The Prevalence Of Endoparasites In The Gastro-Intestinal Tracts Of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) In Giri River, Gwagwalada Area Council, Fct-Abuja

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The Prevalence Of Endoparasites In The Gastro-Intestinal Tracts Of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) In Giri River, Gwagwalada Area Council, Fct-Abuja


Abstract


This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of endoparasites in the gastro-intestinal tracts of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) in Giri River, Gwagwalada area council, FCT-Abuja. A total of 302 O. niloticus were collected and examined for the presence of parasites. The overall prevalence of all parasites was found to be 83.4% respectively. There was statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the study sites in overall prevalence. Nine Taxa of parasites were identified in the site including Clinostomumspp. (20.1%), Euclinostomumspp.(16.8%), Tylodelphysspp. (36.5%), Blackspotmetacercariae (19.1%), Cestoda larvae (9.9%), Contracaecumspp.(25.3%), and Acanthogyrustilapiae(5.3%). The study showed that the high prevalence of parasitic infestation and hence may be source of parasites for others when used for stocking small scale fish farms requiring intervention measures such as deworming before being stocked to other farms. Further studies should be conducted to identify parasites to species level by molecular techniques and parasite genomics of culture fish species. Biotic factors like stocking density and abiotic factors like water chemistry and water quality which can influence the abundance of parasites should also be taken into consideration in surveys of fish parasites.

 


Table of Content


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background Information
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Aims and Objectives
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 The Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus)
  • 2.2 Range and Habitat of Oreochromis Niloticus
  • 2.2.1 Subspecies
  • 2.3 Behavior of Oreochromis Niloticus
  • 2.3.1 Feeding
  • 2.3.2 Social Organization
  • 2.3.3 Reproduction
  • 2.3.4 Parental Care
  • 2.4 Aquaculture
  • 2.4.1 As Food
  • 2.5 Importance of Oreochromis Niloticus
  • 2.6 Overview of Parasites
  • 2.7 Diseases, Infections and Parasites in Fish
  • 2.8 Prevention and Management of Fish Parasites and Diseases

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials and Methods

  • 3.1 Study Area
  • 3.2 Collection of Specimens
  • 3.3 Dissection
  • 3.3.1 Determination of Endoparasite From the Stomach and Intestine
  • 3.3.2 Identification of Parasites
  • 3.4 Statistical Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Information

Fishing is an important component of aquaculture in Nigeria. Fish is important as a source of protein with low cholesterol level in the diets of the populace and economically as a source of subsistence income (Aken’ova, 2000). In line with the increasing aquaculture activities, substantial information has been generated on aquaculture-related subjects in the country. An exception is fish diseases. Outbreaks of disease, however, constrain sustainable aquaculture production unless comprehensive management strategies are in place (Subasinghe et al, 2001; Bondad-Reantaso et al. 2005). Preliminary investigations into disease outbreaks in fish farming systems have reported a number of conditions resulting in mortality (Akoll 2005; Florio et al. 2009). Scarcity of information on aetiological agents hampers the development of cost-effective and ecologically sustainable strategies for disease control (Subasinghe et al. 2001; Bondad- Reantaso et al. 2005). With high fish stocking densities under commercial fish production, parasite outbreaks will undoubtedly increase (Michel 1989; Meyer 1991; Bondad- Reantaso et al. 2005).
All fishes are potential host to many different species of parasites that cause significant mortalities among captive and wild fish stocks. The crowding effects and frequent water deterioration provide ideal conditions for the transmission and proliferation of parasites, particularly for species with direct life cycles. Moreover, it is a common practice to polyculture Oreochromis niloticus with Clarias gariepinus in an attempt to control the proliferative reproduction of tilapia in Uganda. However, variation in host specificity between and within parasite groups, especially monogeneans, polyculture pose a threat of parasite cross-transmission (Sasal et al. 1999; Bakke et al. 2002; Cribb et al. 2002). Due to differences in host immunity, infection with parasites from different hosts may inflict strong pathologies and possibilities of mortalities. Accurate identification of parasites is therefore important so that a build-up of parasite numbers can be prevented.

