Prevalence Of Gastrointestinal Parasites Of Goats In The Farm Project

Project and Seminar Material for Animal Science

Prevalence Of Gastrointestinal Parasites Of Goats In The Farm Project


Abstract


A total of 35 faecal samples of goats which comprised of twenty-one (21) matured female goat, two (2) matured male goat, five (5) female growers, five (5) male growers and two (2) castrated goat were collected from the University of Benin farm project . The faecal samples collected were analyzed for gastrointestinal parasitic infection using floatation and sedimentation method. From the result obtained, 26 (74.3%) samples were found positive for gastrointestinal parasitic helminth. The range of parasites found in this present study included five species of intestinal helminths which are; Strongyloides sp 17 (48.57%), Haemonchus contortus 1(2.86%),Trichuris ovis 1 (2.86%), Moniezia expansa 6 (17.14%), Fasciola hepatica 1 (2.86%). Nine 9(25.71%) of the goats examined were free of gastrointestinal helminth. This study revealed strongyloides and monieza expansa as the most common parasites of the goats examined and the prevalence of this gastrointestinal parasites could lead to great loss and decrease in productivity of these ruminants.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Animal agriculture is an indispensable pre-requisite towards the sustainability of human development because of food provision, employment generation, etc. Apart from serving as source of food for humans, animal agriculture is also important in providing non – food materials such as hides, skin, wool and feathers which are in turn used as raw materials for manufacturing other valuable products. Ajayi, e al (1998) Livestock production is faced with a number of constrains, which on the long run results in low productivity and reduce profitability. Anon, (2006).

According to Biu E.O and Leeflang P (2006), among these constrains are diseases; Animal diseases constitute a major obstacle to economic development as well as poising health, risk to livestock productivity and profitability, inadequate consumption of protein of animal origin, poverty, unemployment, low contribution to the nation’s gross domestic product among others.

Parasitism is a primary cause of production losses which results in mortality, reduction in weight gain, low fertility, losses in most livestock – producing countries of the world. Fabiyi, (1987)

Gastrointestinal parasites have been noted as major constraint to ruminants’ productivity in terms of pathology and economic importance. Gates et al.,, and Wescott et al.,(2003). These parasites are found within the gastro intestinal tract (GIT) of the animal. Several worms such as cestodes, nematodes and trematodes at different location within the gastrointestinal tract are responsible for the disease.

The general clinical signs of gastrointestinal parasites as noted by Love and Hutchinson, (2003), Otto, (2005), and Otto et al (2000) includes; weakness of the body, abdominal pains, anorexia, emaciation, potbelly, diarrhea, enteritis, anaemia, constipation, loss of weight, jaundice, rough hair coat, alopecia, coughing, labour breathing, fever, infertility, abortion and sudden death.Oluwafemi , Anosa (2000) also noted that decreased growth, weight loss in young growing calves and late maturity of slaughter stocks `are the major clinical signs in calves.

The direct losses caused by these parasites are attributed to acute illness and death, premature slaughter and rejection of some parts during meat inspection. Indirect losses includes the diminution of potential such as decreased growth rate, anaemia, weight loss in young growing calves and late maturity of slaughter stock, Oluwafemi, and Anosa, (2000) .


1.1 Objective

The objective of this study is;

  1. To isolate and identify the gastrointestinal parasites of goats in UNIVERSITY OF Benin Farm Project
  2. To determine the prevalence of parasitic infection and its associating factors in the different sexes and age of goats.

Chapter Five


5.0 Discussion

The results from the faecal examinations of goats revealed the presence of five (5) gastrointestinal helminth parasites as shown in Table 1, they includes: Strongyloides sp 17 (48.57%), Haemonchus contortus 1(2.86%),Trichuris ovis 1(2.86%), Moniezia expansa 6(17.14%), Fasciola hepatica 1 (2.86%).

The high prevalence of these parasites in the goats was due to the kind of management practices (semi-intensive) in the university of benin farm project which allow free-range grazing management which increasedtheir chances of picking up the cyst, ova, larvae or the intermediate host of these gastrointestinal helminth parasites.

