Prevalence And Patterns Of Psycho Active Substance Use Among Senior Secondary School Students

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)


Abstract


The study was designed to determine prevalence and patterns of Psychoactive Substance use among Senior Secondary School Students in Dala Local Government Area (LGA), Kano State Nigeria. The study adopted a cross sectional descriptive survey design. Simple random sampling procedure was used to select two Secondary Schools out of the ten Government Senior Secondary School in Dala LGA, of Kano State. Both Schools have a combined population of 2293 students made up 1202 boys and 1096 girls. The two Schools sample were Government Secondary School Kurna Asabe for boys and Government Senior Secondary School Kuka bulukiya for girls.

The instrument for Data collection was a WHO Youth Drug Survey (WHOYDSQ) adapted questionnaire. The reliability of the instrument was established using a test re-test and computed using Pearson Moment Correlation. Coefficient of 0.82 was obtained. Data generated was subjected to descriptive statistics and analysed using Chi-square. The prevalence of psychoactive substance use among Government Senior Secondary School in Dala LGA, of Kano State shows that majority (91.1%) of the respondents have been using psychoactive substances. The commonest substances used were kola nut (87.4%), tobacco (15%) and cannabis (5.5%). more than half of the users of each of the substances take it occasionally, using them on one to five days in a month except kolanut taken on twenty or more days in a month.

They include male (52.9%), female (47.1%). Majority (68.1%) of the respondents were between 18-20 years. Most of the respondents who use psychoactive substances were introduced by their friends (60.6%), family (27.6%) and by nobody (5.7%). Most (27.9%) first use kolanut at the age less than 10 years, alcoholic beverages at the age of 11-12years (25.6%) while others like tobacco, cannabis at 19-and above years (38.3%). Major reasons for using psychoactive substance include to be sociable (25.4%) and for enjoyment (24.4%).

There was significant difference (p < 0.05) between Males and females in psychoactive substance use. The pattern of use is dependent on the type of psychoactive substances (p < 0.05). Also the psychoactive substances use based on lifetime use is dependent on the age at first use (p < 0.05). In conclusion the prevalence of substance abuse among Senior Secondary School students is high as such Government, Parents and Teachers needs to joint hands and address the problems.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Pages

  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables
  • List of Figures
  • Abstract

Chapter One

Introduction

  • Background to the Study
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Purpose of the Study
  • Specific Objectives
  • Research Questions
  • Hypothesis
  • Significance of the Study
  • Scope of the Study
  • Operational Definition of Terms

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • Conceptual Review
  • Concept of Psychoactive Substance
  • Specific Psychoactive Substances
  • Concept of Psychoactive Substance Use
  • Causes of Psychoactive substance use
  • Pattern of Psychoactive Use/Abuse
  • Problem Associated with Psychoactive Substance Use
  • Effect of Substance Abuse
  • Symptom of Psychoactive Substance Dependence
  • Treatment Modalities of Psychoactive Substance Abuse
  • Laws and Policies on Psychoactive Substance Use
  • Concept of Adolescence
  • Factors Influencing Adolescence Behavior
  • Review of Related Theories
  • Application of Social Learning Theory
  • Peer Cluster Theory
  • Application of Peer Cluster Theory to Present Research
  • Review of Empirical Studies
  • Summary of Reviewed Literature

Chapter Three

Research Method

  • Research Design
  • Area of Study
  • Population for Study
  • Sampling Procedure
  • Instrument for Data Collection
  • Validity of the Instrument
  • Reliability of the Instrument
  • Ethical Consideration
  • Procedure for Data Collection
  • Method for Data Analysis

Chapter Four

Presentation Of Results

  • Results
  • Hypothesis 1:
  • Hypothesis 2:
  • Hypothesis 3:
  • Summary of findings

Chapter Five

Discussion Of Major Findings

  • Discussion of Major Findings
  • Implication of the Study to Nursing Practice
  • Summary of the Study
  • Conclusion
  • Delimitation of The Study
  • Recommendations
  • Suggestions for Further Studies
  • References

