The Prevalence Of Home Accidents Among Children Less Than Five (05) Years In Edo State

Project and Seminar Material for Home Economics

The Prevalence Of Home Accidents Among Children Less Than Five (05) Years In Edo State


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the prevalence of home accidents among children less than five (05) years in Owan West local government of Edo State. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain extent children less than five (05) years encounter home accidents in Edo state, ascertain the forms of home accidents prevalent and commonly encountered among children less than five (05) years in Edo State, find out whether neglectful parenting pattern contribute to the prevalence of home accidents among children less than five (05) years in Edo State, and find out whether the inability to provide regular child-friendly environment contribute to the prevalence of home accidents among children less than five (05) years in Edo State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of selected parents in Owan West local government of Edo State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent children less than five (05) years encounter home accidents in Edo state is high. The study also revealed that the forms of home accidents prevalent and commonly encountered among children less than five (05) years in Edo State includes: fall, burn, drowning strain/sprain, poisoning, mechanical hits, cut/pierces, and frosting. Therefore, it is recommended that parents and caretakers should ensure their children safety by creating a clear ergonomic setting within play areas of children, and should get involved in their children play in order to ensure safety. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Domestic injuries are harmful events that occur in the home usually among children as they are less aware of the dangers than adults. Other vulnerable groups include women, the elderly, and the mentally, physically and socially challenged persons who spend most of their days in the home. Domestic injuries could be sustained either indoors or outdoors and they range from falls, burns, drowning, animal bites, poisoning, electrocution, eye injuries and choking accidents.

Accident is anything that happens without a person’s awareness and can cause harm. Whereas home accident in under five years is anything that happens to children of such age bracket without their initial awareness, or their caretakers awareness and results into physical, psychological or physiological harm.

Childhood accidents and injuries is a global problem, especially in low and middle income countries. Deaths due to home accidents in under five years children were 3.4 times higher in such countries compared to their developed counterpart. In 2013 alone, 324,000 children from 0-59 months are estimated to have succumbed to home accidents and injuries worldwide ( Xiong L, 2017). In some countries like china, Program for child development 2010-2020 targeted reducing home based accidents and injuries by one sixth of 2010 level, Sweden a well considers childhood injuries and accidents as a common public health problem that society as whole must control, and implement societal based approach in promotion of children safety. The program include development of surveillance of public information and education, environmental improvement,, and product safety development. It is well believed that injury survillarence is a pre-requisite in curbing home accidents.(Lancet, 2015). Children have a very limited ability to react quickly and properly in an emergency situation as well as they acquire little control over their environment, which increase the risk of accidents and death (Peeden,2009).

In New Zealand only, the rate of hospitalization of children aged 0-4 years from an injury sustained from home between 2000 -2010 was 737 per 100,000 populations per year. The most frequent cause of hospitalization being falls, scalds, poisoning and piercing/cuts. (Gulliver, 2015). Unfortunately, most of countries in both developed and developing world lack a comprehensive national profiles on home injuries not only in children under five years , but also in general population, hence to develop effective targeted accident and injury prevention initiatives had remains at stall.( Kool B, 2011).

Home accidents differ from country to another due to many factors such as economic and cultural factors. Although accidental injuries to infants and young children are often serious; they are generally avoidable with appropriate information and safe practices. Young children are mostly prone to injuries due to their inborn quest to discover their world coupled with their inability to notice the dangers of their activities. While young children learn through practice, minor injuries are inevitable. However, providing a safe environment in addition to close supervision and setting the limits of safety can help limit the risks associated with injuries.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Injuries related to home accidents are gradually becoming health problems in our communities. It is argued that although home accidents are unexpected and unintentional, mothers feel remorseful when they occur. Yet, when they occur, it does not take away shameful feeling of these mothers (Olutayo, 2013).

Globally about one million children die from preventable injuries and accidents every year (World Bank 2015). Under-five children are at high risk for many accidents such as burn, fall, accidental poisoning and drowning. Studies in four low-income countries found that 65% of childhood burns had occurred in and around home. WHO’s report about childhood injuries stated that, injuries among under-five children increase with age between one to five years (Khasnabis, 2009). Home accident destroys the health, lives and independence of many Nigerians, yet home accident prevention receives little or no attention.

In many situations children are continually exposed to danger and passive protection will never be enough. Protection must therefore be built in to help the child fight off these dangers. Again, the child himself must be made acquainted to the risk or dangers he faces as well as measures to avoid attracting unnecessary risk. Lesperance et al. (2007) observed that most injuries can be prevented and that people tend to blame their injuries on «accidents.» According to the author the cause of most accidents are actually the results of predictable and preventable occurrences.

