overall performance based on students’ academic progress, administrators also serve as supervisors from time to time. Principals are also tasked with the responsibility of enhancing the academic and professional standing of teachers by providing them with contemporary curricular materials and in-service training. Principals are supposed to offer the appropriate levels of motivation and stimulation for their staff and students in order to improve academic performance. In place of the old tactics of control and authoritarianism, they are to utilize supervisor-teacher-friendly ways that benefit both parties (Wenzare, 2012). Teachers’ morale is lowered as a result of conventional inspection procedures, which engender dread in them (Republic of Kenya,1965). It is consequently essential that administrators serve as sources of motivation for instructors and their pupils. The ability of a principal to supervise instruction is critical to the advancement of quality education in any school and to helping students to achieve success in their academics and other areas of life. Many stakeholders have emphasized the importance of instructional monitoring, and administrators are increasingly being held responsible for the outcomes of their pupils as a consequence of this trend (Zepda, 2003). While poor performance is being recorded in schools, principals are expected to make a change in students’ academic achievement via instructional monitoring while they are in their positions. While numerous research have been conducted on instructional supervision, only a small number of studies have been conducted on the link between the variable and students’ academic progress in the classroom. The stakeholders are becoming more aware of the need for schools to be held responsible for the outcomes of the pupils they are entrusting with their care and attention. This is putting pressure on principals to enhance the quality of instruction in their schools. This kind of pressure encourages administrators to be enthusiastic about providing good instructional supervision in order to increase students’ academic achievement. In order for children to achieve academic achievement, principals must pay close attention to instructional leadership activities that result in good education and instruction that is effective. Principals must link administrative responsibilities and procedures to one another via a well-established program of supervision that helps to tie together the many activities that contribute to the attainment of school objectives. The description of supervision as the “glue” that keeps a good school together by Glickman et al (2010) is accurate. As a consequence of its binding action, it serves as a sensory system for the school and as the lifeblood of the institution. The factors linked to principals and their duties as instructional supervisors have been the primary focus of the research thus far. Others have conducted study on instructional supervision activities as well as the enhancement of instructors’ class-level teaching. However, research in this subject have neglected to include the variable of the pupils who are the receivers of the principal’s instructional supervision activities in their analyses. The research will not be complete until the academic accomplishment of the students is taken into consideration, since teaching is merely a means to a goal, which is the academic achievement of the students. When addressing instructional supervision, it is important to include the academic accomplishment of students since it offers a reflection of the quality of the activities that have been provided. Students’ poor academic performance raises the question of whether or not instructional monitoring has a favorable impact on the students’ academic performance. Therefore, this research investigates the administrative abilities necessary of principals in order to assure the proper administration of educational institutions.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The ultimate goal of secondary education is to develop the individual’s mental capacity and character for higher education and useful living within the society. These objectives place enormous task and burden on the principals, whose responsibilities are the planning, coordination, instructing, monitoring, assessment and evaluation of the teachers for the efficient and effective performance of their respective job assigned.
However, experiences have shown that in many of the schools there is no good interpersonal relationship existing between the principals and the teachers. Lack of synergy and team work is evident and this affects the accomplishment school objectives. Principals are sometimes alleged to administer the schools with their favorite without the inputs from majority of the teachers and as such their zeal and commitment to the profession and attaining school goal are somewhat defeated. The principal’s success depends largely on the efficient use of his managerial skills in the day to the day administration of the school. Since the teachers are the interpreters and implementers of schools plans and policies, there is need for absolute synergy and confident building on a good interpersonal relationship between the principal and teachers, effective communication and teachers’ integration in the decision-making process of the school.
Unfortunately, the absence of quality synergy between the principals and teachers in the day to the day administration the schools, may have been responsible for why some parents prefer some private schools no matter the distance over others which is due to the seeming increase of students’ cultism, truancy, indiscipline, examination malpractices just to mention a few, among students of public secondary schools in Rivers State.
It is against this background, that this research was carried out to investigate the relationship between principals’ managerial skills and teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State, Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The aim of the study is to investigate the principals’ managerial competencies and teachers’ job performance in secondary schools in Rivers State, Nigeria.
Specifically, the study sought to:
- Determine the relationship between principals’ conceptual skills and teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State.
- Find out the relationship between principals’ human skills and teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State.
- Ascertain the relationship between principals’ technical skills and teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State.
1.4 Research Questions:
- What is the relationship between principals’ conceptual skills and teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State?
- What is the relationship between principals’ human skills and teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State?
- What is the relationship between principals’ technical skills and teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State?
- There is no significant relationship between principals’ conceptual skills and teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State.
- There is no significant relationship between principals’ human skills and teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State.
- There is no significant relationship between principals’ technical skills and teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State.
1.6 Significance of Study
The study is will be significant to principals reinforce those supervisory activities that positively influence student’s academic achievement.
The study will also be significant to the Ministry of Education (MOE) on areas that require attention particularly during the formulation of policies relating to internal supervision in schools. APSS would further use the study to improve their in-service programs for principals and teachers for better students’ academic performance. The challenges that principals face while carrying out instructional supervision would also be known and be addressed by APSS.The study will be of benefit to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study will examine the effect of principals good administrative skills on the management of Secondary School. The study will also evaluate how principal’s effective management of Secondary School affects students academic performance. The study will further find out the challenges principals face in carrying out their supervisory duty in other for effective management. Lastly, the study will recommend ways principals can improve their supervisory skills. Hence this study will be delimited to River state.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The researcher encountered minor obstacles when conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. The significant constraint was the scarcity of literature on the subject due to the nature of the discourse, so the researcher incurred more financial expenses and spent more time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information and in the data collection process, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Furthermore, the researcher did this investigation alongside other academic activities.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Those related to running a business or keeping an office organized, and are needed for a variety of jobs, ranging from office assistants to secretaries to office managers
The process of dealing with or controlling things or people.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Conclusions and Recommendation
Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that principals’ managerial competencies, namely; conceptual, human and technical have high positive significant relationship with teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Rivers State, Nigeria.
Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that:
- Principals should evolve the leadership of delegating functions to teachers according to their area of expertise as this would result in increased participation for the actualization of school goals and objectives.
- Principals should introduce a participatory leadership approach where teachers would be involved in the planning, organizing, decision-making and the day to day running of the school as this would make them fully committed and enthusiastic in implementing school’s plans and policies for the overall success of the school.
- Principals should create a conducive and enabling environment for teachers through constant supervision as this would enhanced their competence and proficiency. It would also breed cordial and interpersonal relationship, team work and motivation in the system for the achievement of school goals.
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