Fish health and fish diseases are becoming more important as certain fish species are becoming more important as a ready food source for growing populations of not only the United States, but other countries as well. Parasites are found in both captive and wild fish populations, but in wild populations they maintain a kind of equilibrium until something happens to upset that balance. Wild fish are also reported to have larger parasite species diversity than fish that are raised in hatcheries (Hoffman 1998).

Information about the mode of transmission and potential intermediate hosts is often crucial to select the most appropriate management action to reduce or eliminate the problem. Present approach to treatment of parasitic diseases is largely limited to those on external surfaces and the intestinal lumen. So blood parasites and encysted worms cannot be treated effectively and economically. The Internal or endoparasitesof fish inhabits the digestive tract or other organs in the body while external or ectoparasites attach themselves to the gills, skin and fins of fish (Saurabh, 2007).

As the world population grows, fish resources are being depleted at an alarming rate as a result of over harvesting, and pollution, thus fish production is struggling to meet the increasing demand of the growing population. Poor environmental conditions and pollution often result in reduced immunity of fish and increased susceptibility to parasitic infestation and disease (Murray,2005). There is appreciable documentation of parasites of Tilapia in Nigeria. One of the earliest reports in Nigerian inland waters concerning fish parasites was that of Awachie (1965) who documented preliminary information on the parasites of fish in the Kainji reservoir. He observed that not many fishes were infected. However, in a similar study, Ukoli (1969) observed heavy parasitic infection of fish species from the same reservoir. Similarly, the reports of Oniye et al. (2004) in Zaria and Yakubu et al. (2002) in Plateau State are of great value. Various parasites are associated with Tilapia species in the wild and cultured environment where they cause morbidity, mortality, and economic losses to aquaculture in various parts of the world (Subashinghe, 1995). Awharitowa and Ehigiator (2012) isolated Dichelyne species, Echinocephalus species, Procamallanus laeviconchus and Oxyuris species of nematodes; Clinostomum tilapiae , Nemagasolena chaetodipteri and Metacercariae of trematodes; Wenyonia virilis , a Cestode and Acanthogyrus tilapiae , an acanthocephalan, all from rivers in southern Nigeria.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Parasitic diseases of fish are of particular importance in the tropics. Parasites usually exist in equilibrium with their host as a survival strategy. However, in instances where hosts are overcrowded such as in aquaria or in fish farms, parasitic diseases can spread very rapidly causing high mortality. Although, this is usually not the case in the wild natural aquatic environments, it occurs when the environment is disturbed by human activity and interference especially with populations which alter the natural distribution of their parasite communities (Imam and Dewu, 2010).

Ayanda (2009) reported Amonotaenia and Polyonchobothrium species of Cestodes; Procamallanus and Paracamallanus species of nematodes and Neoechinorhynchus species of acanthocephalans in wild and cultured Clarias gariepinus in Ilorin, North central Nigeria; while Hussein et al. (2012) reported Capillaria, Contracaecum and Cestodes in Clarias gariepinus caught from Lake Hawassa, Ethiopia.

As yet no epidemics of endoparasites have been reported in Nigeria, is likely that as fish culture becomes more intensive and widespread, fish parasites are likely to become a serious economic and health issues (Imam and Dewu, 2010). As a result of this, there is need for the study of fish parasites with the aim of controlling them.


1.3 Aims and Objectives

AIMS: the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of endoparasites in the gastro-intestinal tracts of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Giri river, Gwagwalada area council, Fct-Abuja

Objectives
  1. To identify the endo-parasites of the gastro intestinal tracts of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Giri river,
  2. To determine prevalence of endo-parasites in the gastro intestinal tract of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in relation to its total length, sex and weight in Giri river.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the identified endo-parasites of the gastro intestinal tracts of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Giri river?
  2. What is the prevalence of endo-parasites in the gastro intestinal tract of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in relation to its total length, sex and weight in Giri river?