Appendices


  • Appendix I: Youth drug survey questionnaire
  • Appendix II: Statistics of Arrests Nationwide by NDLEA (2010)
  • Appendix III: Arrest by Geopolitical Zones
  • Appendix IV: Marijuana plant
  • Appendix V: Coca Plant
  • Appendix VI: Tobacco Plant
  • Appendix VII: Opium poppy
  • Appendix VIII: Cigarette Advertising
  • Appendix IX: Method of Drug Administration
  • Appendix X: Aerial view of Dala LGA from Dala Hill

List Of Tables


  • Table 1: Respondents’ Demographic and Parental Background
  • Table 2: Prevalence of Lifetime, past Year and Current Users of Psychoactive Substances
  • Table 3: Patterns of Drug Use in Days per Month based on Current Use
  • Table 4: Respondents Age ranges at first use of various Substances based on Life time Use
  • Table 5: Admission of Drug usage in this Questionnaire
  • Table 6: Route of Drug Administration
  • Table 7: Source of Introduction to Non-Medical Drug Use
  • Table 8: Reason for non-Medical Drug Use
  • Table 9: Approval Status of Drug Use by Individual
  • Table 10: Perceived Availability of Types of Drug
  • Table 11: Respondents View on sort of people who use drug
  • Table 12: Prevalence of Life time Use of the Various Substances base on Gender (sex)
  • Table 13: Patterns of Drug use in Days per Month based on Current Use
  • Table 14: Respondents Age ranges at First Use of various Substances based on Life time

List Of Figures


  • Figure 1: Prevalence of life time use of the various substances base on gender (sex)

Chapter One


Introduction

Background to the Study

Psychoactive Substance use and dependence cause a significant burden to the individuals and societies throughout the world. The World Health Report (2010) indicated that 8.9% of the total burden of disease comes from the use of psychoactive substances. The report showed that tobacco accounted for 4.1%, alcohol 4%, and illicit drugs 0.8% of the burden of disease in 2010. Much of the burden attributable to substance use and dependence is the result of a wide variety of health and social problems. Data from the (World Health Organization, 2011) show large-scale seizures of cocaine, heroin, cannabis and amphetamine-type stimulants in different parts of the world. Availability of cocaine, heroin and cannabis depends on the level of cultivation in source countries and on the success or failure of trafficking organizations. However, even with increased levels of law enforcement activities, there always seems to be enough available to users. According to (UNODC, 2011) estimates show that about 200 million people make illicit use of one type of illicit substance or another.

Psychoactive substance use is a social problem that has spread and increased rapidly in educational institutions especially among secondary school students (Neeraja, 2011). This social problem is considered an issue of serious concern as it adversely affects the lives and performance of students involved as well as the harmonious functioning of the entire structure of the society. Use of psychoactive drugs and other associated problems are inimical to the survival and effective functioning of human societies. A significant number of untimely deaths and accidents have been linked to the activities of persons under the influence of one psychoactive drug or the other (Shelly, 2010).

Drug abuse is viewed by different authorities in various forms. Neeraja (2011) defined substance abuse as the dependence on a drug or other chemical substances leading to the effect that are detrimental to the individual’s physical and mental health or the welfare of others. According to Smelzer, Bare, Hinkle, and Cheever (2008) substance abuse is a maladaptive pattern of drug use that causes physical and emotional harm with the potential for disruption of daily life. From these definitions, it can be deduced that substance abuse is the misuse of one or more drugs which could be prescribed by a health practitioner with the intention to alter the way one feels, thinks or behaves and it is associated with consequences which include physical and emotional harm to the person.

The African Symposium (2010) viewed substance abuse as the improper use or application of drugs by a person without proper knowledge of the drugs and without due prescription from a qualified medical practitioner. This definition focuses on psychoactive drugs. All drugs can be abused to an extent that it turns into addiction when the drug user is unable to stop the use of the drugs despite the harmful effects on the user’s social, personal and economic lives. The problem of substance abuse is so grave that though it was originally conceived as the problem of a ‘select few’, it has extended beyond the usual characteristics of abusers being males, adults and urban based people, to now include females, youngsters and rural dwellers (Rocha, 2009). These abusers erroneously believe that drugs enhance their performance, put them in good mood etc. The accompanying problems of this act constitute a major threat to the well-being of the society (Ajala, 2009).

