The Prevalence Of Malaria Seropositive And Seronegative Population Among Kwara State University, Malete Students

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The Prevalence Of Malaria Seropositive And Seronegative Population Among Kwara State University, Malete Students


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1. Background of the study

Malaria is a potentially deadly disease characterized by cyclical bouts of fever with muscle stiffness, shaking and sweating (WHO, 2000). Macleod (1998) also stated that malaria is a parasitic infection transmitted to humans through the bites of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. The name “malaria” is derived from the Italian words Mal (bad) and aria (air). It arose originally because the citizens of Rome thought that the disease was contracted by breathing the bad air of the Pontine Marshes (Garnham, 1966). It is a vector borne infectious disease caused by a eukaryotic protista of the genus Plasmodium (Akinleye, 2009). Hornby (2007) defined malaria infection as an infectious disease due to the presence of parasitic Protozoa of the genus Plasmodium (P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale or P. vivax) within the red blood cells. The disease is confined to tropical and subtropical areas. Of this four common species that cause malaria, the most serious type is P. falciparum malaria; it is life-threatening (Hay et al., 2004).

Malaria is a major health threatening disease, which results in approximately 200 – 300 million clinical cases and 1-3 million deaths each year worldwide (Hay et al., 2004). Malaria transmission is intense and stable in Nigeria with associated economic losses estimated to be about 132 billion Naira (Snow et al., 2005). In Nigeria and rest of endemic Africa, the bulk of malaria episodes are attributable to P. falciparum with an estimated 28 million cases and 38 000 deaths in 2011, malaria remains a significant public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa (Yadav et al., 2012). In Nigeria, 52.8% of Nigerian population tested positive for falciparum based on microscopy examination (Kochar et al., 2009). According to Kolawole et al. (2014), research in university of Ilorin teaching Hospital (UITH) of patients who have malaria (P. falciparum) infection, 58% of patients were found to be positive with malaria parasite density ranging from 200 parasite/μl to 800 parasite/μl. Malaria is a febrile illness characterized by fever and related symptoms; however it is very important to remember that malaria is not a simple disease of fever, chills and rigors (Kolawole et al., 2014). The number of a typical presentation of malaria has gradually increased during the past few decades (Akinleye, 2009). Malaria can present with non-specific symptoms like headache, fatigue, joint pain, vomiting, abdominal discomfort, myalgia, anaemia followed by fever to severe complications like jaundice, acute renal failure, anaemia, shock, convulsions and coma (Hussian et al., 2012). These symptoms can be acute and chronic depending on the extent of malaria (falciparum) infection and also the complication involve (Kochar et al., 2009). Hence the need for prompt diagnosis and differentiation from other similar symptomatic infection. This study is an attempt to investigate the seropostive and seronegative population among Kwara State University, Malete students.


1.2 Statement of problem

Malaria infection is a major public health challenge for many countries in the world (especially developing countries e.g Nigeria) causing tremendous high rates of morbidity and mortality (Jennison, 2015). The Plasmodium falciparum species infections are responsible for the majority of the human severe malaria burden worldwide (Greenwood and Mutabingwa, 2002). This species is found worldwide in tropical and sub-tropical regions. It is estimated that every year approximately one million people are killed by species, especially in Nigeria where this species predominates (Greenwood and Mutabingwa, 2002; Abdel-gadir, 2015).

This parasite causes a lot of harvoc to the body such as destruction of red blood cells, leading to the clinical signs and symptoms such as fever, flu-like, chills etc. diarrhea, and anemia and jaundice due to loss of red blood cells unless treated quickly the disease can kill within 24 hours (Wells et al., 2009). Methods used in order to prevent the spread of disease, or to protect individuals in areas where malaria is endemic, include prophylactic drugs, mosquito eradication and the prevention of mosquito bites (Kochar et al., 2009). The continued existence of malaria in an area requires a combination of high human population density, high mosquito population density and high rates of transmission from humans to mosquitoes and from mosquitoes to humans (Akinleye, 2009). If any of these is lowered sufficiently, the parasite will sooner or later disappear from community (Snow et al., 2005). Many states, communities, institutions, seeing an increasing number of imported malaria cases owing to extensive travel and migration and little or no information is available as regarding the seroprevalence of malaria parasite in Kwara State University, Malete. Hence the need for the seroprevalence study to estimate the proportion (percentage) of student who seropositive and those seronegative of malaria infection.


1.3 Justification

It has been established that people of all ages are affected by malaria infection in sub-saharan Africa, especially Nigeria which bear the heaviest burden of malaria attack which is either treated at home or in the hospital. Early recognition and appropriate treatment can go a long way in minimizing the outcome of the disease. Previously, WHO (2014) has advocated for the management of malaria infections in the homes, institutions, work place, campuses should be done before seeking help from any near by health out let. In the recent time WHO urges endemic countries and malaria partners to adopt diagnostic testing, treatment and surveillance for malaria (WHO, 2011). Endemic countries and stakeholders should ensure that every suspected malaria case is tested and that every confirmed case be treated with a quality-assured anti malarial drug, and that every malaria case be tracked in a surveillance system. Due to this it became necessary to verify and compare the relationship between practice, socio-economic demographic characteristics and malaria infection serology status. There is paucity of information or no previous data on the seropositive or seronegative prevalence of malaria among Kwara State University, Malete students. Hence the significance of this research.


