Prevalence, Knowledge And Potential Determinants Of Covid-19 Vaccine Acceptability Among Students In Taraba State University Jalingo

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Prevalence, Knowledge And Potential Determinants Of Covid-19 Vaccine Acceptability Among Students In Taraba State University Jalingo


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the prevalence, knowledge and potential determinants of covid-19 vaccine acceptability among students in Taraba state university Jalingo. The study was specifically carried out to find out whether Taraba state university students are aware of the covid-19 vaccine, examine the reasons for covid-19 vaccine acceptance by students in Taraba state university, examine the factors associated with the covid-19 vaccine acceptance by students in Taraba state university, and examine the reasons for covid-19 vaccine refusal(if any) by students in Taraba state university.And was anchored on the health belief model (HBM).The study employed the survey descriptive research design. Hence, the questionnaire was used for data collection which was raised against a four Likert scale of strongly agree (SA), agree (A), disagree (D), and strongly disagree (SD) while the data collected were analyzed using frequency tables, and relative importance index. The hypotheses test was conducted using ANOVA statistical tool, SPSS v.23. A total of 261 respondents were conveniently selected as sample size, which comprised of Taraba state university, while 259 were validated. From the responses obtained and analyzed, the findings revealed thatTaraba state university students are aware of the covid-19 vaccine at β = 0.887, R2 = 0.936, P = .000.The study also showed that Covid-19 vaccine is accepted by Taraba state university students, at β = 0.896, R2 = 0.952, P = .000. The study therefore recommends that the government, stakeholders and school authorities should prioritize measures that enhance immunization coverage. And acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine will be bolstered by enhanced awareness campaigns and feedback from vaccinated persons on its safety, hence it is recommend.
Keywords: Covid-19, Vaccine, Nursing Students, Awareness


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

More than a year after the announcement of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as a pandemic on 11 March 2020, the disease continues to cause a global public health catastrophe with continued infections, death, and severe economic and social consequences (Sophia, 2020). Over 217 million individuals have been infected with the virus causing severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2) as of August 2021, resulting in over 4.5 million deaths. Unfortunately, the COVID-19 pandemic is projected to continue causing widespread illness and mortality and disrupting society and economies worldwide (Madani 2021).

Although several preventative and therapeutic methods have been taken, the newly produced vaccinations have been demonstrated to be successful in mitigating COVID-19’s impact (Madani 2021). Indeed, non-pharmaceutical efforts including as quarantine, social isolation, mask wearing, and others played a significant role in preventing the pandemic’s spread. However, the incidence of new infections and mortality continues to climb. Several vaccinations have been developed, with some licensed and others undergoing clinical testing.

Notably, the Pfizer/BioNtech, AstraZeneca, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson Janssen COVID-19 vaccines are licensed for emergency use in a number of nations (Johns Hopkins University 2020). Regardless of the disparate distribution of vaccinations across high-income and low-income countries, vaccine acceptance continues to be an important topic of discussion for the successful immunization of the public.

The National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) of Nigeria has authorized the use of the AstraZeneca1 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) vaccine in the nation (Davis, 2020), along with a number of others. The Nigerian government has received multiple batches of the vaccine through the COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access Facility (COVAX), a collaboration between the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), Gavi the Vaccine Alliance, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Bank, and the World Health Organization.

The COVAX is a component of the Access to COVID-19 Tools (ACT) Accelerator, a global cooperation to expedite the development, manufacture, and equitable access of COVID-19 diagnostics, treatments, and vaccinations (Davis, 2020). Since then, the Nigerian National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA) has begun immunization in stages with priority groups, beginning with frontline healthcare professionals. The organization has also launched an online self-registration site to implement a nationwide immunization program (Johns Hopkins University 2020).

Acceptance of COVID-19 vaccinations in Nigeria is crucial for containing the COVID-19 epidemic and restoring normal societal functioning (Sophia 2020). Acceptance of COVID-19 vaccinations is necessary for high uptake; if not addressed, low acceptance might impede uptake. This has been the situation with past pandemic vaccinations, for example, the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic vaccine (Madani 2021). (Madani 2021).