The youths in Nigeria like many countries of the world are increasingly developing addiction to psychoactive substances. The National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA, 2011) collected drugs use and abuse data from schools, records of patients admitted at mental health institutions for drug problems and interview of persons arrested for drug offences. The result showed that youths constitute the high risk group for drug trafficking and abuse. Friends and school mates account for about 90% of the source of influence of the use and abuse of various psychoactive substances. In Nigeria, alcohol and cigarette are legal substances but, the two have been discovered to cause physical damage to human bodies. It has been reported that smoking tobacco causes 90.0% of lung cancer, 30.0% of all cancers, and 80.0% of other chronic lung diseases (Sale 2008). Apart from these health implications, according to Stephen (2010), alcohol and cigarette are said to be “gatew ay drugs” to other more potent psychoactive drugs like marijuana, heroin and cocaine.

The future of any community, society, state or nation is tied to the character of the adolescent in that particular place, area or locality. It is also said that “The youth are the leaders of tomorrow”. Therefore responsible youth in the socie ty indicates responsible and brighter future of that society and also the reverse is the case.

In our society people are known to have had problems that had made them to adopt various measures to cope with such problems and live successfully within the confines of societal normative values. While some people take solace in lawful ways others resort to unlawful and unhealthy measures such as the use of drugs or psychoactive substances to the extent of abusing them, hence resulting in addiction. According to Edum (2006) the adolescent in our society are not left out in this, as they are either influenced by peer group while others do so because of the easy availability of the abused substances, others also watch on television and films and some read in books and so try to experiment to experience the effects. The effects of specific psychoactive substance vary depending on their mechanism of action, the amount consumed and the history of the user among other factors.

An ugly fact that is with us in the recent time is road traffic accident related to psychoactive substance use as well as increased crime rate in Nigeria, though a number of measures are put in place to check this menace. This includes the establishment of the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) through Degree 48 of 1989 and 33 of 1990. However, in spite of these measures people especially the adolescents continue to use psychoactive drugs illicitly with its attendant problems.

Kano state is the most populated state in Northern Nigeria (NPC, 2006). The use of psychoactive Substance in this state is the order of the day, evidence by increase in crimes of different nature, failure at examination, abandoning school and poor performance in all aspects of life etc.

Dala local government is the largest, most populated local government Area of Kano State. One myth about the youth and adolescents in Dala local government is drug and substance use evidently shown by increase in crime, abandoning and inconsistencies in school, as well as failure in examination. These reasons encouraged and motivated the desire to investigate the prevalence and pattern of psychoactive substance use among the senior government secondary school students of the largest local government area in the middle of Kano City, Dala Local Government Area of Kano State, Nigeria.


Statement of the Problem

Substance use is not a strange phenomenon; the global, regional and national dimension of it are documented. It is in recognition of the complexity of the problem that 26th June of every year has been declared as the International Day Against Abuse and illicit trafficking by United Nations. In its June, 2003 report, the United Nations Children and Education Fund (UNICEF) stated that the problem of HIV/AIDS is inextricably connected to a range of problems, among which is drug abuse among children and young people. Similarly, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) pointed out that drug abuse among “area boys” in Nigeria has been reported as the cau se of delinquent behaviours and crime.

The World Health Organization (WHO, 2010) believes that young people are more vulnerable to suffering physical, emotional and social harm from their own or other people’s drug use. It also identifies strong links between the high rate of drinking, violent sexual behaviour, traffic and other accidents and drug use. In relation to tobacco, World Health Organization also estimates that about 250 million children and adolescents who live in developing countries like Nigeria are likely to be killed by tobacco (Stephen, 2010).

The United Nations office on Drug and Crime (UNODC) partly attributes the prevalence of drug use in Nigeria to street hawking of drugs and pharmaceutical preparation. The prevalence rate of adolescent’s substance and drug abuse in our society poses a great concern to health care providers as some end up as addicts. This is quite substantial in Kano state. According to NDLEA (2010) reports, Kano State is the highest in terms of people arrested with the case of drug trafficking’ and suspected drug addicts (638 arrested suspects) followed by Katsina (411) and Rivers (347) etc.

