Prevalence Of Gastro-Intestinal And Ecto Parasites Of Goats And Sheep

Project and Seminar Material for Biology

Prevalence Of Gastro-Intestinal And Ecto Parasites Of Goats And Sheep


Abstract


This research work is limited to Makurdi (Wadata and North bank) in Benue State. All the sheep and goats from different origins, in different age group and sex brought to slaughter house at the time of visit were targeted as study population, a simple random sampling method was employed in selecting 50 goats and 50 sheep, making a total of 100 samples. Standard laboratory parasitological techniques was used in this study including Simple test tube flotation, sedimentation technique, McMaster faecal egg count. Prevalence of endo and ectoparasitic infestation was significantly higher among Makurdi indigenous sheep and goats.

The parasite include Amblyomma spp (male hard tick), Dermacenter spp (male hard tick), Dematopinus (biting lice), Hematopinus (sucking lice). Many factors may be responsible for this. It is revealed that most of the animals examined during the present survey had low to moderate parasitic infestation, suggesting that the infections were usually sub-clinical. It was recommended that appropriate gastrointestinal parasites (GIT) parasite control strategy is needed which should be based on cost effective studies to optimize production and more attention should be paid to sheep and goat internal and external parasites, epidemiology and control nation-wide.


Table of Contents


  • Tittle page
  • Declaration page
  • Approval page
  • Certification
  • Acknowledgements
  • Table of contents
  • Abstract

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Justification
  • 1.3 Aim Of Study
  • 1.3.1 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Scope and Limitation of Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Parasites
  • 2.1.1 Internal and External Parasites
  • 2.2 Mode of Infection
  • 2.3 Transmission of Blood Parasites
  • 2.3.1 Cyclic transmission
  • 2.3.2 Mechanical transmission
  • 2.3.3 Direct transmission
  • 2.3.4 Indirect transmission
  • 2.4 Symptoms
  • 2.5 Management of Sheep and Goat Parasites
  • 2.6 Prevention Of Sheep and Goat Parasites
  • 2.7 Treatment

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials and Method

  • 3.1 Study Area
  • 3.2 Apparatus
  • 3.3 Laboratory Diagnosis
  • 3.4 Study Population
  • 3.5 Sampling
  • 3.6 Samples Collection
  • 3.7 Faecal Examination
  • 3.7.1 Flotation Method
  • 3.7.2 Sedimentation
  • 3.8 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results

  • 4.1 Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite of Sheep and Goat
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

List of Tables


  1. Prevalence Based on Type of Intestinal Parasite (Endo parasite) of Sheep in Wadata
  2. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite (Endo parasite) of Sheep in Relation to Age in Wadata
  3. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite of Sheep in Relation to Sex in Wadata
  4. Prevalence Based on Type of Intestinal parasite of Goat in Wadata
  5. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite (Endo parasite) of Goat in Relation to Age in Wadata
  6. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite in Relation to Sex in Wadata
  7. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite (Endo parasite) of Sheep and Goat in Wurukum (North bank)
  8. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite (Endo parasite) of Sheep in Relation to Age in Wurukum (North bank)
  9. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite of Sheep in Relation to Sex in Wurukum (North bank)
  10. Prevalence Based on Intestinal Parasite of Goat in Wurukum
  11. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite (Endo parasite) of Goat in Relation to Age in Wurukum
  12. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite of Goat in Relation to Sex in Wurukum
  13. Prevalence Based on Type of Ectoparasite of Sheep in Wadata
  14. Prevalence of Ecto Parasite of Sheep in Relation to Age in Wadata
  15. Prevalence of Ecto Parasites of Sheep in Relation to Sex in Wadata
  16. Prevalence Based on Type Ecto Parasites in Goat in Wadata
  17. Prevalence of Ecto Parasite of Goat in Relation to Age in Wadata
  18. Prevalence of Ecto-Parasites of Goat in Relation To Sex in Wadata
  19. Prevalence Based on Type Ecto Parasite of Sheep in Wurukum (North bank)
  20. Prevalence of Ecto parasite of Sheep in Relation to Age in Wurukum (North bank)
  21. Prevalence of Ecto-Parasites of Sheep in Relation to Sex in Wurukum (North bank)
  22. Prevalence Based on Type of Ecto-Parasite in Wurukum (North bank)
  23. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite (Endo parasite) of Sheep in Relation to Age in Wurukum (North bank)
  24. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite in Relation to Sex in Wurukum (North bank)
  25. Prevalence of Endo Parasites Found in Sheep in Wadata and Wurukum
  26. Prevalence of Endo Parasites Found in Goat in Wadata and Wurukum

List of Figures


  1. Generalized depiction of the life cycle of many internal parasites
  2. Bar Chart Showing the Prevalence of Endo Parasites Found in Sheep in Wadata and Wurukum
  3. Bar Chart Showing the Prevalence of Endo Parasites Found in Goat in Wadata and Wurukum

List of Appendices


  1. Key of Identification
  2. SPSS Result

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Grazing ruminants are affected by a range of internal (e.g. worms, fluke, protozoa) and external parasites (e.g. sheep scab). As a general rule these diseases are most prevalent in young, susceptible stock and usually occur at certain periods in their first grazing season. In contrast, sheep scab represents a threat to stock of all ages. Although most disease occurs in young stock, scab and fluke are primarily an issue in older animals (Moredun Research Institute, 2010).

External parasitism results in poor quality sheep and goat products especially skins and lost income to producers. Common external sheep and goat parasites include ticks, lice, ked and mites. Some parasites feed on blood causing blood-loss anemia, especially in young animals. The result is unthrifty, poor-performing sheep and goats. A regular program of treatment and prevention of external parasites should be an important part of a flock health program. The benefits of an effective external parasite control program include increased comfort for animals, improved performance, and higher quality of products (Sileshe et al., 2010).

