Prevalence And Perceived Effect Of Child Trafficking Amongst Mothers Patronizing Obio Cottage In Obio Akpor LGA

Project and Seminar Material for Sociology

Prevalence And Perceived Effect Of Child Trafficking Amongst Mothers Patronizing Obio Cottage In Obio Akpor LGA


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the prevalence and perceived effect of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA. The study was carried out to ascertain the prevalence of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA, find out the causes of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA, and determine the effect of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of rmothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA is high. Furthermore, the study revealed that the effect of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA includes: disease and death,unwarranted pregnancies, psychological trauma, high school drop outs. Therefore, it is recommended that the lack of severe punitive penalties against child trafficking has been a significant reason the social ill thrives. Therefore, through legislation, the government should put stiff and severe penalties for offenders, and all legal constraints militating against the prosecution of child traffickers checked. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Child trafficking is an ugly fact of our society that is prevalent even today. Child trafficking is a world-wide problematic issue. Over the years, it has metamorphose into frig teeming growth rate, having reached its peak and without showing sign of reduction in parts of Africa, Eastern, Europe, the Caribbean’s and Latin American countries. 1 It is crucial to note that the increase on the cases of child trafficking in Nigeria is due to the undaunted efforts of the operators and profiteers of the business who are quick to cite unprecedented poverty and the near absence of the basic necessities of life as their driving force.2

Child trafficking is the illegal commerce and trade of people. It is essentially the facet of slavery which relies on direct purchase in contrast to the “natural increase” from enslaving the children of slaves. The United Nations (UN) defines “trafficking in persons” as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring of receipt of persons by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion of abduction of fraud of deceptions, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments achieve the consent of a person, having control over another person’s for the purpose of exploitation. 3

Child trafficking has brought poor reputation in the state. Our major economic problem is child trafficking. since we began on the path of nationhood or society. The main obstacle for striding bodily on this path has been the child trafficking problem because of unemployment. As a result of this, there has been for the past few years’ steady drift away of young men into other countries. This has the chain result of our society being left under populated or underdeveloped.5

Also, Nigeria has been bedeviled by myriad of problem most of the problems can be attributed to the pervasiveness of some of the ills that hamper the attainment of the development of the society. 7 As a result of ills that currently hampers the development of the country, child trafficking has become widespread and now occupied a preeminent position among the ills that pervade the Nigeria society. The international labor organization (ILO) recently estimated that over 12 million Nigerian children especially in Edo State are engaged in child labor. The survey also estimated that over 10, 000 Nigerian are engaged in prostitution in Italy which constitutes in the Italian sex market. 9 Most of these women and girls are initially trafficked victims many people especially women and children are lured with the promise of good jobs and salaries and then sold into prostitution or bonded labour. Child trafficking is considered to be modern day slavery where many children and women are force fully or fraudulently recruited, transported and harbored for sexual or labour exploitation. The victims of child trafficking are usually made to provide sex under threat and without consent.6 However, they are also used as labors to work in field and fisheries, sweep shops or as domestic helps. Thirdly, child trafficking is the fastest growing criminal industry in the world with the total annual revenue for trafficking in persons, not less than two hundred and fifty thousand persons, mostly female (i.e. 60% persons ranging from 12 years-18 years, while 40% persons above 18 years are trafficked across the Nigerian borders yearly. the business of trafficking in child beings is today organized by groups that are also involved in weapons and narcotics colluding with government officials in dozen countries. 6 There is very little doubt that it is in curative business and maybe one of the most difficult to combat. They are less visible than those caused by gun running and trafficking. Exploiting the poverty and low status of women in the developing world, middle men are able to bring together the supply and demand for cheap labour and sex in ways that linkable not long ago. Though, the fact of child trafficking is not difficult to understand on its own, its dimension and categorization continue to multiply by the day. 4 The educational curriculum might have over sighted this problem, therefore no room was created for this social ills the subjects that deals on moral that is Christian religious knowledge and the Islamic religious knowledge are gradually phasing out as teacher that staunched these courses are not being employed by some employers social studies which exposes our children to the vices and virtues in the society is only studied in the junior secondary classes. So students cannot but cope with the make believe life of affluence, flamboyances, greed which has made people especially the female trafficking a huge success in our society. 12        