According to NDLEA (2010) most of the people arrested in Kano state for drug addicts and trafficking are from Dala local government and neighboring communities and majority constitutes secondary school drop outs. Therefore based on the foregoing reasons, the researcher deemed it necessary to determine the prevalence and patterns of psychoactive substance use among the senior secondary school students in Dala LGA, Kano State Nigeria.


Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence and pattern of psychoactive substance use among Government senior secondary school students in Dala LGA of Kano State, Nigeria.


Objectives.

The Specific Objectives are to

  1. Identify the characteristics of students who use identified substances
  2. Establish the prevalence of substance use among the senior secondary school students in Dala Local Government.
  3. Identify the patterns of substance use among the senior secondary students.
  4. Identify the substances commonly used by the Senior Secondary students
  5. Identify the sources of influence of drug use among secondary school Students
  6. Determine the age of onset of substance use among secondary school student
  7. Identify the reasons why senior secondary school students use drugs

Research Questions

  1. What are the characteristics of students who abuse drugs?
  2. What is the prevalence rate of psychoactive substance use among the senior secondary school students in Dala Local Government, Kano State?
  3. What are the patterns of substance use among senior secondary school students?
  4. What are the substances commonly used by the senior secondary school students?
  5. What are the sources of influence of drug use among senior secondary school in Dala?
  6. What is the age of onset of substance use among secondary school student in Dala local government?
  7. What are the reasons senior secondary school students used drugs?

Hypothesis

  1. There is no significant difference between Male and Female in secondary school in drug abuse.
  2. There is no significant difference in pattern of drug abuse in days per month based on Psychoactive Substances
  3. There is no significant relationship of respondents age range at the first use based on life time use of psychoactive

Significance of the Study

The present study will reveal the prevalence, pattern, types and sources of psychoactive substances used by secondary school children. It will also reveal the characteristics of the students who use drugs and the problems students encounter as a result of drug use. These findings are essential as they will help in understanding the overall social, academic and drug problems of the students and youth in Kano state.

This finding would be useful to the parents, teachers, police and the drug law enforcement agency (NDLEA) as well as other bodies concerned with checking drug abuse problems in Dala LGA of Kano state and Nigeria at large. The findings will provide a source of reference for intervention programmes in Kano state.

It is also hoped that the findings of this study will be useful for social monitoring and alerting people to the signs of Substance use so as to enable early diagnosis and treatment of affected persons. It will also assist in planning of preventive strategies for substance use in our secondary schools across the country.

The finding of this study will be useful to future researchers on the topic, as they will build on the strength and limitations of the study. And the finding of the study may spur them to form anti-psychoactive substance use clubs and associations. The activities of these groups can reach the wider society and will assist in curbing the menace of substance abuse in Dala LGA, Kano State and the country at large. The present study wills no doubt, spur interest for further studies.


Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is delimited to on Government Senior Secondary School Students in Dala LGA of Kano State. The study will be delimited to prevalence and pattern of psychoactive substance use among Government Senior secondary school student in Dala LGA, Kano state.


Operational Definition of Terms

Psychoactive Substance:

This refers to any substance which may be a drug or not but has the property of altering the mood in form of stimulation or distortion of perception.

Psychoactive substance use:

Refers to the use of any substance which may be drugs or not that has the property of altering the mood in form of stimulation or distortion of perception

Drug Abuse:

Refers to the illegal or excessive drug use; deliberate use of an illegal drug or of too much of a prescribed drugs

Prevalence of psychoactive substance use:

Refers to the proportion of a population found to have used a psychoactive substance or drugs.

Pattern of psychoactive substance use:

Is the process addicts use which include Modes of Taking, frequencies and Style of psychoactive substance abuse etc

Source of influence:

Those factors that introduce student to the drugs or substance use e.g peer group, family etc.

Secondary school students:

Are students in the second phase of secondary education of 6-3-3-4 education system in Nigeria who finishes primary school.

