Principals’ Administrative Approach To Managing Conflicts Among Staff Of Public Secondary Schools In Obio Akpor LGA

Complete Project And Seminar Material (chapter 1 5) For Students In Nigeria

Principals’ Administrative Approach To Managing Conflicts Among Staff Of Public Secondary Schools In Obio Akpor LGA


Abstarct


This study was carried out to examine the principals’ administrative approach to managing conflicts among staff of public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA, Rivers State. The study was specifically set to identify the factors responsible for conflict in public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA, examine the effects of conflicts which arises in public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA, and find out the strategies adopted by principals for effective conflict management in public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of principals and teachers in selected secondary school in Obio/Akpor LGA, Rivers State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 119 respondents while 110 were received and 100 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using mean scores, while the hypotheses was tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the factors responsible for conflict in public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA includes: violation of collective agreement, poor communication skills, background diversity, and condition of employment. Furthermore, the study showed that the strategies adopted by principals for effective conflict management in public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA includes: avoidance conflict management strategy, collaborative conflict management strategy, collective bargaining conflict management strategy, and compromise conflict management strategy. The study recommends that Principals and teachers should try to keep communication channels open between them. Where communication flows freely,it is easier to detect conflict before it erupts into unsafe proportions. Furthermore, open communication is one way to safeguard trust and clarify misperceptions, even during conflicts. However, both principals and teachers need to develop schools as communities and strive for a climate of team spirit with students. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In the absence of conflict, there is peace, agreement, harmony and understanding. Peace, harmony and agreement are important factors in human development and relationships. Schein (1990) opined that the goals and objectives of an organization cannot be achieved in absence of a settled mind. Amali (1995) equally stated that there can hardly be any meaningful interpersonal relationship, group effort as well as reasonable exchange of ideas where conflicts exist. Similarly, in an educational organization such as secondary schools, principals, teachers, students, parents-teachers association, communities and other education stakeholders cannot unite in the midst of mistrust, fear, hatred, unrest and rumors.

The term conflict has been defined in various ways by various authors. For instance, Thompson (1990) defined conflict as a mutual interference of parts, actions and reactions in a social system. To Kweiner and Kirickci (2004) conflict refers to a process in which one party perceives that its interest is being opposed or negatively affected by another party. In the view of Gardiner and Simmons (2002) conflict refers to any divergence of interest, objectives or priorities between individuals, groups or organizations or non-conformity to requirement of a task, activity or process. Thamhain and Wilemon (1994:5) defined conflict as: As the behaviour of an individual, a group or an organization which impedes or restricts (at least temporarily) another party from attaining is desired goals.

Although, conflict may impede the attainment of one’s goals, the consequences may be beneficial if it produce new information which, in turn, enhances the decision-making, lengthy delays over issues which do not importantly affect the outcome of the project, or a disintegration of the term’s efforts. In the context of this study, conflict refers to disagreement over a particular subject matter or policy between school administrators and other school personnel or among individuals within the school system.

In the school system, conflicts may arise in the process of interaction in the normal school operations. Conflict may also emanate as a result of disagreement in role allocation, appropriation of school resources amongst staff, differences in perception and values, injustice in disciplinary matters, bad leadership and individual approaches to issues. The most prevalent areas of conflict between school principals and teachers is in the area involving money or the area where teachers are likely to derive benefits financially. Other specific areas where conflict is likely to occur between principals and teachers include the area of role sharing of farm products, promotion of students, conduct of examination and in the area of sports. Observation has shown that some teachers feel reluctant to obey their principals. They do not seem to follow rules or carry-out certain oversized functions. These teachers find it difficult to get along with their principals. Some principals sometimes adopt autocratic approach in managing school activities. These principals often fail to recognize, appreciate, motivate or reinforce teachers who carry-out outstanding achievement. These behaviours sometimes are capable of bringing in conflict between teachers and the principals.

Conflicts have also been recorded in schools over those to be appointed as school functionaries and such issue like the house that would emerge victoriously in an inter-house sports competition. Conflict may also emanate among students and teachers over promotions or examination scores. Conflicts also occur between schools and the community over better welfare services and land. The above listed conflicts need to be satisfactorily dealt with through a solution that is mutually acceptable in order to develop, achieve and sustain the objectives of education.
The issue of conflict seems to be inevitable in an organization. Amali (2005) opined that conflict is an in-built aspect of the organizational behavioural system. This is so because of individual differences as well as the nature of the organization. To Onwura (2010) conflict is a product of interaction between or among people. It can only occur among those who interact, have interacted or will interact. It implies disagreement in opinion, opposition of interests due to individual differences among characteristics. According to Uzoma (2010) the effects of unresolved conflict is great. Unresolved conflict breeds an unhealthy situation which hampers a cordial relationship between secondary school administrators and other school personnels. The present situation in secondary schools today revealed that some staff are not working harmoniously. This makes it difficult to achieve the objectives of instituting the secondary school system. This situation has also been linked to the student’s poor performances in the recent West Africa School Certificate Examinations (WESSCE) and the National Examination Council (NECO) among other examinations in Nigeria. This consequently hinders the accomplishment of educational goals and objectives in secondary schools.