In most sheep-raising areas, internal parasites (i.e. worms) are usually the primary disease affecting sheep and lambs (Susan, 2006). Sheep are more susceptible to internal parasites than most other types of farm livestock. Their small fecal pellets disintegrate very easily thus releasing the worm larvae onto pastures (Susan, 2006). They graze close to the soil surface and to their feces. They are slow to acquire immunity. It takes 10 to 12 months for most lambs to develop immunity to parasites. Sheep also suffer a loss of immunity at the time of lambing, which does not restore itself until approximately four weeks after lambing (Susan, 2006). Heavy stocking rates and insufficient pasture rest periods further contribute to the incidence of parasitic disease in sheep and lambs. Internal parasites tend to be much less of a problem under range-type conditions where sheep do not graze the same pasture twice in the same grazing season. They are also less of a problem in arid regions, because parasites require moisture for their development (Susan, 2006).

Parasitism in sheep and goat is a substantial problem plaguing farmers across the nation. As gastrointestinal parasite infection is the most important limiting factor of sheep productivity, parasitism has a highly detrimental effect on the sheep industry (Jones, 2001). Outbreaks are most severe in warm, humid climates; the optimum temperature for larval growth is between 50° and 80° Celsius and the optimal rainfall is at least 5 centimeters.

A climate that is too hot or dry can kill most larvae on the pasture. Larvae numbers peak in late winter and early spring. Haemonchus has a life cycle lasting approximately four weeks. When ingested, the larvae travel to the abomasum of the animal, where they burrow into the mucosa and develop into true adults in 21 days (Fitch, 2006). While in the abomasums, female adults can lay over 5000 eggs per day (Scarfe, 2006). Roughly 10,000 adult Haemonchus worms can kill a sheep. The eggs are deposited in feces. After approximately 24 hours, the eggs hatch on grass in pastures and under optimal conditions, become infective in five to seven days (Fitch, 2006).


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Goats and sheep can be infected by numerous gastro-internal parasites; the effect of infection by gastrointestinal parasites varies according to the parasite(s) involved, the degree of infection and other factors. The two most important internal parasites are the protozoan coccidian (Dai et al., 2006) and the nematode Haemonchus contortus (Waller, 2004). The effect of parasitic diseases on sheep and goats include mortality losses, condemnation of meat, weight loss, depreciation of animal’s products and reduced resistance to other diseases as well as expenditure on drugs. Also they cause anemia, Economic effects in the damaged of the skin due to ticks and flies bites, costs of treatment, prevention and control of parasites and vectors.


1.3 Justification Of The Study

Parasitism, and gastrointestinal nematode parasitism in particular, is arguably the most serious constraint affecting small ruminant production worldwide. Economic losses are caused by decreased production, cost of prevention, cost of treatment, and the death of infected animals. It is difficult by any major survey or other estimation to establish precise figures on losses incurred in production from infection and disease. Even minimal accuracy of loss estimates is difficult because production diseases or disorders may result from interaction with nutritional and environmental stresses, management methods, concurrent diseases, genetic predispositions, or other factors (Jim, 2004).


1.4 Aim Of Study

The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of internal and external parasites infecting goats and sheep in Makurdi metropolis and to determine the types of internal parasites present, their intensity and their associated risk factors.

1.4.1 Objectives of the Study
  1. To isolate and identify some internal and external parasites of sheep and goats.
  2. To characterize parasitic infection according to sex
  3. To characterize parasitic infection according to age
  4. To characterize parasitic infection and infestation
  5. To compare the prevalence of parasitic infection and infestation of both site.

1.5 Scope And Limitation Of Study

This work seek to determine the intestinal and external parasite of goat and sheep. This research work is limited to Makurdi (Wadata and Wurukum) in Benue State.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

The overall higher incidence of nematodes infection in the areas surveyed could be attributed to lower immunity of hosts as a result of malnutrition. It was also observed that farms in these areas lack fences and cattle, sheep and goats use the same pasture for feeds.

Keeping in view the above results some control measure for gastro-intestinal and ecto-parasites can be undertaken to reduce the intensity of the parasitic infection. In this regard, it is suggested that practice of separate grazing of animals with low stocking rate may be adopted. Furthermore, during the rainy season climatic factors like temperature and humidity are favorable for the development and survival of pre-parasitic stages of nematodes. It is, therefore, suggested that anthelmimtic treatment on quarterly basis may be implemented to reduce the risk of reinfection. However, resistance to these drugs has recently been observed on several occasions. In order to delay the development of drug-resistant parasite strains, anthelmintics must not be overused and drugs must be delivered at optimal times.


5.2 Recommendations

It could be concluded that most of the animals examined during the present survey had low to moderate parasitic infestation, suggesting that the infections were usually sub-clinical. Appropriate gastrointestinal parasites (GIT) parasite control strategy is needed which should be based on cost effective studies to optimize production.

  1. More attention should be paid to sheep and goat internal and external parasites, epidemiology and control nation-wide.
  2. Similar surveys should be conducted for internal and external parasites, to cover all animals brought from various states for local and international consumption.
  3. Practical methods should be applied for prevention and control such as use of chemotherapeutic control, vector control and continuous veterinary monitoring in the slaughter houses especially in antemortum inspection.
  4. Attention should be drawn to the exported sheep and goats and losses should be minimize in production due to the parasites.

Prevalence Of Gastro-Intestinal And Ecto Parasites Of Goats And Sheep


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Prevalence Of Gastro-Intestinal And Ecto Parasites Of Goats And Sheep


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