1.4 Aim

To determine the prevalence of malaria seropositive and seronegative population among Kwara State University, Malete students.


1.5 Research objectives

Specific objectives

  1. To determine the prevalence of malaria infection among Kwara State University (Kwasu) student. This was done using rapid diagnostic test strip (RDT) to check for positivity and negativity among the populace.
  2. To access the distribution of malaria according to aged and gender of the students.
  3. To access the sensitivity and specificity of serology.
  4. To identify the most common form of Plasmodium spp (falciparum, vivax, malariae or ovale) among the populace of Kwara State University (Kwasu) student. This will the done by microscopic examination of the thin and thick film made with the blood sample collected.
  5. To identify possible associations between the practices, socioeconomic characteristics of the students and their malaria serological status. This was done using questionnaire and conclusion was made from the questionnaire.

1.6 Research hypotheses

Null hypotheses

  1. There is no significance in both gender and aged of the students

1.7 Significance of the study

This study will provide baseline data that will serve as a heuristic tool for stakeholders involved in malaria eradication to meet their objectives of the Roll Back Malaria programme. This will also provide also a guide or a rationale for the sales of antimalarial drugs and treatment of malaria especially Plasmodium falciparum from epidemiological surveillance data. Also this study will contribute relevant data to the Local Government, Federal Ministry of Health and their developmental agencies on the drug status in the region, It would also go a long way to remind practitioners on the current status of the drug in the region in annual workshops or seminars.


Chapter Five


5.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

This study determined the prevalence of malaria seropositive and seronegative population among Kwara State University, Malete students. Related literature review was made considering scholars explanation of the subject matter. Relevant data for the study was generated through laboratory experiment conducted by the researcher. Two research hypotheses were formulated and the hypotheses stated that (1) there is no significant difference in malaria seropositive individual among Kwara State University Students on the basis of age, and (2) there is no significant difference in malaria seropositive individual among Kwara State University Students on the basis of academic status. The hypotheses were tested using chi-square and t-test statistics. Decisions were taken in the study based at 0.05 level of significance.

This chapter contains the discussion of findings, conclusion of the study, recommendations for relevant stakeholders and suggestions for further studies.


Discussion of Findings

The study determined the prevalence of malaria seropositive and seronegative population among Kwara State University, Malete students. This study found a significant difference in malaria seropositive individual among Kwara State University Students on the basis of age and this corroborates the work of Simonsen (1999) who reported that case of malaria is among adult above the age of 30. This result corroborates the work of WHO (2013) who reported that malaria mortality rates of adult was about 47% globally and by 54% in the WHO African Region between 2000 and 2013. This means that ones’ age level determines whether one will have malaria or not. Furthermore, this study found at significant difference in malaria seropositive individual among Kwara State University Students on the basis of gender. This result supported the earlier work of Duffy (2007) who found that women and girls are more susceptible to malaria.

On the final note, this study found a non- significant difference in malaria seropositive individual among Kwara State University Students on the basis of academic status. This means that academic level does not determine whether one will have malaria or not. With respect to the two methods adopted in analyzing malaria paracitaemia, microscopy seems to the most effective.


5.1 Conclusion

This determined the prevalence of malaria seropositive and seronegative population among Kwara State University, Malete students. Therefore based on the findings from this study, it was concluded that;

  1. There is significant difference in malaria seropositive individual among Kwara State University Students on the basis of age
  2. There is no significant difference in malaria seropositive individual among Kwara State University Students on the basis of academic status.

5.2 Recommendation

Based on the results of data study and tested hypotheses, it is hereby recommended that:

  1. There should be roll back malaria campaign by the Government and medial so as to further reduce the rate of malaria in our society.
  2. There should be orientation for our youth and young adults on the need to frequently check their malaria status to avoid malaria incidence.
  3. Medical practitioners and medical laboratory scientists should be sensitized on the effectiveness of Microscopy in the determination of malaria seropositivity or seronegativity.

5.3 Suggestions for Further Studies

This study determined the prevalence of malaria seropositive and seronegative population among Kwara State University, Malete students. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher recommends;

  1. Dynamics of Drug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Areas of Seasonal Malaria Transmission
  2. Factors affecting mothers’ health care seeking behaviour for childhood illnesses in a rural Nigerian setting
  3. Knowledge and practices for preventing severe malaria in Nigeria.
  4. Malaria control and treatment strategies among school children in Ilorin, Nigeria.

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