Senior Secondary School Students:

Refers to the students in SSI, SSII and SSIII of secondary school education system in Nigeria.

Non Medical drug use:

This is improper or illegal use of drugs or taking it in excessive doses without any medical reasons.


Chapter Five


This chapter presents the discussion of the major findings, implication of major findings, limitation of the study, summary of the study, conclusion, recommendations and suggestion for further studies.


Discussion of Major Findings

The major findings from the study were discussed with respect to the specific objectives, research questions and hypothesis set for the study in relation to findings from previous related studies. The discussion was done under research questions for better understanding.

Prevalence rate of psychoactive substance use

The result indicates that most of the respondents have taken one or more substances and according to the finding kolanut is the most widely used substance both for current use, lifetime use and past year used. The overall prevalence of psychoactive substance use was 10.3% for current use and 14.1% for life time use.

The above results agree with the study carried out by Ekott (2005) that more students from Oyo use one substance or the other mostly kolanut and other psychoactive substances, It is in conformity with the survey conducted by Kwada (2007), which found that most of secondary school students in northern Kaduna has used an illegal drugs at least once in their life and most of senior secondary schools students in Kafanchan have used drugs and alcohol.

Psychoactive substance use is a social problem that has spread and increased rapidly in educational institutions especially among secondary school students. This social problem is considered an issue of serious concern as it adversely affects the lives and performance of students involved as well as the harmonious functioning of the entire structure of the society. Use of psychoactive drugs and other associated problems are inimical to the survival and effective functioning of human societies.

Commonly used Psychoactive substances

The substance most commonly used by the student is kolanut follow by Tobacco product and then caffeine and cannabis the least is cocaine. The most frequently consumed psychoactive substance by the respondents is kolanuts. This is because kolanut has several roles in social functions such as marriage ceremony, naming ceremony and other festivals in Hausa land. As such it is highly socially recognized. Another reason for kolanut use is its ability to increase mental activity and alertness to keeping the respondents awake and alert (Karch, 2002). Cigarette another highly addictive stimulant was consumed by the respondents, Cigarette also makes the consumer to concentrate and at the same time it is used to belong to peer group or imitate other adults they admire. Both cigarette and kolanut are cheaper and readily available

This agreed with a study by Abasiobong, Atting, Bassey and Ekott, (2005). Result shows that more student from uyo 37(31.1%) used kola nuts, 54(45.4%) used sedative while more students from Eket, 47(34.8%) used tobacco cigrattes, 76(56.3%) used alcohol, 25(15.6%) indian hemp,5(3.7%) used cocaine and 1(0.7%) used heroine. The finding of this study confirms the presence and use of psychoactive substances in varying proportions among students.

In other studies by Idris and Sambo (2005). The result shows that most Students use one or more substance or the other.

In another study carried out by Azaiza, Shoham , Bar-Ham, Burger, Abu-Ash . The result indicates that 20% consumed alcohol in the past year and 10% uses illegal substances of various types. These findings provide an indication of the extent of substance use among Druze secondary Students.

This is in conformity with the studies conducted by Eneh and Stanley (2004The commonly used drugs were alcohol, kolanut, tobacco/cigarettes, in order of decreasing frequency 651 (65%), 611 (63.1%) and 595 (61%). The least used was cocaine 45 (4.3%) while no student used any hallucinogen.

In a similar study conducted by Eneh & Stanley (2004) the result shows that, the commonly used psychoactive substance were kolanut alcohol and tobacco/cigarettes in order of decreasing frequency 65%, 63% and 61%.

Marijuana is another commonly used substances often reported, this is likely due to its sedative effects, mental slowness, tiredness, anxiety, paranoia and euphoria. It was warns that long term effects of marijuana used leads to subtle and selective impairments of a specific higher cognitive function, and impairs driving skills.

The respondents reported using rubber solution and petroleum. These substances are dilirients which produces mind altering effects by depressing the central nervous system.

Their effects are capable of claiming the life of an individual. Damage to the central nervous system can affect the mental and physical capabilities of the users.

Patterns of Psychoactive Substance use.

