Principals Decision Making Strategies And Secondary School Teacher’s Effectiveness In Ijumu Local Government Area Kogi State
The leadership roles of the principal as the chief executive in the school is enormous. He plays a key role in the success and failure of the organisations. They study therefore investigated principal decision making strategies on teacher effectiveness in secondary schools specifically, the objectives of this study were to determined
- Examine who decision are made by the principals the secondary school level;
- Asses t at decision making strategies on teacher effectiveness;
- What are the problems faced in decision making process in school?
- Assess the possible ways in which decision could be made in the secondary school.
The research was a descriptive type using the survey method. The study sample was drawn from 10 secondary schools in Ijumu Local Government Nigeria. The respondents were 100 students. 60 were males and 40 females 4 research questions and 2 hypotheses were formulated for the study. Mean and percentage score was used to answer research questions one to four and independent t-test to test research hypothesis one and two.
The finding of the study showed that:
- The principals strategies of leadership on teachers effectiveness positively
- The principal has positive strategies on teacher’s effectiveness in secondary schools.
- The respondents are faced with driver’s problem in the school.
- There is no significant difference between male and female teacher’s decision making strategies and leadership problem.
The study recommends that teaching service commission should strict warning against principal who does not respect the dignity of teaching profession secondary school principal should also endeavor to adopt appropriate strategies of leadership in order to carry along with the teachers.
1.1 Background to the Study
The leadership roles of the principal as the chief executive in the school is enormous. He plays a key role in the success and failure of the organisation. He is obliged to be an effective head to the able to achieve the objectives.
A leadership strategies is said to be effective if it facilitates accomplishment of the organisation objective with minimum unanticipated cost or consequence. Therefore, for school organisation to survive and more importantly to grow, the need then arises for the management to face questions of how the organisation will work to see that these objectives are achieved.
One important way by which an organisation can achieve these objectives is to address the issue of managing people in the organisation coupled with coordinating directing commanding and controlling their efforts which is the major problem facing most organisations today. Hence, the problem of personnel management would be view with the purpose of adopting an appropriate system of co-ordinating relationship between men and materials resources. They should be the primary concern of any organisation be it profit oriented, social service, charitable, or even school organisation in line with this salami (2002)describe education as “this theory and practice of the organisation and administration of the existing educational establishment and system as well as process of seeing to it that the police the principals methods for achieving the fully carried out. In his own research work, Adama (2000) observes that human resources are the greatest assets of an organisation. In educational setting the teacher are regarded as the greatest assets. This is becomes the teacher determine what goes on, in the classroom.
Abiri (2005) Education has been as a vital tool that brings about rapid development to any nation. To this end, smooth running of the school system calls for effective leadership.
Maintained that no matter what is done in educational matter what educational policy is made, unless teacher determine, to a very large extent, what happens in the classroom. Such a great demand for teaching in the school level opens the need for effective management practice.
However, more often than not one hears of growing poor performance of student in our school educational management expert such as Ogunsaju (2000) observed that the poor performance of student can be attributed to the condition of service of teaching as a consequence of bad personnel management practice employed by the government and the school principal.
Realizing importance of manpower in organisations. Ogundipe (2002) stressed that what determines the success of an organisation does not only include the necessary tools, materials and equipment but also the wider organisation” in other word, organisation of education should included the co-ordination of relationship between education and men; man in the society his behaviour, ideas and matter affecting him, the institutions and how education has contributed to help the society grow.
In his explanation on human behaviours to work, Ogundipe (2000) stressed further that people bring with them variety of experience, skills and knowledge are put together in a job which provides, hopeful, most of the organisational resources for carrying out the work.
The teacher therefore require adequate knowledge of fact and morale to enable him function effectively as interpreter of intent and transmitter of knowledge that guarantees individual development and substance of societal virtue and culture.
Hence, their motivation is imperative in a particular education setting at a point in time.
The same view was shares by Ogunyinka (2008) if the students perform well in the school the society would view the school as being effective the school principals make various democracy makes various decision in the school which their follower’s that is students teaching and non-teaching staff have a follow. The autocratic strategies of decision making may bring about unnecessary conflicts as consultation is not sought by the administrator from any of his follower’s.
Decisions are solely arrived at by the principals. This is diametrically opposed to the principal “two good heads are better than one.”