As a result of the negative impact of conflicts in the administration of secondary schools, there is need to resolve such problems. In order words, there should be meaningful conflict resolution strategies to solve various conflicts that may arise in secondary schools.

Conflict resolution can be achieved only if all parties involved in a conflict choose to come to the negotiating tables. According to Federal Ministry of Education (1993) resolution of conflict occurs when parties involved understand each other’s position accurately and are willing to discuss it. Obasi-igwe (2002) defines conflict resolution as a procedurally made strong suggestion(s) for action in certain aspects of policy. To Michell in Nwosu (2010) conflict resolution refers to an outcome in which the issues in an existing conflict are satisfactorily dealt with through a solution that is mutually acceptable. However in the context of this study, conflict resolution strategy refers to any process or procedure through which disputes in secondary schools can be settled among different stakeholders within the school system.

There are several strategies that can be employed to resolve conflict that exist in secondary schools. According to the ministry of Education, in the past, school heads had depended upon a well established hierarchy in authority; the person on top could make rapid decisions and act autocratically when necessary. However, this means of resolving conflict situation is not an effective one. Gray and Stark (1994) identified the following as strategies for conflict resolution: tolerance, communication, rebranding, harmony, problem solving, accommodation and compromising. On the other hand, Newman (1991) recommended three functional approaches for resolving conflict. These include discussing the conflict fully with the parties involved and work it out, solving conflict by majority rule, compromise and hierarchical appeal, and suppressing conflict by using authority with subordinates.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Conflicts are inevitable and occur among individuals, groups, institutions and organizations. The researcher observed that there have been conflict relationships between school principals and classroom teachers in public secondary schools. Principals and teachers work in close relationships with other staff; and in collaboration while carrying out their duties and responsibilities. Despite this close relationship, conflicts and crises characterize their relationships, and it takes good administrator to manage conflicts effectively in order to achieve the set academic goals. It is obvious that in the school setting, conflicts result from mere misunderstanding and disagreement among principals and teachers. It could result from teacher-teacher relationships, teacher-student, teaching and nonteaching staff, parents’ interference with schools’ rules and regulations, staff and teachers’ poor attitude to work, poor implementation of policies and programmes. More so, conflicts occur also as a result of poor state of infrastructures, inadequate funding, sharing of scarce resources, lack of teaching aids, lack of motivation on the part of teachers, poor communication network and communication gap, staff welfare, poor leadership styles, role play, performance and task expectations. Conflicts in schools, if not properly handled causes more and continue conflicts, lower morale, and inappropriate behaviour and reduced productivity. The attendant disparity of income and non-implementation of certain policies and programmes, non-payment of allowances, unsatisfactory conditions of service, non-provision or inadequate provision of amenities, poor teaching method and lack of training, poor communication network, inadequate human and material resources etc, have produced great dissatisfaction and agitations among secondary school teachers. These conflicts situation have become major concern to school administrators, parents, government, teachers, supervisory ministries, boards and agencies in public secondary schools and has greatly affected the administration of secondary schools. The better school principals, teachers, parents and other stakeholders understand the nature of conflicts, the better able they are to manage conflicts constructively. Subsequent upon the observations mentioned above, if there are effective macro level strategies designed to minimize the occurrence of conflicts in public secondary schools, could this improve the level of relationships between principals and teachers in schools? Would principals’ administrative style of leadership and teachers’ attitude to work have effects on the administration of public secondary schools? Therefore, this study critically examined the types, causes, aspects of secondary schools’ administration mostly affected and effects of conflicts between principals and teachers as well as determined appropriate management strategies and resolution adopted in resolving conflicts in public secondary schools.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to examine principals’ administrative approach to managing conflicts among staff of public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Identify the factors responsible for conflict in public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA.
  2. Examine the effects of conflicts which arises in public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA.
  3. Find out the strategies adopted by principals for effective conflict management in public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA.