The results shows that among the current users of the substances more than half of the users of each of the substances take it occasionally, using them on 1-5 day in a month except amphetamines or other stimulant like kolanut. On the other hand almost one quarter of users of each of the substances take it on 20 or more days in a month.

The above result agrees with Shuttlewarth (2005) that most people psychoactive Substance in different ways. Some smoke tobacco, Indian hemp and chew kolanut. In a similar study conducted by Eneh and Stanley (2004). The commonly used drugs were alcohol, kolanut, tobacco/cigarettes, in order of decreasing frequency. The least used was cocaine while no student used any hallucinogen. There were significant sex differences in the use of morphine, petrol, latex (glue) and cocaine. They were used by boys only. Cannabis, kolanut and tobacco were also significantly more commonly used by boys. According to their finding the commonly used drugs among females were alcohol and hypnosedatives respectively. The use of cocaine, petrol/latex (glue), cannabis, morphine/ pethidine and hyponsedative were more likely to have commenced in the secondary schools than the use of kolanut and alcohol which started earlier in life due to parental and cultural influences. This means that some psychoactive substances are consumed orally. Marijuana and alcohol are also taken orally. However rubber solution and petroleum are vehicle chemical substances and hence can be sniffed.

Characteristics of students who abused substances

The results presented reveals that male respondents in this study were majority follow by female were. Majority of them are within age range of 18-20 years. This indicates that majority of them are adolescent and this is the major age of senior secondary school students. Also this is a sensitive period of an individual life risk for abusing substance. Usually young boys & females at this age learnt positive or negative behavior. Majority of the respondents are from SSS3 then SSS2 and the least are from SSS1. Majority of the respondents live with their parents or other relatives while the rest live with their friend. Majority of respondents Father highest level of Education were secondary school or high then university or post secondary school. Some of respondents fathers have not done formal school. Majority of respondent mothers attended secondary school and have no formal schooling. Few of them attended university or post secondary school. This is because formal education was not formally accepted among Hausa Northerners especially in the past years.

In Similar studies carried out by Effanga (2003). Majority were from low socio economic level while few were from high and average socio-economic levels. The main finding revealed that socio-economic status of students has no significant influence on students rate of drug abuse

Source of influences of drug use

According to the studies. Majority of the respondents were introduced to drugs use by friends. Other notable source of introduction to drug use are family members . According to (Agwogie, 2013) friends are one of the most significant reasons why people start abusing drugs. Members of the peer group are deceived into believing that drugs are used to solve emotional problems. They take it initially to enjoy, to relax and to be more sociable.

In other studies by Idris and Sambo(2005). The result shows that most use one or more substance or the other. The commonest push factor is to experiment and also shows statistically significant relationship between family background and psychoactive used.

According to (Agwogie, 2012) “cases have been repor ted of the children who started abusing drugs by snatching the drugs from either their mothers or their fathers.For parents who smoke cigarette, the children start with the remnant dropped by their father. From there they graduated to removing cigarette sticks from their father pack. Before you know it the child had started smoking cannabis, the social acceptance of the offending substance is a key issue in substance use. Hanson (2010) noted that teen smoking accounts for 85-90% of new smokers. Increasing evidence have shown that young people learn not only from real people (such as friend, parents and family members) but also from characters whose live they witness and admit through the media. This agree with Peer Cluster theory by Oetting and Beauvais, 1986; Swaim, 1998; Oetting, Edwards, Kelly, & Beauvais, 1997. Stressing the importance of peer relationships in influencing character, the peer cluster theory suggests that peers have a direct influence of adolescent drug use

Age of onset of substance use

Majority of the respondents first used stimulant (kolanut) at the age of less than 10yrs, alcoholic beverage at the age of 11-12years while others psychoactive substance like tobacco, cannabis cocaine, hallucinogen, tranquilizers and sedative at the age of 15 -19years

This studies agree with the one conducted by Eneh and Stanley (2004) which shows that majority start using one of the substances at the age ranges mostly between 10-14 years.