It has been reported, (Pal and Qayyum, 1993), that prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth is related to the agroclimaticconditions like quantity and quality of pasture, temperature, rainfall, humidity and grazing behaviour of the host andalso, that susceptibility to infestation is influenced by factor of age (Richard et al., 1990); breed (Prolamkarn et al.,1997); species (Vlassoff et al., 1997); health status, physiological factors of pregnancy and previous exposure toparasites (Bekele et al., 1987). The findings that nomadic flocks had more infection than the sedentary may supportthe high prevalence of helminth parasites for goats in this study, sedentary flocks especially, under the traditionalmanagement system, are under strict confinement and zero-grazed leading to less risk of helminth infection than innomadic flocks (Ikeme, 1982; Chiejina, 1986). Actually, confinement or crowding of animals leads to substantialbuild-up of gastrointestinal parasites of organisms (Soulsby, 1982) thereby involving a higher risk of infection.

Infection in the sedentary flocks may be due to routine disposal of faecal matter and litter, especially during the wetseason. The method of presentation of forage, which is usually tied and hung up, reduces considerably the risk ofoocyst contamination and infection to the animals.

The data from this present study showed that strongyloidesspecies is the most prevalent Gastrointestinal helminth parasite infecting goats followed by Monieiza sp., T.ovis, H.contortus, F.hepatica. The possible reason for these differences observed in the prevalence of the gastrointestinal helminth parasitesrecorded in this study and that recorded by previous researchers may be because of the variation in locations and management practises (Regassa et al., 2006; Waruiru et al., 1993; Chenyambuga et al., 2009). Shirale et al. (2008), Fakae (1990) and Balem et al. (2001) observed a high incidence of these parasites during rainy season and this may possibly be due to high moisture content and temperature which favours the growth and development of eggs/larvae of these parasites, furthermore, during this season the pastures grow abundantly resulting in increased contact between the host and parasites.

In conclusion, gastrointestinal parasites are widespread in small ruminants (goats) as observed in this study in the University of Benin farm project, Benin-city, Edo state, Nigeria, with the management and husbandry practices exerting a major influence on its prevalence and distribution. Appropriate control measures are needed which should be based on cost-effective studies to optimize production. There is also a need to study in detail the relative economic importance of these gastrointestinal helminth parasites infecting small ruminants (goats) of the area as its high prevalence and burden suggests significant losses in their production.


5.1 Conclusion

The results of this study show that goats in the university of benin farm project are commonly
infested with a variety of gastro intestinal parasite species with a high prevalence of 74.3% and the highest prevalence rate of infection of 80% was found in growers and this could be as a result of lower immune system than matured goats. The incidence of gastrointestinal helminth of ruminants is usually high especially those kept under traditional methods of husbandry, with insidious effects that undermine host health particularly when compounded by additional stress such as malnutrition. The high prevalence was as a result of poor management system, purpose ofkeeping goats, lack of veterinary services and sanitary condition. In the university of benin farm project, semi intensive system was adopted in the management of ruminants and no structured deworming schedule.
This study also revealed strongyloidesand moniezaspecies as the most common parasites of the researchfarm ruminant, and are reported as the most incriminated gastro- intestinal parasites of domesticruminants and the highest rate of infection was recorded in matured females than in males and also the highestrate of infection was also found mostly among the growers.


5.2 Recommendation

The result of the research suggests that there high rate of gastro intestinal parasitic infection among the selected ruminants (goat); therefore, the grazing of ruminants in areas where faeces is used as manure should be prohibited.

The use of chemotherapy like mebendazole is highly recommended in the treatment of gastro intestinal parasitic infection.

More importantly, more researches should be conducted to ascertain effective ways of reducing gastro intestinal parasitic burden among ruminants as the resultant effect of this may lead to great loss and decreases productivity of these ruminants.

Public enlightenment with respect to the management, hygienic practices and deworming of ruminants should be intensified for improved production of ruminants. Regular veterinary examination and possible mass-treatment of gastro intestinal parasitic infection in ruminants should be entrenched and implemented or enforced in ruminant management programmes.


Prevalence Of Gastrointestinal Parasites Of Goats In The Farm Project


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Prevalence Of Gastrointestinal Parasites Of Goats In The Farm Project


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