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In Nigeria, lack of job satisfaction characterizes the life of many, employees. In most organisations this is evident in the poor attitude of many to work among whom teachers are chief. Hence, we witness great loss in the organizations as a result of poor services, high labour turn-over, psychological withdrawal, disloyalty, lowmoral.
Abdulkareem, A.Y (2002), Realizing the significance of democratic principles as against the adverse effect of autocratic principal in decision making. There is the need for a systematics and pragmatic search into the influence of principal’s decision making strategies on teacher’s effectiveness among secondary school teachers in Ijumu. It is general agreed that to build a strong, sound and everlasting house for a living, the foundation has to be properly laid. Observation show that some principals maker irrational decision, when some are subtle in their decision making process.
This research would therefore investigate the influence of principal’s decision making whether it has made or mar the smooth running of secondary schools.
1.3 Purpose of this Study
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of the principal’s decision making strategies on teacher’s effectiveness among secondary school teachers in Ijumu.
Specifically, the study intends to
- Examine how decisions are made by the principals at the secondary school level.
- Examine teacher’s perception of the principal’s strategies of decision making about individual characteristics and behaviours
- Asses the influence of principals decision making strategies on teacher effectiveness.
- Asses the possible ways in which decision could be made in the secondary school and the present method of decision making in the secondary schools.
- Assess the problems that may arise from the present method of decision making in the secondary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
The study intent to answer the following question.
- How are decisions made by principals in Ijumu secondary school?
- What influence has principal strategies of decision making on teachers effectiveness
- What are the teacher’s perceptions of the principal’s strategies of decision making?
- What are the problems faced in decision making process in school?
- Does democratic principal strategies have influence on teacher’s effectiveness in secondary schools?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- There is no significant difference between the principals decision making strategies and teacher effectiveness.
- There is significant difference between principal decision making strategies and decision making problem.
1.6 Significance Of The Study
The followings are the benefits
- Correlation between job satisfaction and worker effectiveness
- I will also afford the principals opportunity of knowing when their teachers are dissatisfied with their jobs
- It will assist them to determine the type of decision making strategies that could best motivate teacher’s effectiveness in their schools.
i. Among the physical resource in any organisations, employees who constituted the labour force are highly valued simply because of their contributions to the achievement of the organisations goals. Actually it could be said that there is a direct correlation between job satisfaction and worker effectiveness generally.
ii. If workers are being favorable effect on the school in performance. It will also afford the principal’s the opportunity of knowing when their teachers are dissatisfied with their jobs, when behaviours such as disloyalty, increasing rate of absenteeism and lassie fare altitude become common phenomena in the organisation
iii. The study is of great importance to principals and manager because it would assist them to determine the type of decision making strategies that could be motivate teacher’s effectiveness in their schools. In addition, the study could make its contribution to the scholastic pursuit in effectiveness and decision making strategies.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study focused on the influence of principal’s decision making strategies/ leadership strategies on teacher’s effectiveness among secondary school in Ijumu Local Government.
It is streamline to cover only 10 selected secondary schools.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms are operationally defined.
i. Decision Making:
Is a process of selecting among the best alternative to solve the problem under study.
Principals refers to the head of secondary school who oversees activities going on in the school. He performs the function of administration and taking decision of production in educational setting.
Refers to utilize the appropriate teaching method, learning resources good evaluation techniques to enhance student’s academic performance.
It is the extent to which the leader or principal is successful in a completing what he is assigned to do.
v. Autocratic Strategies:
Is an approach of school management in which the principal is the leader that makes the decision and give order to his teacher without asking for their opinions.
vi. Democratic Strategies:
Is an approach of management of the school administration that permits self-expression creativity.
Is a leadership strategies that gives complete freedom to staff as they wish.
Discussions, Conclusions and Recommendations
This chapter focuses mainly on discussion of the findings, conclusion drawn from the findings, and recommendations. Other aspects included are the limitation to the study and suggestions for further research.
5.1 Summary of Findings
The findings of this study based on the research questions and the hypnosis formulated were summarized as follow:
- The principal decision was autocratic in nature
- The principals strategies of leadership influence teachers effectiveness positively.
- The respondents are faced with diver’s problem in the school.
- The principal had positive strategies on teachers effectiveness in secondary schools.
- There is no significant difference between male and female teachers decision making strategies and effectiveness
- There is no significant difference between male and female teachers decision making strategies and leadership problem.
Discussions on Research Findings.
The findings of this study are discussed under the following headings.