According to Johns Hopkins University (2020), as with other vaccines, numerous factors have the potential to influence COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and uptake, including parental recommendations, efforts to eradicate the virus and end the pandemic, university recommendations, family decisions, misinformation, age, and practical considerations. While COVID-19 vaccine acceptance has been high in many countries, there are advantages to understanding factors that may play a larger role in the acceptance of new vaccines developed for novel viruses and pandemics, particularly in the period prior to vaccine booster approval, when awareness may be low and individuals may be forming attitudes, beliefs, and intentions that influence later vaccination behavior (Davis, 2020).

Furthermore, early evidence on facilitators and barriers to COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Nigeria can inform health authorities’ and other vaccine stakeholders’ responses to hesitancy and refusal of vaccines throughout the life of a vaccination program, for example to support acceptance of COVID-19 booster vaccines, the next generation of COVID-19 vaccines, or vaccination of groups eligible to receive COVID-19 vaccines later than others, for example children (Egbuniwe, 2020). Such evidence can also help authorities maintain sensitivity to people’s questions and concerns about COVID-19 vaccines, and respond in ways that build trust in and acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines, or other novel vaccines in the future hence the need for this study.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

ACDC (2020) reports that, despite the widespread availability of the COVID-19 vaccine, there are significant factors that serve as a barrier to immunization adoption. Examples of such restrictions include: occasionally, accessible information on the COVID-19 is deceptive, resulting in confusion and overload, the perception that vaccine development was hurried, religious and cultural obstacles, and previous vaccination experiences (ACDC 2020). The bad experiences from earlier pandemics (e.g., influenza), notably the poor acceptability in many nations, indicate the need for a better knowledge of vaccination acceptance and reluctance.

Several studies from different parts of the world such as those carried out by Ahmed (2020), Jude (2020), Bra (2021), Stalloin (2021), and many others have examined the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine and its associated factors in different groups like healthcare workers and the aged. However, there is a paucity of studies carried out among students of tertiary institutions in order to replicate the findings of previous studies on students. This study seeks to fill this gap by examining the prevalence, knowledge and potential determinants of covid-19 vaccine acceptability among students in Taraba state university Jalingo.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objective of this study is to examine the prevalence, knowledge and potential determinants of covid-19 vaccine acceptability among students in Taraba state university Jalingo. Specifically, this study seeks to attain the following objectives:

  1. To find out whether Taraba state university students are aware of the covid-19 vaccine.
  2. To examine the reasons for covid-19 vaccine acceptance by students in Taraba state university.
  3. To examine the factors associated with the covid-19 vaccine acceptance by students in Taraba state university.
  4. To examine the reasons for covid-19 vaccine refusal(if any) by students in Taraba state university.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions guide this study:

  1. Are Taraba state university students aware of the covid-19 vaccine?
  2. What are the reasons for covid-19 vaccine acceptance by students in Taraba state university?
  3. What are the factors associated with the covid-19 vaccine acceptance by students in Taraba state university?
  4. What are the reason for covid-19 vaccine refusal(if any) by students in Taraba state university?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

To determine the effectiveness of this study, the following research null hypotheses is formulated to guide the study and it will be tested at 0.05% levels of significance.:

  • H01: Taraba state university students are not aware of the covid-19 vaccine.
  • H02: Covid-19 vaccine is not accepted by students in Taraba state university.

1.6 Significance of the Study

As a nursing student, the research investigator recognized a paucity of studies on COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and associated factors. Hospital administrators can use the findings of this study to educate nurses on COVID 19 acceptance and the factors that affect the uptake of the vaccine.

Additionally, healthcare providers will use it as a literature review. This means that healthcare providers who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and associated factors.

The result will also be beneficial to the society as it will show the reasons why COVID 19 vaccine should be accepted and factors that are responsible for the vaccine hesitancy in the society.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is focused on the prevalence, knowledge and potential determinants of covid-19 vaccine acceptability among students in Taraba state university Jalingo. Specifically, this study is focused on finding out whether Taraba state university students are aware of the covid-19 vaccine, and examining the reasons for covid-19 vaccine acceptance by students in Taraba state university.

This study is also focused on examining the factors associated with the covid-19 vaccine acceptance by students in Taraba state university and examining the reason for covid-19 vaccine refusal(if any) by students in Taraba state university.

200 level to 500 level nursing students of Taraba state university will serve as the enrolled participants for the survey of this study.