It doesn’t matter at which age somebody can take kolanut in Hausa land. According to Agwogie (2012) drug use may be initiated at any age but mostly initiated at adolecent age (11-18 years) it is not unlikely that one started abusing drug within this age range. This stage of life naturally is the period of adventure, excitement, and provide a new thrill to young people. This possibly exposes one to the danger of experimenting with drugs.

Reasons for use of Psychoactive Substances

The findings show that among the respondents, the major reasons for using drugs include to be sociable and for enjoyment. Religious and customs is the least considered for the reason for Psychoactive Substance use. Other include Curiosity, treatment of health disorder, relief of psychological stress, relief of cold, hunger or fatique, to be accepted by others and to improve walk performance. According (Agwogie, 2012,) most abusers possibly started abusing illicit drugs after taking social drugs like alcohol, cigarette and kolanut. They are also called gate way drugs. The desire for a “b etter feel” possibly made them to go for more dangerous substances of abuse.

In similar studies conducted by Eneh and Stanley (2004). The common reasons were to relieve stress, feel good and parental influence in decreasing frequency. The least was to sleep. Among those that used alcohol, the common reasons for the use of alcohol were to relieve stress, to feel good, parental influence and availability. The various reasons for using kolanuts were to keep awake, parental influence, and availability. Kolanut was the only substance used to keep awake. The common reasons for the use of tobacco/cigarette were to relieve stress, school friends’ influence, and to feel good. Some of the students had no reason for the use of cigarettes. Only drugs like cannabis, petrol, latex (glue), cocaine and tobacco/ cigarette were used by a few students to enhance sex.

Hypothesis 1:

There is no significant relationship between male and female in secondary schools in abuse of drugs.

The study indicates that males are more involved in drugs abuse in life time use. Cocaine hallucinogen, heroine and opiate were not used by any of the female respondents. In addition more males than females have used all the substances as shown by the study. Therefore the null hypothesis is rejected. This result also agreed with a study carried out by Effanga (2003). The main finding revealed that more boys admitted that they are involved in drug abuse than the girls. The finding also reveals that there is a significant relationship between a student’s sex and the consumption level of drug. That being girl or a boy can determine the level of which one may be involved in drug abuse. The result shows that more boys admitted that they are involved in drug abuse than the girls.

According to (Agogule, 2012) generally men abuse more drugs than women. This is basically due to hormonal as well as social factor such as sex typing. For example, men are more socially accepted when seen smoking cigarette than women. Women who indulge in this practice are in most cases seen as doing what is socially reserved for men.

Hypothesis 2:

There is no significant relationship of patterns of drug use in days per month based on current used of psychoactive substances.

The pattern in days per month based on the current use depend on the psychoactive substances. This implies that amphetamine or other stimulant like kolanut is confirmed statically to be mostly abused.

The above result agrees with Osayande (2011) findings that showed most people smoke tobacco and chew kolanut. This means some psychoactive substances are consumed orally. Marijuana and alcohol are also taken orally (Martin 2010). However rubber solution and petroleum are volatile chemical substances (Agwogie, 2010) and hence can be sniffed. Majority of the respondents use psychoactive substance daily, mostly kolanut and cigarette.

Hypothesis 3:

There is no significant relation in respondent’s age range at first use substance based on life time use of psychoactive substances.

The psychoactive substances based on lifetime use is dependent on the age of first used. Majority of the respondents first used amphetamines (kolanut) at the age less than 10years, alcoholic beverages at the age of 11-12years while others first used psychoactive substance like tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogen, tranquilizers sedative at the age of 15-19years. Agwogie, (2012) stated that drug abuse may be initiated at any age but mostly initiated at adolescent age (11-18years). Adolescent age therefore becomes a predisposing factor to drug abuse.

Adolescent tends to seek adventure, excitement and a new thrill and do not always realize the dangers inherent in trying out drug. Most often the attraction is the need to be accepted by members of their peers as identified under peer group.


Implication of the study to Nursing practice

As observed from the study, the prevalence and patterns of psychoactive substance use in present study is in increasing rate. Nurses constitute a large number of health care workers in hospitals where patient with drugs abuse/addiction are admitted. Therefore nurses should health educate patients and the general public on the prevention, predisposing factors and signs and symptoms of drug dependence.