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Many children fall victim to child trafficking. “Worldwide, almost 20% of all trafficking victims are children.14 However, in some parts of Africa and the Mekong region, children are the majority (up to 100% in parts of West Africa).” 15. An estimated 5.5 million children are trafficked worldwide every year (ILO Geneva, 2017). This crime of child trafficking brings globally a market value of over $12 billion each year 17. Child trafficking remains one of the problems facing Nigeria in recent times. The experiences associated with trafficking can lead to lasting psychological challenges. Children experience physical and emotional trauma associated with removal from their families, homes, and communities; their subsequent encounters involve substantial harm through physical, emotional, and sexual abuse 18. Furthermore, trafficked children are robbed of the few educational opportunities available to them and, thus, a chance to improve their future economic situation. Many children in Nigeria are forced to roam the streets and cities to do either hard or menial jobs, while others do domestic work under some hard conditions 19. They work for about nine (9) to sixteen (16) hours per day, having no time or day for rest 16 In Nigeria, children of primary school age (6 to 16 years) are mostly the target of trafficking, and when trafficked, they will be deprived of so many of their rights, including the right to acquire education. Trafficking in children, mainly for domestic service or prostitution, is a relatively new phenomenon that has received comprehensive media coverage in Nigeria but has been the subject of few research studies. Given the clandestine nature of child trafficking, accurate and reliable information on the phenomenon is scarce. Therefore, the study is motivated to analyze the prevalence and perceived effect of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and perceived effect of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Ascertain the prevalence of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA.
  2. Find out the causes of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA.
  3. Determine the effect of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions

  1. What is the prevalence of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA?
  2. What are the causes of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA?
  3. What are the effect of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The prevalence of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA is low.
  • Ha: The prevalence of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA is high.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be of great importance, as it will provide necessary information on the causes, effects and remedies to child trafficking in Nigeria. This study would be relevant to every parent in the development of Nigeria children which affect every home directly or indirectly. Therefore studying and analyzing the press coverage on issues of children is sine qua non to the overall development of Nigeria because it would serve as an insight into the conditions in which our children find themselves today and a guide for preparing them for meaningful contribution to development of the society. The findings will advance the frontier of knowledge in the field of mass communication and serve as a repository of knowledge and also contribute to the available literature in the field of mass communication. Also, it will help National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons and other related matters (NAPTIP), Government and other Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) to assess how far the press has covered issues bothering on child trafficking. Finally, it will serve as a reference material for future researchers on the topic.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study boarders on the prevalence and perceived effect of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA. Hence, this study will be delimited to Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Child:

According to United Nations Convention on the rights of the child defines a child as a human being below the age of 18years unless under the law applicable to the child

Child Trafficking:

Any monetary or non- monetary exchange of children for sexual or military exploitative which can hamper the fundamental rights of children in Nigeria.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, methodology and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, and theoretical framework. Likewise, the chapter three presents the determinants and consequences of child labor in the contemporary Nigeria. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the impact of child labor, child rights protection, and the role of stakeholders in eliminating child labor, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the prevalence and perceived effect of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the prevalence and perceived effect of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA. The study specifically was aimed to ascertain the prevalence of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA, find out the causes of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA, and determine the effect of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The prevalence of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA is high.
  2. The causes of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA includes: poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, greed, broken home
  3. The effect of child trafficking amongst mothers patronizing Obio Cottage in Obio Akpor LGA includes: disease and death,unwarranted pregnancies, psychological trauma, high school drop outs.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Programmes such as – skills and craft training acquisition, granting soft loans for businesses, agricultural training, and forming cooperative societies are recommended alleviate poverty.
  2. The provision of employment opportunities will go a long way in preventing the crime of child trafficking.
  3. Governmental agencies, media, non-governmental organizations and stakeholders should embark on massive campaigns to create awareness of the crime.
  4. Workshops and Seminars should be organized periodically to disseminate information on the crime and explain the consequences of child trafficking.
  5. Religious leaders and teachers should utilize their different platforms to alert society of the crime of child trafficking and the risks involved. These leaders can enforce laws and influence families positively against traditional practices that encourage child trafficking.
  6. The lack of severe punitive penalties against child trafficking has been a significant reason the social ill thrives. Therefore, through legislation, the government should put stiff and severe penalties for offenders, and all legal constraints militating against the prosecution of child traffickers checked.

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