- Principals strategies of leadership on teacher’s effectiveness
- Leadership problem
- Gender on Principal strategies of decision making
Findings on strategies of leadership on teachers effectiveness
The principal strategies of leadership was examined using research question 1 and hypothesis 1 such leadership strategies include the principal is not considerate principal takes decision on his own not taking the opinion of the teacher’s not consideration, the principal punished erring students most of the time.
The result of the mean score established that secondary school principal strategies of leadership on teachers effectiveness positively.
The finding agreed with the earlier findings of Aliyu (2002), the principal has a number of varied duties he is an education leader in his own right and his considerable in the educational program of the school.
Traditionally, he is a mid-way between the educational policy makers on one hand the staff and the student on the other being an agent who executes or transmits generally rules and regulations as laid down by government and /or education board in charge.
Academic and non-academic staff to communicate with one another more effectively during formal and informal teaching and learning and this has affect teachers effectiveness positively. The researcher could not locate any other study to support or oppose this findings.
Finding on leadership problem
Leadership problem was examined using researcher questions 3 such leadership problem include many teachers do not perform well in the examination; many teachers do not cooperate with school authority, principal often challenged rudely by the teachers and so on. The result of the mean score established that secondary school teachers faced with divers principal strategies of leadership problem.
This finding agreed with the earlier findings of Egonumuan (2004), “there cannot be any on strategies of decision making that can be prescribed for all times. Some policy decisions are bound to be delivered through command and other through persuasion and bargaining.
It is also possible that a combination of the three strategies can be adopted in on single policy decision making situation pose a lot of problem to secondary school teachers. Researchers could not also locate any study to support and appose the findings.
The principal gender on leadership strategies was determined using hypothesis 1. The result of the findings shows that there was no significant difference between make and female teacher’s decision making strategies and effectiveness. This shows that principal decision making strategies teachers effectiveness.
Implication of the findings
Based on the findings of the study, the following implications can be drawn.
The findings have strong implication for the teaching learning process in Nigeria. It is an indicate that there would be great improvement in the teaching and learning at the secondary school level. If proper leadership strategies were incorporated into teaching, it can lead to increased teaching competencies confidence, interaction and involvement of the teachers and principal interaction.
The implication of this is that principal and teachers relationship can be improve if proper strategies of leadership are incorporated.
This research explored then principal decision making strategies on teachers effectiveness in secondary schools. The findings in the research also established that there was no significant difference between male and female teachers decision making strategies and effectiveness.
Moreover, no significant different existed between male and female teacher’s decision making strategies study and leadership problem.
Limitation of the Study
The following limitations can be observed regarding the study:
- The study was designed to focus on the principal decision making strategies on teacher effectiveness inn secondary school. The findings may thus not be generalizable to public secondary school in the state.
- The finding of at study should also not be generalizable to other secondary school in Kogi State and Nigeria large because it has Ijumu Local Government as its scope.
- The study was purely on secondary school principal strategies of leadership Despite these limitations, the findings of this study were to be significant, valid and useful, particular-teachers relationship in secondary schools in Ijumu Local Government.
Based on the findings and conclusion of this study, the following recommendations were made
- Teaching service commission should strict warning against principal who does not respect the dignity of teaching profession.
- Secondary school principal should endeavor to adopt appropriate strategies of leadership in order to carry along with the teachers.
5.4 Suggestions for further studies
For further research in this are, the following were suggested:
- Effort to replicate this study in other region of Kogi State should be supported comparison of their findings would authenticate their validations;
- Some other constructs such as students perception on principal leadership strategies could be looked into;
- The other variables such as educational level, facilitating conditions, performance expectancy among others could be investigated.
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Frequently Asked Questions
How can school managers improve decision making in a school organisation?
In order for the school manager to effectively improve decision making in a school organisation, he or she could adopt some of these implementation strategies as listed and discussed below as suggested by Ahmed (2011); a) School administrators need to make sure that the alternative is clearly understood.
What decisions are made at all levels of school organization?
In the context of educational administration, it is important to note that, decisions are made at all levels of school organization. For example, the superintendent makes decisions concerning a school district’s goals and strategies.
What is the difference between a principal and a superintendent?
For example, the superintendent makes decisions concerning a school district’s goals and strategies. Then principals make tactical decisions concerning those goals and strategies to accomplish them in relation to their own buildings.
Is there a rational model of decision making in education?
Because of its appropriateness in educational administration, this paper adopts the rational model of decision making which also clearly excites the clearly outlined stages in its development process.