1.8 Imitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study. Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues.

However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Covid 19 Pandemic:

Also known as corona-virus), which is spread primarily by contact with infectious material (such as respiratory droplets) or infected materials or surfaces. It is characterized by fever, cough, and shortness of breath, which can lead to pneumonia and respiratory failure.

Vaccine:

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Discussion of Findings

5.1 Key Findings

Demographic Data of Respondents

On the demographic information, 32% of the respondents are males, while 68% of the respondents are females. This indicates that majority of the respondents are females.On the marital status of the respondents, 27% of the respondents were married, and 35% of the respondents were singles, while the remaining 38% of the respondents preferred not to say. This indicates that majority of the respondents preferred not the say their marital status. 18.5% were aged between 18-25 years, 45.6% were aged 26-30 years, while the remaining 35.9%of the respondents were aged above 30years.This shows that majority of the respondents are within the age of 26-30 years. On the class of the respondents, 24% were in 200L, followed by 24% of the respondents who were in 300L, and 23.5% of the respondents were in 400L, while the remaining 28.5% were in 500L. This shows that majority of the respondents are within were 500L students.

Research Question 1: Are you aware of the covid-19 vaccine?

In analyzing this question, simple percentage and frequency was used. The findings from the study revealed that the students are aware of the Covid-19 vaccine. This result of this in line with the study conducted by Subramani et al. (2021) who affirmed that undergraduates exhibits excellent knowledge, awareness, and attitude towards the covid-19 vaccination, and nearly all of them were eager to get the vaccine without hesitation.

Research Question 2: What are the reasons for covid-19 vaccine acceptance by students?

This question was analyzed using relative importance index(RII). The findings revealed that the three most important reasons for covid-19 vaccine acceptance by students as rated in the RII are to protect myself from contracting COVID-19, due to the university recommendations, and parents recommendations. Other reasons include; to get rid of the virus and end the pandemic, health workers’ recommendations, becauseit is a social and moral responsibility, government recommendations, to be able to travel, being at high risk of severe disease, believing in vaccines and immunization, the effectiveness of the vaccines, the safety standards of the vaccines, and to protect others from contracting COVID-19. This is inline with the study conducted by Raja et al (2022) on “ COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, hesitancy, and associated factors among medical students in Sudan. He espoused that the common reasons for accepting the vaccine were to protect themselves and others from getting COVID-19, concerns about vaccine safety and effectiveness were the main reasons reported by those who were hesitant.

Research Question 3: What are the factors associated with the covid-19 vaccine acceptance by students?

This question was analyzed using relative importance index(RII). The findings revealed that the three most important factors associated with the covid-19 vaccine acceptance by students as rated in the RII include; COVID-19 vaccine will end the pandemic if enough people in the world get it, COVID-19 poses a risk to me personally, and worrisomeness about COVID-19 infection. Other factors include; history of vaccination for other diseases in the last 5 years, use of social media as an information source for COVID-19, COVID-19 poses a risk to students, estimated likelihood of getting COVID-19 infection in the future, In general, vaccines are safe, negative information about the COVID-19 vaccine, history of COVID-19 infection, and believes that COVID-19 is a real public health threat at present. This is inline with the study conducted by Raja et al (2022) who affirmed that the factors associated with the covid-19 vaccine acceptance included; vaccine acceptance were history of COVID-19 infection, belief that vaccines are generally safe, confidence that the vaccine can end the pandemic and receiving any vaccine in the past 5 years.

Research Question 4: What are the reason for covid-19 vaccine refusal(if any) by students?

This question was analyzed using relative importance index(RII). The findings revealed that the three most important reasons for covid-19 vaccine refusal by students as rated in the RII include; negative information about the vaccines heard about the vaccine, the rush in the development of the vaccine, and bad reaction after vaccination by proximate person(s). Other factors include; busy with studies, the preferred vaccine brand was not available locally, misinformation about the vaccine safety, fear of needles, had enough immunity, wanting to wait until more people take the vaccine, concerns about the vaccine safety, not regarding it to be important, was against any form of vaccination, had or maybe had COVID-19 infection already, can recover easily if infected, not sure of the vaccine effectiveness, don’t know where to get vaccinated, while some don’t have a reason. This is inline with the study conducted by Mustapha et al (2021) who claimed that students had several reasons for not accepting the Covid-19 vaccine. Those reasons as identified by him include; wanting to wait until more people take the vaccine, concerns about the vaccine safety etc.