1.4 Research Question

The following questions are formulated inline with the study objectives;

  1. What are the factors responsible for conflict in public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA?
  2. What are the effects of conflicts which arises in public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA?
  3. What are the strategies adopted by principals for effective conflict management in public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There are no principals’ administrative approach to managing conflicts among staff of public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA.
  • Ha: There are principals’ administrative approach to managing conflicts among staff of public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Several benefits would be derived from the study. It would be very significant to all stakeholders in the education sector, including principals, teachers, parents, school administrators, Parents/Teachers Association, (PTA), education inspectors, supervisory ministries, board and agencies. Education is a veritable tool for socio-economic, political and technological advancement. But when there is conflict between principals and teachers in public secondary schools, it affects the smooth administration of the school system as well as teaching and learning. Therefore, the study also would help stimulate greater understanding of emergent structure of conflicts and their influences on secondary schools administration. It predicated on the need for peaceful atmosphere conducive for teaching, learning and other academic activities. However, from the types of conflicts, causes of conflicts, influence of conflicts, theories of leadership and management strategies, the study would help inculcate the spirit of mutual relationships among principals, teachers, school community, parents and enhances good teaching-learning environment, as well as achievement of academic goals. The study would help the principals and teachers to avoid inter-personal, inter-group and intra-group conflicts in schools, reduce communication gap, hostility and low morale among teachers and staff in secondary schools, which negatively affects effective administration processes.

The findings of the study would help stimulate further studies and assist to ascertain the level of relationships between school principals and classroom teachers. It would further help promote stability, achievement of goals and objectives of education; and ensure reforms in the education sector. It would also enable the governments to be aware of their responsibilities especially in the areas of provision of essential facilities needed for effective teaching and learning processes.

Finally, the study would add to the stock of existing literatures as it would be useful to students, teachers, parents, organizations, institutions and the general public, as well as serves as a veritable tool to school principals and teachers in the discharge of their duties, especially in crisis management situation.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the principals’ administrative approach to managing conflicts among staff of public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA. However the study will be delimited to principals and teachers in selected secondary school in Obio/Akpor LGA, Rivers State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definitions of Terms

School Principals:

School principals are the school heads in charge of the secondary schools administration.

Classroom Teachers:

These are persons who are employed and in this instance, to teach in secondary schools.

Conflicts:

This refers to a state of crisis or disagreement between principals and teachers in schools.

Conflicts Management Strategies:

Techniques that principal will adopt in solving problems or management styles that would be employed in resolving crises in schools.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on principals’ administrative approach to managing conflicts among staff of public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA, Rivers State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the principals’ administrative approach to managing conflicts among staff of public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA, Rivers State. The study was specifically set to identify the factors responsible for conflict in public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA, examine the effects of conflicts which arises in public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA, and find out the strategies adopted by principals for effective conflict management in public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are principals and teachers in selected secondary school in Obio/Akpor LGA, Rivers State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The factors responsible for conflict in public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA includes: violation of collective agreement, poor communication skills, background diversity, and condition of employment.
  2. The effects of conflicts which arises in public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA: it reduces the effectiveness and efficiency of staffs, it reduces the level of staff commitment, it reduces staff moral, and it affects the standard of educational output in secondary schools.
  3. The strategies adopted by principals for effective conflict management in public secondary schools in Obio Akpor LGA includes: avoidance conflict management strategy, collaborative conflict management strategy, collective bargaining conflict management strategy, and compromise conflict management strategy.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. Principals and teachers should try to keep communication channels open between them. Where communication flows freely,it is easier to detect conflict before it erupts into unsafe proportions. Furthermore, open communication is one way to safeguard trust and clarify misperceptions, even during conflicts. However, both principals and teachers need to develop schools as communities and strive for a climate of team spirit with students.
  2. As part of staff development, principals and teachers should develop a wider range of methods for solving problems which give rise to conflicts. Methods such as consensus, interest based bargaining, negotiation and integrative decision making are critical examples.
  3. Prompt payment of salaries, training and retraining of principals and teachers, regular seminars, conferences and workshops should be organized for principals, teachers and staff on modern strategies in conflicts management.
  4. Participatory approach, collective bargaining and democratic style of leadership should be engaged regularly in order to create peace and tranquility in the secondary schools.
  5. There should be free flow of information, because, it is the live wire of any organization and once it is poorly delivered or hoarded there will be problem. Free access to information brings uniformity, awareness and quick delivery of services.

Get Complete Project Material

6,000 Naira

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦6,500 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($25)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Principals’ Administrative Approach To Managing Conflicts Among Staff Of Public Secondary Schools In Obio Akpor LGA

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.