1.5 Significance of the Study

Parasites are important components of host biology, population structure and indeed ecosystem functioning. They can be found in any fish species and within any type of aquatic and culture system and range from protozoans to metazoans including myxozoans, trematodes, cestodes, acantho- cephalans, nematodes, and crustaceans.The knowledge of the status of parasite diversity in the tropics is still inadequate, hence the findings of the current study will contribute to the literature on the subject matter as well as fill gaps in currency of findings from previous works.

In so doing, this study will support the creation of awareness for fishermen on general fish management, and fish diseases prevention and control should be promoted in the area. Lastly, this study will guide informed decision on areas where further species level identification based on advanced diagnostic tools should be performed.


1.6 Scope of Study

The study is limited to adults in Giri River, Gwagwalada Area Council, FCT-Abuja. The study is restricted to determine the prevalence of endoparasites in the gastro-intestinal tracts of niletilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Giri river, Gwagwalada area council, Fct-Abuja.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

In the course of this study, the researcher encountered some limitations. This includes: the geographical spread of the areas of study was a big limitation because the researcher could not move around the entire FCT, hence the focus on Giri River, Gwagwalada Area Council, FCT-Abuja.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Prevalence:

In epidemiology, prevalence is the proportion of a particular population found to be affected by a medical condition at a specific time. Prevalence is a term that means being widespread and it is distinct from incidence. Prevalence is a measurement of all individuals affected by the disease at a specific time.

Endoparasites:

Endoparasites are parasites that live in the tissues and organs of their hosts, such as tapeworms, flukes, and protozoans of vertebrates.

Gastro-Intestinal Tract:

The gastrointestinal tract is the tract from the mouth to the anus which includes all the organs of the digestive system in humans and other animals. Food taken in through the mouth is digested to extract nutrients and absorb energy, and the waste expelled as feces.


1.9 Organization of the Study

This study is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is the introduction which contains the background, research problems and objectives. The second chapter is the literature review and the third chapter is the materials and methods. In the fourth chapter, the researcher analyses the data and discusses the results. The fifth chapter is the last chapter which presents the summary, conclusion and recommendations.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

A total of 8 genera of internal parasites were found in O. niloticus in the study site. All O. Niloticus sampled harboured single or multiple parasites. However, some external parasites such as Trichodina spp. and Cichlidogyrus spp. were also found on fish as there were many fish eating birds around the site. Therefore, there is a need to design control strategies especially when fingerlings from the natural water bodies are used for stocking in other water bodies or intensive and small scale fish farms to prevent transmission of fish parasites to the culture system. Further studies should be conducted to identify parasites to species level by molecular techniques and parasite genomics of culture fish species. Biotic factors like stocking density and abiotic factors like water chemistry and water quality which can influence the abundance of parasites should also be taken into consideration in surveys of fish parasites.


5.2 Recommendation

The following recommendations are made based on the study:

  1. Awareness creation for fishermen on general fish management, and fish diseases prevention and control should be promoted in the area.
  2. Further species level identification based on advanced diagnostic tools should be performed.
  3. Comprehensive study comprising water composition such as amount of availability of dissolved oxygen and other physicochemical properties and seasonal variability of the biodiversity of the water flora should be studied so as to clearly understand the major risk factors contributing to fish parasitic infection in the area.
  4. There should be nationwide strategy and policy that focuses on fish diseases and veterinary service delivery so as to help the efforts of fishermen.
  5. Some of the identified genera of parasite are known to have a zoonotic importance; therefore, public awareness creation on risk of infection by consumption of raw or undercooked fish meat should be initiated.
  6. Further study focusing on economic and public health impact of fish parasites and identification of intermediate hosts circulating in different ponds and rivers of the study area should be done.

The Prevalence Of Endoparasites In The Gastro-Intestinal Tracts Of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) In Giri River, Gwagwalada Area Council, Fct-Abuja


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The Prevalence Of Endoparasites In The Gastro-Intestinal Tracts Of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) In Giri River, Gwagwalada Area Council, Fct-Abuja


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