In sub-Saharan Africa, most countries lack published reports on prevalence and incidence of home accidents in under five years children. However a few with clear published reports like northern Sudan, a study done from its capital city Khartoum on home based accidents in under five and predisposing factors found prevalence at 10.3%. (Mohammed et al 2015). In view of the above, this study seek to assess the prevalence of home accidents among children less than five (05) years in Edo State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of home accidents among children less than five (05) years in Edo State. Specifically, the study will;

  1. Ascertain extent children less than five (05) years encounter home accidents in Edo state.
  2. Ascertain the forms of home accidents prevalent and commonly encountered among children less than five (05) years in Edo State.
  3. Find out whether neglectful parenting pattern contribute to the prevalence of home accidents among children less than five (05) years in Edo State.
  4. Find out whether the inability to provide regular child-friendly environment contribute to the prevalence of home accidents among children less than five (05) years in Edo State.

1.4 Research Question

The following questions have been prepared for this study

  1. What is the extent children less than five (05) years encounter home accidents in Edo state?
  2. What are the forms of home accidents prevalent and commonly encountered among children less than five (05) years in Edo State?
  3. Does neglectful parenting pattern contribute to the prevalence of home accidents among children less than five (05) years in Edo State?
  4. Does the inability to provide regular child-friendly environment contribute to the prevalence of home accidents among children less than five (05) years in Edo State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The prevalence of home accidents among children less than five (05) years in Edo State is low.
  • Ha: There is high prevalence of home accidents among children less than five (05) years in Edo State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be of great importance to curb down injuries, deaths and disabilities caused by home accidents if utilized by following sectors in nursing.

Findings from this research study will help to generate knowledge on assessment for ergonomic safety in homes and other inhabited facilities where children can be found.

The research study will generate evidence based strategies that can be educated to scholars and members of community regarding accident prevention among under five years children, thereby reducing child mortality rate as result of eradicating accident related deaths.

The research findings will help site out areas for research regarding home based accidents, their common associated factors and possible methods of prevention in order to reduce injury, deaths and disability created by these accidents.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on the assessing the prevalence of home accidents among children less than five (05) years in Edo State. The study will be carried out in Owan West local government of Edo State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Accident

Accident is anything that happens without a person’s awareness and can cause harm

Domestic Injuries

Domestic injuries are harmful events that occur in the home usually among children as they are less aware of the dangers than adults.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the prevalence of home accidents among children less than five (05) years in Owan West local government of Edo State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the prevalence of home accidents among children less than five (05) years in Owan West local government of Edo State. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain extent children less than five (05) years encounter home accidents in Edo state, ascertain the forms of home accidents prevalent and commonly encountered among children less than five (05) years in Edo State, find out whether neglectful parenting pattern contribute to the prevalence of home accidents among children less than five (05) years in Edo State, and find out whether the inability to provide regular child-friendly environment contribute to the prevalence of home accidents among children less than five (05) years in Edo State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were selected parents in Owan West local government of Edo State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The extent children less than five (05) years encounter home accidents in Edo state is high.
  2. The forms of home accidents prevalent and commonly encountered among children less than five (05) years in Edo State includes: fall, burn, drowning strain/sprain, poisoning, mechanical hits, cut/pierces, and frosting.
  3. Neglectful parenting pattern contribute to the prevalence of home accidents among children less than five (05) years in Edo State.
  4. The inability to provide regular child-friendly environment contribute to the prevalence of home accidents among children less than five (05) years in Edo State.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. There is need to intensify capacity building in injury and accident prevention at all level ranging from health facilities, community extension workers and at family levels in order to create adequate awareness on dangers of childhood accidents and injuries, as well as awareness on child friendly environment so as to curb down childhood injuries.
  2. A clear and evidence based health education topics on childhood injury and under five years injury prevention be emphasized in all departments that involve child health care in order to create awareness among mothers and caretakers so as to impact the community with knowledge and skills that can help in order to create children safety and child safe environment is recommended.
  3. Parents and caretakers should ensure their children safety by creating a clear ergonomic setting within play areas of children, and should get involved in their children play in order to ensure safety.
  4. Parents and caretakers should refrain from habits of leaving the care and safety of under fives to minors who are themselves physically weak, liaises fair, and curious about anything hence end up exposing under fives to dangers and accidents than ensuring safety.

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