5.2 The Implications of Findings

The result of the study will be beneficial to nursing students as it could help them to understand that though their general aim for not accepting the Covid-19 vaccine was to protect themselves as revealed in the findings, which correlate with the study carried out by Raja et al (2022) on “ COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, hesitancy, and associated factors among medical students in Sudan, there is need for them to verify information about pandemics such as Covid-19 from renewed medical persons, who will help to orientate them on the nature, causes, preventive measures and vaccination of such epidemic, other than holding on to self perceptions, online random news, and social rumors which will further complicate the eradication of the virus. Sequel to this, the students as aspiring healthcare practitioners will be able to guide the masses within their jurisdiction during such a a period that calls for carefulness and adherence to prescribed practices.


5.3 Summary of the Study

The main focus of this study was delimited to the covid-19 vaccine acceptance and associated factors among students. Specifically the study was also set to find out whether students are aware of the covid-19 vaccine, examine the reasons for covid-19 vaccine acceptance by students, examine the factors associated with the covid-19 vaccine acceptance by students, and examine the reason for covid-19 vaccine refusal(if any) by students.

The study adopted the survey research design. The study adopted the survey research design. The population size is the 261 nursing students in Taraba state university Jalingo who were randomly selected as the sample size of the population. Using the convenient sampling technique 261 nursing students were selected as the sample size for the study. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using four Likert scale of Strongly Agree(SA), Agree(A), Disagree(D) and Strongly Disagree(SD) with frequency tables, percentage, and relative importance index.


5.4 Conclusion

Base on the findings from the study it was concluded that

  1. Students in Taraba state university Jalingo are aware of the covid-19 vaccine.
  2. There numerous reasons for covid-19 vaccine acceptance by students, those include; to protect oneself from contracting COVID-19, university recommendations, parents recommendations, to get rid of the virus and end the pandemic, health workers’ recommendations, becauseit is a social and moral responsibility, government recommendations, to be able to travel, being at high risk of severe disease, believing in vaccines and immunization, the effectiveness of the vaccines, the safety standards of the vaccines, and to protect others from contracting COVID-19.
  3. There are many factors associated with the covid-19 vaccine acceptance by students. Those comprised of the history of vaccination for other diseases in the last 5 years, use of social media as an information source for COVID-19, COVID-19 poses a risk to students, COVID-19 poses a risk to me personally, estimated likelihood of getting COVID-19 infection in the future, In general, vaccines are safe, worriness about COVID-19 infection, negative information about the COVID-19 vaccine, history of COVID-19 infection, believes that COVID-19 is a real public health threat at present, and COVID-19 vaccine will end the pandemic if enough people in the world get it.
  4. Some students on the other hand rejected the covid-19 vaccine for notable reasons, among which are; busy with studies, the preferred vaccine brand was not available locally, misinformation about the vaccine safety, fear of needles, heard/read negative information about the vaccines, had enough immunity, vaccine development was rushed, wanting to wait until more people take the vaccine, concerns about the vaccine safety, not regarding it to be important, was against any form of vaccination, had or maybe had COVID-19 infection already, bad reactions after vaccination, can recover easily if infected, not sure of the vaccine effectiveness, don’t know where to get vaccinated, while some don’t have a reason.

5.5 Recommendations

Base on the result of the study, it is recommended that;

  1. The government, stakeholders and school authorities should prioritize measures that enhance immunization coverage.
  2. Acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine will be bolstered by enhanced awareness campaigns and feedback from vaccinated persons on its safety, hence it is recommend.
  3. Universities in Nigeria should provide accurate evidence-based information regarding the COVID-19 pandemic and its vaccines safety and efficacy to nursing students.
  4. More efforts by the Ministry of Health and other governmental bodies are recommended to encourage healthcare trainees to accept the vaccine.

5.6 Suggestions for Further Studies

Future research should use qualitative methods to further explore and understand the factors influencing the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines, especially among groups with more susceptibility to infection and/or severe disease, such as health and aged care workers, older adults, and adults with comorbidities, and groups eligible to receive COVID19 vaccines at later stages of vaccination programs, such as children.


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