Nurses also should educate victim of drug abuse on how to stop the drug and also assist in caring drugs addicts in our societies.


Summary of the study

The study was designed to determine prevalence and patterns of drugs abuse in senior secondary school students in Dala Local Govt. Area of Kano state. Literature were reviewed in the areas of specific psychoactive substance and problems associated with their use. Other areas reviewed also were causes of psychoactive substance use, Laws and policies on psychoactive substance use and some empirical studies. Data were collected using WHO Youth Drug Survey questionnaire and the information obtained was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistic.

The findings of the study reveals that, the male respondents constituted 1036(52.9% )while the female were 921(47.1%) of the sample. Their age ranges were 15 – 23yrs and the respondents comprises senior secondary school students in SS1, SS2, SS3, respectively and the

schools were government secondary school Kurna Asabe and government girl secondary school kuka bulukiya in Dala local government kano state. Majority of the respondents live with their parents and other relatives.632(32%). Majority of the respondents fathers highest education level was secondary school or higher school. Majority of the respondents 1035(52.9%) had their mothers highest education level as secondary school.

The study reveals that most widely used psychoactive substances were kola nut, 1783(91.1%) for both current use, past year use and lifetime use. Other commonly used psychoachive substances were tobacco product 303(15.5%,) cannabis 107(5.5%,), alcoholic beverages 82(4.2%), caffeine 133(6.8%), sniffing substances to get high 127(6.5% )and others like gadagi, kwaya and smooth 703(35.9%.) In the same vein heroine is least used substances. Also the study shows that among the current users of the substances more than half of the users of each of the substances take it occasionally. Majority of the respondents fisrt used kola nut at the age less than 10 years, alcoholic beverages at the age of 11-12 years while others at the age of 15-19 years. 467(60%) of the respondents were introduced to drug abuse by influence of friends, other notable introduction to drug abuse is family members 213(27.6 %.) The major reasons for using drugs abuse include to be sociable 342(25.4%) and for enjoyment 329(24.4%).


Conclusion

The Study has established Prevalence and the Patterns of Psychoactive Substance use among Senior Secondary School Students in Dala Local Govt. Area Kano State. Two schools were used one for males and the other for females respectively.

The study has also revealed that psychoactive substance commonly used by student include kolanuts, cigarette, marijuana, rubber solution and alcohol. The finding reveals that most of the respondents were influence by friends and some relatives and their major reasons in indulging in drug abuse is to be sociable and some for enjoyment. Oral and Sniffing were the two major route used by the respondents.

The study further shows that, it is difficult for the respondent to get most of the abused drug and they never approved people of less than 18 years to abuse drugs.


Limitation of the Study

The study was delimited to government secondary schools Dala only. It could not be extended to other private institutions due to time constraints and limited resources.


Recommendation

  1. There should be education of parents on adjustment process of their children
  2. Also political, religious and traditional leaders need to be involved in educating the public against this menace.
  3. There is also need for an intervention by the government and non government organizations on preventive strategies of drug abuse. Government should ensure the enforcement of anti psychoactive substance laws. Government should be encouraged to established drug treatment centre in our hospitals. Also more health worker should be trained on how to identify addicts, prevent and treat victims of drug abuse and also to educate the public
  4. The media should continue to give publicity on psychoactive substance use and its consequences.
  5. Family should be encouraged to monitor the behavior of their children especially adolescent one. Also there should be collaboration between teachers and parents on monitoring strategies of the secondary school student both at home and in schools.

Suggestion for further study

Based on the findings from the study, the researcher hereby suggests that further research be made on the:

  1. Prevalence and patterns of substance abuse in other local government across the state
  2. Prevalence and patterns of substance abuse in private schools in the state
  3. Prevalence and patterns of substance abuse in tertiary institutions in the state
  4. Prevalence and patterns of substance abuse in private schools in other states in Nigeria.

Prevalence And Patterns Of Psycho Active Substance Use Among Senior Secondary School Students


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Prevalence And Patterns Of Psycho Active Substance Use Among Senior Secondary School Students


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